aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/sbin/setkey/setkey.8
blob: 01c31fb94d60518e5e829a4ec79463d21b9fc6c8 (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
.\"	$KAME: setkey.8,v 1.89 2003/09/07 22:17:41 itojun Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 WIDE Project.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd May 13, 2006
.Dt SETKEY 8
.Os
.\"
.Sh NAME
.Nm setkey
.Nd "manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database"
.\"
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl v
.Fl c
.Nm
.Op Fl v
.Fl f Ar filename
.Nm
.Op Fl aPlv
.Fl D
.Nm
.Op Fl Pv
.Fl F
.Nm
.Op Fl h
.Fl x
.\"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility adds, updates, dumps, or flushes
Security Association Database (SAD) entries
as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the kernel.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility takes a series of operations from the standard input
(if invoked with
.Fl c )
or the file named
.Ar filename
(if invoked with
.Fl f Ar filename ) .
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl D
Dump the SAD entries.
If with
.Fl P ,
the SPD entries are dumped.
.It Fl F
Flush the SAD entries.
If with
.Fl P ,
the SPD entries are flushed.
.It Fl a
The
.Nm
utility
usually does not display dead SAD entries with
.Fl D .
If with
.Fl a ,
the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.
A dead SAD entry means that
it has been expired but remains in the system
because it is referenced by some SPD entries.
.It Fl h
Add hexadecimal dump on
.Fl x
mode.
.It Fl l
Loop forever with short output on
.Fl D .
.It Fl v
Be verbose.
The program will dump messages exchanged on
.Dv PF_KEY
socket, including messages sent from other processes to the kernel.
.It Fl x
Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to
.Dv PF_KEY
socket.
.Fl xx
makes each timestamps unformatted.
.El
.Ss Configuration syntax
With
.Fl c
or
.Fl f
on the command line,
.Nm
accepts the following configuration syntax.
Lines starting with hash signs
.Pq Ql #
are treated as comment lines.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Xo
.Li add
.Op Fl 46n
.Ar src Ar dst Ar protocol Ar spi
.Op Ar extensions
.Ar algorithm ...
.Li ;
.Xc
Add an SAD entry.
.Li add
can fail with multiple reasons,
including when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li get
.Op Fl 46n
.Ar src Ar dst Ar protocol Ar spi
.Li ;
.Xc
Show an SAD entry.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li delete
.Op Fl 46n
.Ar src Ar dst Ar protocol Ar spi
.Li ;
.Xc
Remove an SAD entry.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li deleteall
.Op Fl 46n
.Ar src Ar dst Ar protocol
.Li ;
.Xc
Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li flush
.Op Ar protocol
.Li ;
.Xc
Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.
.Fl F
on the command line achieves the same functionality.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li dump
.Op Ar protocol
.Li ;
.Xc
Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.
.Fl D
on the command line achieves the same functionality.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li spdadd
.Op Fl 46n
.Ar src_range Ar dst_range Ar upperspec Ar policy
.Li ;
.Xc
Add an SPD entry.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li spddelete
.Op Fl 46n
.Ar src_range Ar dst_range Ar upperspec Fl P Ar direction
.Li ;
.Xc
Delete an SPD entry.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li spdflush
.Li ;
.Xc
Clear all SPD entries.
.Fl FP
on the command line achieves the same functionality.
.\"
.It Xo
.Li spddump
.Li ;
.Xc
Dumps all SPD entries.
.Fl DP
on the command line achieves the same functionality.
.El
.\"
.Pp
Meta-arguments are as follows:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -compact -width indent
.It Ar src
.It Ar dst
Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
IPv4/v6 address.
The
.Nm
utility
can resolve a FQDN into numeric addresses.
If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
.Nm
will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel
by trying all possible combinations.
.Fl 4 ,
.Fl 6
and
.Fl n
restricts the address resolution of FQDN in certain ways.
.Fl 4
and
.Fl 6
restrict results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.
.Fl n
avoids FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar protocol
.Ar protocol
is one of following:
.Bl -tag -width Fl -compact
.It Li esp
ESP based on rfc2406
.It Li esp-old
ESP based on rfc1827
.It Li ah
AH based on rfc2402
.It Li ah-old
AH based on rfc1826
.It Li ipcomp
IPComp
.It Li tcp
TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385
.El
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar spi
Security Parameter Index
(SPI)
for the SAD and the SPD.
.Ar spi
must be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with
.Ql 0x
prefix.
SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
and they cannot be used.
TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000 and therefore only have per-host
granularity at this time.
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar extensions
take some of the following:
.Bl -tag -width Fl -compact
.\"
.It Fl m Ar mode
Specify a security protocol mode for use.
.Ar mode
is one of following:
.Li transport , tunnel
or
.Li any .
The default value is
.Li any .
.\"
.It Fl r Ar size
Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
.Ar size
must be decimal number in 32-bit word.
If
.Ar size
is zero or not specified, replay check does not take place.
.\"
.It Fl u Ar id
Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
See
.Ar policy .
.\"
.It Fl f Ar pad_option
defines the content of the ESP padding.
.Ar pad_option
is one of following:
.Bl -tag -width random-pad -compact
.It Li zero-pad
All of the padding are zero.
.It Li random-pad
A series of randomized values are set.
.It Li seq-pad
A series of sequential increasing numbers started from 1 are set.
.El
.\"
.It Fl f Li nocyclic-seq
Do not allow cyclic sequence number.
.\"
.It Fl lh Ar time
.It Fl ls Ar time
Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.
.El
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar algorithm
.Bl -tag -width Fl -compact
.It Fl E Ar ealgo Ar key
Specify an encryption algorithm
.Ar ealgo
for ESP.
.It Xo
.Fl E Ar ealgo Ar key
.Fl A Ar aalgo Ar key
.Xc
Specify a encryption algorithm
.Ar ealgo ,
as well as a payload authentication algorithm
.Ar aalgo ,
for ESP.
.It Fl A Ar aalgo Ar key
Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
.It Fl C Ar calgo Op Fl R
Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.
If
.Fl R
is specified, the
.Ar spi
field value will be used as the IPComp CPI
(compression parameter index)
on wire as is.
If
.Fl R
is not specified,
the kernel will use well-known CPI on wire, and
.Ar spi
field will be used only as an index for kernel internal usage.
.El
.Pp
.Ar key
must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hexadecimal digits
preceded by
.Ql 0x .
.Pp
Possible values for
.Ar ealgo ,
.Ar aalgo
and
.Ar calgo
are specified in separate section.
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar src_range
.It Ar dst_range
These are selections of the secure communication specified as
IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
TCP/UDP port specification.
This takes the following form:
.Bd -unfilled
.Ar address
.Ar address/prefixlen
.Ar address[port]
.Ar address/prefixlen[port]
.Ed
.Pp
.Ar prefixlen
and
.Ar port
must be a decimal number.
The square brackets around
.Ar port
are necessary and are not manpage metacharacters.
For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to
.Ar src
and
.Ar dst
apply here as well.
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar upperspec
The upper layer protocol to be used.
You can use one of the words in
.Pa /etc/protocols
as
.Ar upperspec ,
as well as
.Li icmp6 ,
.Li ip4 ,
or
.Li any .
The word
.Li any
stands for
.Dq any protocol .
The protocol number may also be used to specify the
.Ar upperspec .
A type and code related to ICMPv6 may also be specified as an
.Ar upperspec .
The type is specified first, followed by a comma and then the relevant
code.
The specification must be placed after
.Li icmp6 .
The kernel considers a zero to be a wildcard but
cannot distinguish between a wildcard and an ICMPv6
type which is zero.
The following example shows a policy where IPSec is not required for
inbound Neighbor Solicitations:
.Pp
.Dl "spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;"
.Pp
NOTE:
.Ar upperspec
does not work in the forwarding case at this moment,
as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node,
which is not implemented at this moment.
Although there are many protocols in
.Pa /etc/protocols ,
protocols other than TCP, UDP and ICMP may not be suitable to use with IPsec.
.\"
.Pp
.It Ar policy
.Ar policy
is expressed in one of the following three formats:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -compact
.It Fl P Ar direction Li discard
.It Fl P Ar direction Li none
.It Xo Fl P Ar direction Li ipsec
.Ar protocol/mode/src-dst/level Op ...
.Xc
.El
.Pp
The direction of a policy must be specified as
one of:
.Li out ,
.Li in ,
.Li discard ,
.Li none ,
or
.Li ipsec .
The
.Li discard
direction
means that packets matching the supplied indices will be discarded
while
.Li none
means that IPsec operations will not take place on the packet and
.Li ipsec
means that IPsec operation will take place onto the packet.
The
.Ar protocol/mode/src-dst/level
statement gives the rule for how to process the packet.
The
.Ar protocol
is specified as
.Li ah ,
.Li esp
or
.Li ipcomp .
The
.Ar mode
is either
.Li transport
or
.Li tunnel .
If
.Ar mode
is
.Li tunnel ,
you must specify the end-point addresses of the SA as
.Ar src
and
.Ar dst
with a dash,
.Sq - ,
between the addresses.
If
.Ar mode
is
.Li transport ,
both
.Ar src
and
.Ar dst
can be omitted.
The
.Ar level
is one of the following:
.Li default , use , require
or
.Li unique .
If the SA is not available in every level, the kernel will request
the SA from the key exchange daemon.
A value of
.Li default
tells the kernel to use the system wide default protocol
e.g.\& the one from the
.Li esp_trans_deflev
sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the packet.
A value of
.Li use
means that the kernel will use an SA if it is available,
otherwise the kernel will pass the packet as it would normally.
A value of
.Li require
means that an SA is required whenever the kernel sends a packet matched
that matches the policy.
The
.Li unique
level is the same as
.Li require
but, in addition, it allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound SA.
For example, if you specify the policy level
.Li unique ,
.Xr racoon 8
will configure the SA for the policy.
If you configure the SA by manual keying for that policy,
you can put the decimal number as the policy identifier after
.Li unique
separated by colon
.Ql :\&
as in the following example:
.Li unique:number .
In order to bind this policy to the SA,
.Li number
must be between 1 and 32767,
which corresponds to
.Ar extensions Fl u
of manual SA configuration.
.Pp
When you want to use an SA bundle, you can define multiple rules.
For
example, if an IP header was followed by an AH header followed by an
ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol header, the rule would
be:
.Dl esp/transport//require ah/transport//require ;
The rule order is very important.
.Pp
Note that
.Dq Li discard
and
.Dq Li none
are not in the syntax described in
.Xr ipsec_set_policy 3 .
There are small, but important, differences in the syntax.
See
.Xr ipsec_set_policy 3
for details.
.El
.\"
.Sh ALGORITHMS
The following list shows the supported algorithms.
The
.Sy protocol
and
.Sy algorithm
are almost completely orthogonal.
The following list of authentication algorithms can be used as
.Ar aalgo
in the
.Fl A Ar aalgo
of the
.Ar protocol
parameter:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
algorithm	keylen (bits)	comment
hmac-md5	128		ah: rfc2403
		128		ah-old: rfc2085
hmac-sha1	160		ah: rfc2404
		160		ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
keyed-md5	128		ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
		128		ah-old: rfc1828
keyed-sha1	160		ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
		160		ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
null		0 to 2048	for debugging
hmac-sha2-256	256		ah: 96bit ICV
				(draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-sha-256-00)
		256		ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
hmac-sha2-384	384		ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
		384		ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
hmac-sha2-512	512		ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
		512		ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
hmac-ripemd160	160		ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
				ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
aes-xcbc-mac	128		ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
		128		ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
tcp-md5		8 to 640	tcp: rfc2385
.Ed
.Pp
The following is the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as the
.Ar ealgo
in the
.Fl E Ar ealgo
of the
.Ar protocol
parameter:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
algorithm	keylen (bits)	comment
des-cbc		64		esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
3des-cbc	192		rfc2451
null		0 to 2048	rfc2410
blowfish-cbc	40 to 448	rfc2451
cast128-cbc	40 to 128	rfc2451
des-deriv	64		ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
3des-deriv	192		no document
rijndael-cbc	128/192/256	rfc3602
aes-ctr		160/224/288	draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03
camllia-cbc	128/192/256	rfc4312
.Ed
.Pp
Note that the first 128/192/256 bits of a key for
.Li aes-ctr
will be used as AES key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.
.Pp
The following are the list of compression algorithms that can be used
as the
.Ar calgo
in the
.Fl C Ar calgo
of the
.Ar protocol
parameter:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
algorithm	comment
deflate		rfc2394
.Ed
.\"
.Sh EXIT STATUS
.Ex -std
.\"
.Sh EXAMPLES
Add an ESP SA between two IPv6 addresses using the
des-cbc encryption algorithm.
.Bd -literal -offset
add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
	-E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

.Ed
.\"
Add an authentication SA between two FQDN specified hosts:
.Bd -literal -offset
add -6 myhost.example.com yourhost.example.com ah 123456
	-A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

.Ed
Use both ESP and AH between two numerically specified hosts:
.Bd -literal -offset
add 10.0.11.41 10.0.11.33 esp 0x10001
	-E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
	-A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

.Ed
Get the SA information associated with first example above:
.Bd -literal -offset
get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

.Ed
Flush all entries from the database:
.Bd -literal -offset
flush ;

.Ed
Dump the ESP entries from the database:
.Bd -literal -offset
dump esp ;

.Ed
Add a security policy between two networks that uses ESP in tunnel mode:
.Bd -literal -offset
spdadd 10.0.11.41/32[21] 10.0.11.33/32[any] any
	-P out ipsec esp/tunnel/192.168.0.1-192.168.1.2/require ;

.Ed
Use TCP MD5 between two numerically specified hosts:
.Bd -literal -offset
add 10.1.10.34 10.1.10.36 tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

.Ed
.\"
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr ipsec_set_policy 3 ,
.Xr racoon 8 ,
.Xr sysctl 8
.Rs
.%T "Changed manual key configuration for IPsec"
.%U http://www.kame.net/newsletter/19991007/
.%D "October 1999"
.Re
.\"
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
utility first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack kit.
The utility was completely re-designed in June 1998.
.\"
.Sh BUGS
The
.Nm
utility
should report and handle syntax errors better.
.Pp
For IPsec gateway configuration,
.Ar src_range
and
.Ar dst_range
with TCP/UDP port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble
packets
(cannot inspect upper-layer headers).