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.\"
.\" CDDL HEADER START
.\"
.\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the
.\" Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").
.\" You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
.\"
.\" You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE
.\" or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
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.\" and limitations under the License.
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.\" file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.
.\" If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the
.\" fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying
.\" information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
.\"
.\" CDDL HEADER END
.\"
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2007, Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
.\" Copyright (c) 2012, 2018 by Delphix. All rights reserved.
.\" Copyright (c) 2012 Cyril Plisko. All Rights Reserved.
.\" Copyright (c) 2017 Datto Inc.
.\" Copyright (c) 2018 George Melikov. All Rights Reserved.
.\" Copyright 2017 Nexenta Systems, Inc.
.\" Copyright (c) 2017 Open-E, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
.\"
.Dd August 9, 2019
.Dt ZPOOL 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm zpool
.Nd configure ZFS storage pools
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Fl ?V
.Nm
.Cm version
.Nm
.Cm <subcommand>
.Op Ar <args>
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
command configures ZFS storage pools.
A storage pool is a collection of devices that provides physical storage and
data replication for ZFS datasets.
All datasets within a storage pool share the same space.
See
.Xr zfs 8
for information on managing datasets.
.Pp
For an overview of creating and managing ZFS storage pools see the
.Xr zpoolconcepts 8
manual page.
.Sh SUBCOMMANDS
All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to the pool in their
original form.
.Pp
The
.Nm
command provides subcommands to create and destroy storage pools, add capacity
to storage pools, and provide information about the storage pools.
The following subcommands are supported:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xo
.Nm
.Fl ?
.Xc
Displays a help message.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Fl V, -version
.Xc
An alias for the
.Nm zpool Cm version
subcommand.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm version
.Xc
Displays the software version of the
.Nm
userland utility and the zfs kernel module.
.El
.Ss Creation
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xr zpool-create 8
Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified on the
command line.
.It Xr zpool-initialize 8
Begins initializing by writing to all unallocated regions on the specified
devices, or all eligible devices in the pool if no individual devices are
specified.
.El
.Ss Destruction
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xr zpool-destroy 8
Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use.
.It Xr zpool-labelclear 8
Removes ZFS label information from the specified
.Ar device .
.El
.Ss Virtual Devices
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xo
.Xr zpool-attach 8 /
.Xr zpool-detach 8
.Xc
Increases or decreases redundancy by
.Cm attach Ns -ing or
.Cm detach Ns -ing a device on an existing vdev (virtual device).
.It Xo
.Xr zpool-add 8 /
.Xr zpool-remove 8
.Xc
Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool,
or removes the specified device from the pool.
.It Xr zpool-replace 8
Replaces an existing device (which may be faulted) with a new one.
.It Xr zpool-split 8
Creates a new pool by splitting all mirrors in an existing pool (which decreases its redundancy).
.El
.Ss Properties
Available pool properties listed in the
.Xr zpoolprops 8
manual page.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xr zpool-list 8
Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage.
.It Xo
.Xr zpool-get 8 /
.Xr zpool-set 8
.Xc
Retrieves the given list of properties
.Po
or all properties if
.Sy all
is used
.Pc
for the specified storage pool(s).
.El
.Ss Monitoring
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xr zpool-status 8
Displays the detailed health status for the given pools.
.It Xr zpool-iostat 8
Displays logical I/O statistics for the given pools/vdevs. Physical I/Os may
be observed via
.Xr iostat 1 .
.It Xr zpool-events 8
Lists all recent events generated by the ZFS kernel modules.  These events
are consumed by the
.Xr zed 8
and used to automate administrative tasks such as replacing a failed device
with a hot spare. For more information about the subclasses and event payloads
that can be generated see the
.Xr zfs-events 5
man page.
.It Xr zpool-history 8
Displays the command history of the specified pool(s) or all pools if no pool is
specified.
.El
.Ss Maintenance
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xr zpool-scrub 8
Begins a scrub or resumes a paused scrub.
.It Xr zpool-checkpoint 8
Checkpoints the current state of
.Ar pool
, which can be later restored by
.Nm zpool Cm import --rewind-to-checkpoint .
.It Xr zpool-trim 8
Initiates an immediate on-demand TRIM operation for all of the free space in
a pool.  This operation informs the underlying storage devices of all blocks
in the pool which are no longer allocated and allows thinly provisioned
devices to reclaim the space.
.It Xr zpool-sync 8
This command forces all in-core dirty data to be written to the primary
pool storage and not the ZIL. It will also update administrative
information including quota reporting. Without arguments,
.Sy zpool sync
will sync all pools on the system. Otherwise, it will sync only the
specified pool(s).
.It Xr zpool-upgrade 8
Manage the on-disk format version of storage pools.
.It Xr zpool-wait 8
Waits until all background activity of the given types has ceased in the given
pool.
.El
.Ss Fault Resolution
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xo
.Xr zpool-offline 8
.Xr zpool-online 8
.Xc
Takes the specified physical device offline or brings it online.
.It Xr zpool-resilver 8
Starts a resilver. If an existing resilver is already running it will be
restarted from the beginning.
.It Xr zpool-reopen 8
Reopen all the vdevs associated with the pool.
.It Xr zpool-clear 8
Clears device errors in a pool.
.El
.Ss Import & Export
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xr zpool-import 8
Make disks containing ZFS storage pools available for use on the system.
.It Xr zpool-export 8
Exports the given pools from the system.
.It Xr zpool-reguid 8
Generates a new unique identifier for the pool.
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
The following exit values are returned:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Sy 0
Successful completion.
.It Sy 1
An error occurred.
.It Sy 2
Invalid command line options were specified.
.El
.Sh EXAMPLES
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Sy Example 1 No Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
The following command creates a pool with a single raidz root vdev that
consists of six disks.
.Bd -literal
# zpool create tank raidz sda sdb sdc sdd sde sdf
.Ed
.It Sy Example 2 No Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool
The following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each mirror
contains two disks.
.Bd -literal
# zpool create tank mirror sda sdb mirror sdc sdd
.Ed
.It Sy Example 3 No Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Partitions
The following command creates an unmirrored pool using two disk partitions.
.Bd -literal
# zpool create tank sda1 sdb2
.Ed
.It Sy Example 4 No Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Files
The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files.
While not recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental
purposes.
.Bd -literal
# zpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
.Ed
.It Sy Example 5 No Adding a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool
.Em tank ,
assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors.
The additional space is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
.Bd -literal
# zpool add tank mirror sda sdb
.Ed
.It Sy Example 6 No Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools
The following command lists all available pools on the system.
In this case, the pool
.Em zion
is faulted due to a missing device.
The results from this command are similar to the following:
.Bd -literal
# zpool list
NAME    SIZE  ALLOC   FREE  EXPANDSZ   FRAG    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
rpool  19.9G  8.43G  11.4G         -    33%    42%  1.00x  ONLINE  -
tank   61.5G  20.0G  41.5G         -    48%    32%  1.00x  ONLINE  -
zion       -      -      -         -      -      -      -  FAULTED -
.Ed
.It Sy Example 7 No Destroying a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command destroys the pool
.Em tank
and any datasets contained within.
.Bd -literal
# zpool destroy -f tank
.Ed
.It Sy Example 8 No Exporting a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command exports the devices in pool
.Em tank
so that they can be relocated or later imported.
.Bd -literal
# zpool export tank
.Ed
.It Sy Example 9 No Importing a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command displays available pools, and then imports the pool
.Em tank
for use on the system.
The results from this command are similar to the following:
.Bd -literal
# zpool import
  pool: tank
    id: 15451357997522795478
 state: ONLINE
action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.
config:

        tank        ONLINE
          mirror    ONLINE
            sda     ONLINE
            sdb     ONLINE

# zpool import tank
.Ed
.It Sy Example 10 No Upgrading All ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version
The following command upgrades all ZFS Storage pools to the current version of
the software.
.Bd -literal
# zpool upgrade -a
This system is currently running ZFS version 2.
.Ed
.It Sy Example 11 No Managing Hot Spares
The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
.Bd -literal
# zpool create tank mirror sda sdb spare sdc
.Ed
.Pp
If one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the degraded
state.
The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
.Bd -literal
# zpool replace tank sda sdd
.Ed
.Pp
Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is automatically removed and is
made available for use should another device fail.
The hot spare can be permanently removed from the pool using the following
command:
.Bd -literal
# zpool remove tank sdc
.Ed
.It Sy Example 12 No Creating a ZFS Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs
The following command creates a ZFS storage pool consisting of two, two-way
mirrors and mirrored log devices:
.Bd -literal
# zpool create pool mirror sda sdb mirror sdc sdd log mirror \\
  sde sdf
.Ed
.It Sy Example 13 No Adding Cache Devices to a ZFS Pool
The following command adds two disks for use as cache devices to a ZFS storage
pool:
.Bd -literal
# zpool add pool cache sdc sdd
.Ed
.Pp
Once added, the cache devices gradually fill with content from main memory.
Depending on the size of your cache devices, it could take over an hour for
them to fill.
Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
.Cm iostat
option as follows:
.Bd -literal
# zpool iostat -v pool 5
.Ed
.It Sy Example 14 No Removing a Mirrored top-level (Log or Data) Device
The following commands remove the mirrored log device
.Sy mirror-2
and mirrored top-level data device
.Sy mirror-1 .
.Pp
Given this configuration:
.Bd -literal
  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
 scrub: none requested
config:

         NAME        STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
         tank        ONLINE       0     0     0
           mirror-0  ONLINE       0     0     0
             sda     ONLINE       0     0     0
             sdb     ONLINE       0     0     0
           mirror-1  ONLINE       0     0     0
             sdc     ONLINE       0     0     0
             sdd     ONLINE       0     0     0
         logs
           mirror-2  ONLINE       0     0     0
             sde     ONLINE       0     0     0
             sdf     ONLINE       0     0     0
.Ed
.Pp
The command to remove the mirrored log
.Sy mirror-2
is:
.Bd -literal
# zpool remove tank mirror-2
.Ed
.Pp
The command to remove the mirrored data
.Sy mirror-1
is:
.Bd -literal
# zpool remove tank mirror-1
.Ed
.It Sy Example 15 No Displaying expanded space on a device
The following command displays the detailed information for the pool
.Em data .
This pool is comprised of a single raidz vdev where one of its devices
increased its capacity by 10GB.
In this example, the pool will not be able to utilize this extra capacity until
all the devices under the raidz vdev have been expanded.
.Bd -literal
# zpool list -v data
NAME         SIZE  ALLOC   FREE  EXPANDSZ   FRAG    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
data        23.9G  14.6G  9.30G         -    48%    61%  1.00x  ONLINE  -
  raidz1    23.9G  14.6G  9.30G         -    48%
    sda         -      -      -         -      -
    sdb         -      -      -       10G      -
    sdc         -      -      -         -      -
.Ed
.It Sy Example 16 No Adding output columns
Additional columns can be added to the
.Nm zpool Cm status
and
.Nm zpool Cm iostat
output with
.Fl c
option.
.Bd -literal
# zpool status -c vendor,model,size
   NAME     STATE  READ WRITE CKSUM vendor  model        size
   tank     ONLINE 0    0     0
   mirror-0 ONLINE 0    0     0
   U1       ONLINE 0    0     0     SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T
   U10      ONLINE 0    0     0     SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T
   U11      ONLINE 0    0     0     SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T
   U12      ONLINE 0    0     0     SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T
   U13      ONLINE 0    0     0     SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T
   U14      ONLINE 0    0     0     SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T

# zpool iostat -vc size
              capacity     operations     bandwidth
pool        alloc   free   read  write   read  write  size
----------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  ----
rpool       14.6G  54.9G      4     55   250K  2.69M
  sda1      14.6G  54.9G      4     55   250K  2.69M   70G
----------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  ----
.Ed
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.Bl -tag -width "ZFS_ABORT"
.It Ev ZFS_ABORT
Cause
.Nm zpool
to dump core on exit for the purposes of running
.Sy ::findleaks .
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZFS_COLOR"
.It Ev ZFS_COLOR
Use ANSI color in
.Nm zpool status
output.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_IMPORT_PATH"
.It Ev ZPOOL_IMPORT_PATH
The search path for devices or files to use with the pool. This is a colon-separated list of directories in which
.Nm zpool
looks for device nodes and files.
Similar to the
.Fl d
option in
.Nm zpool import .
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_IMPORT_UDEV_TIMEOUT_MS"
.It Ev ZPOOL_IMPORT_UDEV_TIMEOUT_MS
The maximum time in milliseconds that
.Nm zpool import
will wait for an expected device to be available.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_STATUS_NON_NATIVE_ASHIFT_IGNORE"
.It Ev ZPOOL_STATUS_NON_NATIVE_ASHIFT_IGNORE
If set, suppress warning about non-native vdev ashift in
.Nm zpool status .
The value is not used, only the presence or absence of the variable matters.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_GUID"
.It Ev ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_GUID
Cause
.Nm zpool
subcommands to output vdev guids by default.  This behavior is identical to the
.Nm zpool status -g
command line option.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_FOLLOW_LINKS"
.It Ev ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_FOLLOW_LINKS
Cause
.Nm zpool
subcommands to follow links for vdev names by default.  This behavior is identical to the
.Nm zpool status -L
command line option.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_PATH"
.It Ev ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_PATH
Cause
.Nm zpool
subcommands to output full vdev path names by default.  This
behavior is identical to the
.Nm zpool status -P
command line option.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZFS_VDEV_DEVID_OPT_OUT"
.It Ev ZFS_VDEV_DEVID_OPT_OUT
Older OpenZFS implementations had issues when attempting to display pool
config VDEV names if a
.Sy devid
NVP value is present in the pool's config.
.Pp
For example, a pool that originated on illumos platform would have a devid
value in the config and
.Nm zpool status
would fail when listing the config.
This would also be true for future Linux based pools.
.Pp
A pool can be stripped of any
.Sy devid
values on import or prevented from adding
them on
.Nm zpool create
or
.Nm zpool add
by setting
.Sy ZFS_VDEV_DEVID_OPT_OUT .
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_AS_ROOT"
.It Ev ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_AS_ROOT
Allow a privileged user to run the
.Nm zpool status/iostat
with the
.Fl c
option.  Normally, only unprivileged users are allowed to run
.Fl c .
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_PATH"
.It Ev ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_PATH
The search path for scripts when running
.Nm zpool status/iostat
with the
.Fl c
option. This is a colon-separated list of directories and overrides the default
.Pa ~/.zpool.d
and
.Pa /etc/zfs/zpool.d
search paths.
.El
.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_ENABLED"
.It Ev ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_ENABLED
Allow a user to run
.Nm zpool status/iostat
with the
.Fl c
option. If
.Sy ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_ENABLED
is not set, it is assumed that the user is allowed to run
.Nm zpool status/iostat -c .
.El
.Sh INTERFACE STABILITY
.Sy Evolving
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr zfs-events 5 ,
.Xr zfs-module-parameters 5 ,
.Xr zpool-features 5 ,
.Xr zed 8 ,
.Xr zfs 8 ,
.Xr zpool-add 8 ,
.Xr zpool-attach 8 ,
.Xr zpool-checkpoint 8 ,
.Xr zpool-clear 8 ,
.Xr zpool-create 8 ,
.Xr zpool-destroy 8 ,
.Xr zpool-detach 8 ,
.Xr zpool-events 8 ,
.Xr zpool-export 8 ,
.Xr zpool-get 8 ,
.Xr zpool-history 8 ,
.Xr zpool-import 8 ,
.Xr zpool-initialize 8 ,
.Xr zpool-iostat 8 ,
.Xr zpool-labelclear 8 ,
.Xr zpool-list 8 ,
.Xr zpool-offline 8 ,
.Xr zpool-online 8 ,
.Xr zpool-reguid 8 ,
.Xr zpool-remove 8 ,
.Xr zpool-reopen 8 ,
.Xr zpool-replace 8 ,
.Xr zpool-resilver 8 ,
.Xr zpool-scrub 8 ,
.Xr zpool-set 8 ,
.Xr zpool-split 8 ,
.Xr zpool-status 8 ,
.Xr zpool-sync 8 ,
.Xr zpool-trim 8 ,
.Xr zpool-upgrade 8 ,
.Xr zpool-wait 8 ,
.Xr zpoolconcepts 8 ,
.Xr zpoolprops 8