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.\" Copyright (c) 1996 David Nugent <davidn@blaze.net.au>
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, is permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice immediately at the beginning of the file, without modification,
.\"    this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. This work was done expressly for inclusion into FreeBSD.  Other use
.\"    is permitted provided this notation is included.
.\" 4. Absolutely no warranty of function or purpose is made by the author
.\"    David Nugent.
.\" 5. Modifications may be freely made to this file providing the above
.\"    conditions are met.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd November 22, 1996
.Dt LOGIN.CONF 5
.Os FreeBSD
.Sh NAME
.Nm login.conf
.Nd login class capability database
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Pa /etc/login.conf ,
.Pa ~/.login_conf
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
contains various attributes and capabilities of login classes.
A login class (an optional annotation against each record in the user
account database,
.Pa /etc/master.passwd )
determines session accounting, resource limits and user environment settings.
It is used by various programs in the system to set up a user's login
environment and to enforce policy, accounting and administrative restrictions.
It also provides the means by which users are able to be
authenticated to the system and the types of authentication available.
.Pp
A special record "default" in the system user class capability database
.Pa /etc/login.conf
is used automatically for any
non-root user without a valid login class in
.Pa /etc/master.passwd .
A user with a uid of 0 without a valid login class will use the record
"root" if it exists, or "default" if not.
.Pp
In
.Fx ,
users may individually create a file called
.Pa .login_conf
in their home directory using the same format, consisting of a single
entry with a record id of "me".
If present, this file is used by
.Xr login 1
to set user-defined environment settings which override those specified
in the system login capabilities database.
Only a subset of login capabilities may be overridden, typically those
which do not involve authentication, resource limits and accounting.
NOTE: this feature is compile-time disabled by default due to potential
security risks.
.Pp
Records in a class capabilities database consist of a number of
colon-separated fields.
The first entry for each record gives one or more names that a record is
to be known by, each separated by a '|' character.
The first name is the most common abbreviation.
The last name given should be a long name that is more descriptive
of the capability entry, and all others are synonyms.
All names but the last should be in lower case and contain no blanks;
the last name may contain upper case characters and blanks for
readability.
.Pp
See
.Xr getcap 3
for a more in-depth description of the format of a capability database.
.Sh CAPABILITIES
Fields within each record in the database follow the
.Xr getcap 3
conventions for boolean, type string
.Ql \&= 
and type numeric
.Ql \&# ,
although type numeric is depreciated in favour of the string format and
either form is accepted for a numeric datum.
Values fall into the following categories:
.Bl -tag -width "program"
.It file
Path name to a data file
.It program
Path name to an executable file
.It list
A list of values (or pairs of values) separated by commas or spaces
.It path
A space or comma separated list of path names, following the usual csh
conventions (leading tilde with and without username being expanded to
home directories etc.)
.It number
A numeric value, either decimal (default), hexadecimal (with leading 0x),
or octal (with a leading 0).
With a numeric type, only one numeric value is allowed.
Numeric types may also be specified in string format (ie. the capability
tag being delimited from the value by '=' instead of '#').
Whichever method is used, then all records in the database must use the
same method to allow values to be correctly overridden in interpolated
records.
.It size
A number which expresses a size.
The default interpretation of a value is the number of bytes, but a
suffix may specify alternate units:
.Bl -tag -offset indent -compact -width xxxx
.It b
explicitly selects 512-byte blocks
.It k
selects kilobytes (1024 bytes)
.It m
specifies a multiplier of 1 megabyte (1048576 bytes),
.It g
specifies units of gigabytes, and
.It t
represents terabytes.
.El
A size value is a numeric quantity and case of the suffix is not significant.
Concatenated values are added together.
.It time
A period of time, by default in seconds.
A prefix may specify a different unit:
.Bl -tag -offset indent -compact -width xxxx
.It y
indicates the number of 365 day years,
.It w
indicates the number of weeks,
.It d
the number of days,
.It h
the number of hours,
.It m
the number of minutes, and
.It s
the number of seconds.
.El
Concatenated values are added together.
For example, 2 hours and 40 minutes may be written either as
9600s, 160m or 2h40m.
.El
.Pp
The usual convention to interpolate capability entries using the special
.Em tc=value
notation may be used.
.Pp
.Sh RESOURCE LIMITS
.Bl -column coredumpsize indent indent
.It Sy "Name	Type	Notes	Description
.It "cputime	time		CPU usage limit.
.It "filesize	size		Maximum file size limit.
.It "datasize	size		Maximum data size limit.
.It "stacksize	size		Maximum stack size limit.
.It "coredumpsize	size		Maximum coredump size limit.
.It "memoryuse	size		Maximum of core memory use size limit.
.It "memorylocked	size		Maximum locked in core memory size limit.
.It "maxproc	number		Maximum number of processes.
.It "openfiles	number		Maximum number of open files per process.
.It "sbsize	size		Maximum permitted socketbuffer size.
.El
.Pp
These resource limit entries actually specify both the maximum
and current limits (see
.Xr getrlimit 2 ) .
The current (soft) limit is the one normally used, although the user is permitted
to increase the current limit to the maximum (hard) limit.
The maximum and current limits may be specified individually by appending a
-max or -cur to the capability name.
.Pp
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Bl -column ignorenologin indent xbinxxusrxbin
.It Sy "Name	Type	Notes	Description
.It "charset	string		Set $MM_CHARSET environment variable to the specified
value.
.It "hushlogin	bool	false	Same as having a ~/.hushlogin file.
.It "ignorenologin	bool	false	Login not prevented by nologin.
.It "lang	string		Set $LANG environment variable to the specified value.
.It "manpath	path		Default search path for manpages.
.It "nologin	file		If the file exists it will be displayed and
the login session will be terminated.
.It "path	path	/bin /usr/bin	Default search path.
.It "priority	number		Initial priority (nice) level.
.It "requirehome 	bool	false	Require a valid home directory to login.
.It "setenv	list		A comma-separated list of environment variables and
values to which they are to be set.
.It "shell	prog		Session shell to execute rather than the
shell specified in the passwd file.
The SHELL environment variable will
contain the shell specified in the password file.
.It "term	string		Default terminal type if not able to determine from
other means.
.It "timezone	string		Default value of $TZ environment variable.
.It "umask	number	022	Initial umask. Should always have a leading 0 to
ensure octal interpretation.
.It "welcome	file	/etc/motd	File containing welcome message.
.El
.Pp
.Sh AUTHENTICATION
.Bl -column minpasswordlen indent indent
.It Sy "Name	Type	Notes	Description
.It "minpasswordlen	number	6	The minimum length a local password may be.
.It "passwd_format	string	md5	The encryption format that new or
changed passwords will use.
Valid values include "md5" and "des".
NIS clients using a
.No non- Ns Fx
NIS server should probably use "des".
.\" .It "approve	program 	Program to approve login.
.It "mixpasswordcase	bool	true	Whether
.Xr passwd 1
will warn the user if an all lower case password is entered.
.It "copyright	file		File containing additional copyright information
.\".It "widepasswords	bool	false	Use the wide password format. The wide password
.\" format allows up to 128 significant characters in the password.
.It "host.allow	list		List of remote host wildcards from which users in
the class may access.
.It "host.deny	list		List of remote host wildcards from which users in
the class may not access.
.It "times.allow 	list		List of time periods during which
logins are allowed.
.It "times.deny	list		List of time periods during which logins are
disallowed.
.It "ttys.allow	list		List of ttys and ttygroups which users
in the class may use for access.
.It "ttys.deny	list		List of ttys and ttygroups which users
in the class may not use for access.
.El
.Pp
These fields are intended to be used by
.Xr passwd 1
and other programs in the login authentication system.
.Pp
Capabilities that set environment variables are scanned for both
.Ql \&~
and
.Ql \&$
characters, which are substituted for a user's home directory and name
respectively.
To pass these characters literally into the environment variable, escape
the character by preceding it with a backslash '\\'.
.Pp
The
.Em host.allow
and
.Em host.deny
entries are comma separated lists used for checking remote access to the system,
and consist of a list of hostnames and/or IP addresses against which remote
network logins are checked.
Items in these lists may contain wildcards in the form used by shell programs
for wildcard matching (See
.Xr fnmatch 3
for details on the implementation).
The check on hosts is made against both the remote system's Internet address
and hostname (if available).
If both lists are empty or not specified, then logins from any remote host
are allowed.
If host.allow contains one or more hosts, then only remote systems matching
any of the items in that list are allowed to log in.
If host.deny contains one or more hosts, then a login from any matching hosts
will be disallowed.
.Pp
The
.Em times.allow
and
.Em times.deny
entries consist of a comma-separated list of time periods during which the users
in a class are allowed to be logged in.
These are expressed as one or more day codes followed by a start and end times
expressed in 24 hour format, separated by a hyphen or dash.
For example, MoThSa0200-1300 translates to Monday, Thursday and Saturday between
the hours of 2 am and 1 p.m..
If both of these time lists are empty, users in the class are allowed access at
any time.
If
.Em times.allow
is specified, then logins are only allowed during the periods given.
If
.Em times.deny
is specified, then logins are denied during the periods given, regardless of whether
one of the periods specified in
.Em times.allow
applies.
.Pp
Note that
.Xr login 1
enforces only that the actual login falls within periods allowed by these entries.
Further enforcement over the life of a session requires a separate daemon to
monitor transitions from an allowed period to a non-allowed one.
.Pp
The
.Em ttys.allow
and
.Em ttys.deny
entries contain a comma-separated list of tty devices (without the /dev/ prefix)
that a user in a class may use to access the system, and/or a list of ttygroups
(See
.Xr getttyent 3
and
.Xr ttys 5
for information on ttygroups).
If neither entry exists, then the choice of login device used by the user is
unrestricted.
If only
.Em ttys.allow
is specified, then the user is restricted only to ttys in the given
group or device list.
If only
.Em ttys.deny
is specified, then the user is prevented from using the specified devices or
devices in the group.
If both lists are given and are non-empty, the user is restricted to those
devices allowed by ttys.allow that are not available by ttys.deny.
.Sh ACCOUNTING LIMITS
.Bl -column host.accounted indent indent
.It Sy "Name	Type	Notes	Description
.It "accounted	bool	false	Enable session time accounting for all users
in this class.
.It "autodelete	time		Time after expiry when account is auto-deleted.
.It "bootfull	bool	false	Enable 'boot only if ttygroup is full' strategy
when terminating sessions.
.It "daytime	time		Maximum login time per day.
.It "expireperiod	time		Time for expiry allocation.
.It "graceexpire 	time		Grace days for expired account.
.It "gracetime	time		Additional grace login time allowed.
.It "host.accounted	list		List of remote host wildcards from which
login sessions will be accounted.
.It "host.exempt 	list		List of remote host wildcards from which
login session accounting is exempted.
.It "idletime	time		Maximum idle time before logout.
.It "monthtime 	time		Maximum login time per month.
.It "passwordtime	time		Used by
.Xr passwd 1
to set next password expiry date.
.It "refreshtime 	time		New time allowed on account refresh.
.It "refreshperiod	str		How often account time is refreshed.
.It "sessiontime 	time		Maximum login time per session.
.It "sessionlimit	number		Maximum number of concurrent
login sessions on ttys in any group.
.It "ttys.accounted	list		List of ttys and ttygroups for which
login accounting is active.
.It "ttys.exempt	list		List of ttys and ttygroups for which login accounting
is exempt.
.It "warnexpire	time		Advance notice for pending account expiry.
.It "warnpassword	time		Advance notice for pending password expiry.
.It "warntime	time		Advance notice for pending out-of-time.
.It "weektime	time		Maximum login time per week.
.El
.Pp
These fields are used by the time accounting system, which regulates,
controls and records user login access.
.Pp
The
.Em ttys.accounted
and
.Em ttys.exempt
fields operate in a similar manner to
.Em ttys.allow
and
.Em ttys.deny
as explained
above.
Similarly with the
.Em host.accounted
and
.Em host.exempt
lists.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr cap_mkdb 1 ,
.Xr login 1 ,
.Xr getcap 3 ,
.Xr getttyent 3 ,
.Xr login_cap 3 ,
.Xr login_class 3 ,
.Xr passwd 5 ,
.Xr ttys 5