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.\" Copyright (c) 2016 The FreeBSD Foundation, Inc.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" This documentation was written by
.\" Konstantin Belousov <kib@FreeBSD.org> under sponsorship
.\" from the FreeBSD Foundation.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd May 5, 2020
.Dt THR_NEW 2
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm thr_new
.Nd create new thread of execution
.Sh LIBRARY
.Lb libc
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.In sys/thr.h
.Ft int
.Fn thr_new "struct thr_param *param" "int param_size"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Bf -symbolic
This function is intended for implementing threading.
Normal applications should call
.Xr pthread_create 3
instead.
.Ef
.Pp
The
.Fn thr_new
system call creates a new kernel-scheduled thread of execution in the context
of the current process.
The newly created thread shares all attributes of the process with the
existing kernel-scheduled threads in the process, but has private processor
execution state.
The machine context for the new thread is copied from the creating thread's
context, including coprocessor state.
FPU state and specific machine registers are excluded from the copy.
These are set according to ABI requirements and syscall parameters.
The FPU state for the new thread is reinitialized to clean.
.Pp
The
.Fa param
structure supplies parameters affecting the thread creation.
The structure is defined in the
.In sys/thr.h
header as follows
.Bd -literal
struct thr_param {
    void          (*start_func)(void *);
    void          *arg;
    char          *stack_base;
    size_t        stack_size;
    char          *tls_base;
    size_t        tls_size;
    long          *child_tid;
    long          *parent_tid;
    int           flags;
    struct rtprio *rtp;
};
.Ed
and contains the following fields:
.Bl -tag -width ".Va parent_tid"
.It Va start_func
Pointer to the thread entry function.
The kernel arranges for the new thread to start executing the function
upon the first return to userspace.
.It Va arg
Opaque argument supplied to the entry function.
.It Va stack_base
Stack base address.
The stack must be allocated by the caller.
On some architectures, the ABI might require that the system put information
on the stack to ensure the execution environment for
.Va start_func .
.It Va stack_size
Stack size.
.It Va tls_base
TLS base address.
The value of TLS base is loaded into the ABI-defined machine register
in the new thread context.
.It Va tls_size
TLS size.
.It Va child_tid
Address to store the new thread identifier, for the child's use.
.It Va parent_tid
Address to store the new thread identifier, for the parent's use.
.Pp
Both
.Va child_tid
and
.Va parent_tid
are provided, with the intent that
.Va child_tid
is used by the new thread to get its thread identifier without
issuing the
.Xr thr_self 2
syscall, while
.Va parent_tid
is used by the thread creator.
The latter is separate from
.Va child_tid
because the new thread might exit and free its thread data before the parent
has a chance to execute far enough to access it.
.It Va flags
Thread creation flags.
The
.Va flags
member may specify the following flags:
.Bl -tag -width ".Dv THR_SYSTEM_SCOPE"
.It Dv THR_SUSPENDED
Create the new thread in the suspended state.
The flag is not currently implemented.
.It Dv THR_SYSTEM_SCOPE
Create the system scope thread.
The flag is not currently implemented.
.El
.It Va rtp
Real-time scheduling priority for the new thread.
May be
.Dv NULL
to inherit the priority from the
creating thread.
.El
.Pp
The
.Fa param_size
argument should be set to the size of the
.Fa param
structure.
.Pp
After the first successful creation of an additional thread,
the process is marked by the kernel as multi-threaded.
In particular, the
.Dv P_HADTHREADS
flag is set in the process'
.Dv p_flag
(visible in the
.Xr ps 1
output), and several operations are executed in multi-threaded mode.
For instance, the
.Xr execve 2
system call terminates all threads but the calling one on successful
execution.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
If successful,
.Fn thr_new
will return zero, otherwise \-1 is returned, and
.Va errno
is set to indicate the error.
.Sh ERRORS
The
.Fn thr_new
operation returns the following errors:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.\" When changing this list, consider updating share/man/man3/pthread_create.3,
.\" since that function can return any of these errors.
.It Bq Er EFAULT
The memory pointed to by the
.Fa param
argument is not valid.
.It Bq Er EFAULT
The memory pointed to by the
.Fa param
structure
.Fa child_tid , parent_tid
or
.Fa rtp
arguments is not valid.
.It Bq Er EFAULT
The specified stack base is invalid, or the kernel was unable to put required
initial data on the stack.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The
.Fa param_size
argument specifies a negative value, or the value is greater than the
largest
.Fa struct param
size the kernel can interpret.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The
.Fa rtp
member is not
.Dv NULL
and specifies invalid scheduling parameters.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The specified TLS base is invalid.
.It Bq Er EPERM
The caller does not have permission to set the scheduling parameters or
scheduling policy.
.It Bq Er EPROCLIM
Creation of the new thread would exceed the
.Dv RACCT_NTHR
limit, see
.Xr racct 2 .
.It Bq Er EPROCLIM
Creation of the new thread would exceed the
.Dv kern.threads.max_threads_per_proc
.Xr sysctl 2
limit.
.It Bq Er ENOMEM
There was not enough kernel memory to allocate the new thread structures.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr ps 1 ,
.Xr _umtx_op 2 ,
.Xr execve 2 ,
.Xr racct 2 ,
.Xr thr_exit 2 ,
.Xr thr_kill 2 ,
.Xr thr_kill2 2 ,
.Xr thr_self 2 ,
.Xr thr_set_name 2 ,
.Xr pthread_create 3
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Fn thr_new
system call is non-standard and is used by the
.Lb libthr
to implement
.St -p1003.1-2001
.Xr pthread 3
functionality.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Fn thr_new
system call first appeared in
.Fx 5.2 .