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.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	@(#)chflags.2	8.3 (Berkeley) 5/2/95
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd September 23, 2020
.Dt CHFLAGS 2
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm chflags ,
.Nm lchflags ,
.Nm fchflags ,
.Nm chflagsat
.Nd set file flags
.Sh LIBRARY
.Lb libc
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.In sys/stat.h
.In unistd.h
.Ft int
.Fn chflags "const char *path" "unsigned long flags"
.Ft int
.Fn lchflags "const char *path" "unsigned long flags"
.Ft int
.Fn fchflags "int fd" "unsigned long flags"
.Ft int
.Fn chflagsat "int fd" "const char *path" "unsigned long flags" "int atflag"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The file whose name
is given by
.Fa path
or referenced by the descriptor
.Fa fd
has its flags changed to
.Fa flags .
.Pp
The
.Fn lchflags
system call is like
.Fn chflags
except in the case where the named file is a symbolic link,
in which case
.Fn lchflags
will change the flags of the link itself,
rather than the file it points to.
.Pp
The
.Fn chflagsat
is equivalent to either
.Fn chflags
or
.Fn lchflags
depending on the
.Fa atflag
except in the case where
.Fa path
specifies a relative path.
In this case the file to be changed is determined relative to the directory
associated with the file descriptor
.Fa fd
instead of the current working directory.
The values for the
.Fa atflag
are constructed by a bitwise-inclusive OR of flags from the following list,
defined in
.In fcntl.h :
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Dv AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW
If
.Fa path
names a symbolic link, then the flags of the symbolic link are changed.
.It Dv AT_BENEATH
Only allow to change flags for a file which is beneath of
the topping directory.
See the description of the
.Dv O_BENEATH
flag in the
.Xr open 2
manual page.
.It Dv AT_RESOLVE_BENEATH
Only walks paths below the topping directory.
See the description of the
.Dv O_RESOLVE_BENEATH
flag in the
.Xr open 2
manual page.
.El
.Pp
If
.Fn chflagsat
is passed the special value
.Dv AT_FDCWD
in the
.Fa fd
parameter, the current working directory is used.
If also
.Fa atflag
is zero, the behavior is identical to a call to
.Fn chflags .
.Pp
The flags specified are formed by
.Em or Ns 'ing
the following values
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width ".Dv SF_IMMUTABLE" -compact -offset indent
.It Dv SF_APPEND
The file may only be appended to.
.It Dv SF_ARCHIVED
The file has been archived.
This flag means the opposite of the DOS, Windows and CIFS
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE attribute.
This flag has been deprecated, and may be removed in a future release.
.It Dv SF_IMMUTABLE
The file may not be changed.
.It Dv SF_NOUNLINK
The file may not be renamed or deleted.
.It Dv SF_SNAPSHOT
The file is a snapshot file.
.It Dv UF_APPEND
The file may only be appended to.
.It Dv UF_ARCHIVE
The file needs to be archived.
This flag has the same meaning as the DOS, Windows and CIFS
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE attribute.
Filesystems in FreeBSD may or may not have special handling for this flag.
For instance, ZFS tracks changes to files and will set this bit when a
file is updated.
UFS only stores the flag, and relies on the application to change it when
needed.
.It Dv UF_HIDDEN
The file may be hidden from directory listings at the application's
discretion.
The file has the DOS, Windows and CIFS FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN attribute.
.It Dv UF_IMMUTABLE
The file may not be changed.
.It Dv UF_NODUMP
Do not dump the file.
.It Dv UF_NOUNLINK
The file may not be renamed or deleted.
.It Dv UF_OFFLINE
The file is offline, or has the Windows and CIFS FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE
attribute.
Filesystems in FreeBSD store and display this flag, but do not provide any
special handling when it is set.
.It Dv UF_OPAQUE
The directory is opaque when viewed through a union stack.
.It Dv UF_READONLY
The file is read only, and may not be written or appended.
Filesystems may use this flag to maintain compatibility with the DOS, Windows
and CIFS FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY attribute.
.It Dv UF_REPARSE
The file contains a Windows reparse point and has the Windows and CIFS
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT attribute.
.It Dv UF_SPARSE
The file has the Windows FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE attribute.
This may also be used by a filesystem to indicate a sparse file.
.It Dv UF_SYSTEM
The file has the DOS, Windows and CIFS FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM attribute.
Filesystems in FreeBSD may store and display this flag, but do not provide
any special handling when it is set.
.El
.Pp
If one of
.Dv SF_IMMUTABLE , SF_APPEND ,
or
.Dv SF_NOUNLINK
is set a non-super-user cannot change any flags and even the super-user
can change flags only if securelevel is 0.
(See
.Xr init 8
for details.)
.Pp
The
.Dv UF_IMMUTABLE , UF_APPEND , UF_NOUNLINK , UF_NODUMP ,
and
.Dv UF_OPAQUE
flags may be set or unset by either the owner of a file or the super-user.
.Pp
The
.Dv SF_IMMUTABLE , SF_APPEND , SF_NOUNLINK ,
and
.Dv SF_ARCHIVED
flags may only be set or unset by the super-user.
Attempts to toggle these flags by non-super-users are rejected.
These flags may be set at any time, but normally may only be unset when
the system is in single-user mode.
(See
.Xr init 8
for details.)
.Pp
The implementation of all flags is filesystem-dependent.
See the description of the
.Dv UF_ARCHIVE
flag above for one example of the differences in behavior.
Care should be exercised when writing applications to account for
support or lack of support of these flags in various filesystems.
.Pp
The
.Dv SF_SNAPSHOT
flag is maintained by the system and cannot be toggled.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
.Rv -std
.Sh ERRORS
The
.Fn chflags
system call will fail if:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
.It Bq Er ENAMETOOLONG
A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters,
or an entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.
.It Bq Er ENOENT
The named file does not exist.
.It Bq Er EACCES
Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix.
.It Bq Er ELOOP
Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname.
.It Bq Er EPERM
The effective user ID does not match the owner of the file and
the effective user ID is not the super-user.
.It Bq Er EPERM
One of
.Dv SF_IMMUTABLE , SF_APPEND ,
or
.Dv SF_NOUNLINK
is set and the user is either not the super-user or
securelevel is greater than 0.
.It Bq Er EPERM
A non-super-user attempted to toggle one of
.Dv SF_ARCHIVED , SF_IMMUTABLE , SF_APPEND ,
or
.Dv SF_NOUNLINK .
.It Bq Er EPERM
An attempt was made to toggle the
.Dv SF_SNAPSHOT
flag.
.It Bq Er EROFS
The named file resides on a read-only file system.
.It Bq Er EFAULT
The
.Fa path
argument
points outside the process's allocated address space.
.It Bq Er EIO
An
.Tn I/O
error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
.It Bq Er EINTEGRITY
Corrupted data was detected while reading from the file system.
.It Bq Er EOPNOTSUPP
The underlying file system does not support file flags, or
does not support all of the flags set in
.Fa flags .
.El
.Pp
The
.Fn fchflags
system call will fail if:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EBADF
The descriptor is not valid.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The
.Fa fd
argument
refers to a socket, not to a file.
.It Bq Er EPERM
The effective user ID does not match the owner of the file and
the effective user ID is not the super-user.
.It Bq Er EPERM
One of
.Dv SF_IMMUTABLE , SF_APPEND ,
or
.Dv SF_NOUNLINK
is set and the user is either not the super-user or
securelevel is greater than 0.
.It Bq Er EPERM
A non-super-user attempted to toggle one of
.Dv SF_ARCHIVED , SF_IMMUTABLE , SF_APPEND ,
or
.Dv SF_NOUNLINK .
.It Bq Er EPERM
An attempt was made to toggle the
.Dv SF_SNAPSHOT
flag.
.It Bq Er EROFS
The file resides on a read-only file system.
.It Bq Er EIO
An
.Tn I/O
error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
.It Bq Er EINTEGRITY
Corrupted data was detected while reading from the file system.
.It Bq Er EOPNOTSUPP
The underlying file system does not support file flags, or
does not support all of the flags set in
.Fa flags .
.It Bq Er ENOTCAPABLE
.Fa path
is an absolute path,
or contained a ".." component leading to a
directory outside of the directory hierarchy specified by
.Fa fd ,
and the process is in capability mode.
.It Bq Er ENOTCAPABLE
The
.Dv AT_BENEATH
flag was provided to
.Fn chflagsat ,
and the absolute
.Fa path
does not have its tail fully contained under the topping directory,
or the relative
.Fa path
escapes it.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr chflags 1 ,
.Xr fflagstostr 3 ,
.Xr strtofflags 3 ,
.Xr init 8 ,
.Xr mount_unionfs 8
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Fn chflags
and
.Fn fchflags
system calls first appeared in
.Bx 4.4 .
The
.Fn lchflags
system call first appeared in
.Fx 5.0 .
The
.Fn chflagsat
system call first appeared in
.Fx 10.0 .