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.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"     @(#)access.2	8.2 (Berkeley) 4/1/94
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd September 23, 2020
.Dt ACCESS 2
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm access ,
.Nm eaccess ,
.Nm faccessat
.Nd check accessibility of a file
.Sh LIBRARY
.Lb libc
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.In unistd.h
.Ft int
.Fn access "const char *path" "int mode"
.Ft int
.Fn eaccess "const char *path" "int mode"
.Ft int
.Fn faccessat "int fd" "const char *path" "int mode" "int flag"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Fn access
and
.Fn eaccess
system calls check the accessibility of the
file named by
the
.Fa path
argument
for the access permissions indicated by
the
.Fa mode
argument.
The value of
.Fa mode
is either the bitwise-inclusive OR of the access permissions to be
checked
.Dv ( R_OK
for read permission,
.Dv W_OK
for write permission, and
.Dv X_OK
for execute/search permission),
or the existence test
.Pq Dv F_OK .
.Pp
For additional information, see the
.Sx "File Access Permission"
section of
.Xr intro 2 .
.Pp
The
.Fn eaccess
system call uses
the effective user ID and the group access list
to authorize the request;
the
.Fn access
system call uses
the real user ID in place of the effective user ID,
the real group ID in place of the effective group ID,
and the rest of the group access list.
.Pp
The
.Fn faccessat
system call is equivalent to
.Fn access
except in the case where
.Fa path
specifies a relative path.
In this case the file whose accessibility is to be determined is
located relative to the directory associated with the file descriptor
.Fa fd
instead of the current working directory.
If
.Fn faccessat
is passed the special value
.Dv AT_FDCWD
in the
.Fa fd
parameter, the current working directory is used and the behavior is
identical to a call to
.Fn access .
Values for
.Fa flag
are constructed by a bitwise-inclusive OR of flags from the following
list, defined in
.In fcntl.h :
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Dv AT_EACCESS
The checks for accessibility are performed using the effective user and group
IDs instead of the real user and group ID as required in a call to
.Fn access .
.It Dv AT_BENEATH
Only operate on files and directories below the topping directory.
See the description of the
.Dv O_BENEATH
flag in the
.Xr open 2
manual page.
.It Dv AT_RESOLVE_BENEATH
Only walks paths below the topping directory.
See the description of the
.Dv O_RESOLVE_BENEATH
flag in the
.Xr open 2
manual page.
.El
.Pp
Even if a process's real or effective user has appropriate privileges
and indicates success for
.Dv X_OK ,
the file may not actually have execute permission bits set.
Likewise for
.Dv R_OK
and
.Dv W_OK .
.Sh RETURN VALUES
.Rv -std
.Sh ERRORS
.Fn access ,
.Fn eaccess ,
or
.Fn faccessat
will fail if:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The value of the
.Fa mode
argument is invalid.
.It Bq Er ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
.It Bq Er ENAMETOOLONG
A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters,
or an entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.
.It Bq Er ENOENT
The named file does not exist.
.It Bq Er ELOOP
Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname.
.It Bq Er EROFS
Write access is requested for a file on a read-only file system.
.It Bq Er ETXTBSY
Write access is requested for a pure procedure (shared text)
file presently being executed.
.It Bq Er EACCES
Permission bits of the file mode do not permit the requested
access, or search permission is denied on a component of the
path prefix.
.It Bq Er EFAULT
The
.Fa path
argument
points outside the process's allocated address space.
.It Bq Er EIO
An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
.It Bq Er EINTEGRITY
Corrupted data was detected while reading from the file system.
.El
.Pp
Also, the
.Fn faccessat
system call may fail if:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EBADF
The
.Fa path
argument does not specify an absolute path and the
.Fa fd
argument is
neither
.Dv AT_FDCWD
nor a valid file descriptor.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The value of the
.Fa flag
argument is not valid.
.It Bq Er ENOTDIR
The
.Fa path
argument is not an absolute path and
.Fa fd
is neither
.Dv AT_FDCWD
nor a file descriptor associated with a directory.
.It Bq Er ENOTCAPABLE
.Fa path
is an absolute path,
or contained a ".." component leading to a
directory outside of the directory hierarchy specified by
.Fa fd ,
and the process is in capability mode.
.It Bq Er ENOTCAPABLE
The
.Dv AT_BENEATH
flag was provided to
.Fn faccessat ,
and the absolute
.Fa path
does not have its tail fully contained under the topping directory,
or the relative
.Fa path
escapes it.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr chmod 2 ,
.Xr intro 2 ,
.Xr stat 2
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Fn access
system call is expected to conform to
.St -p1003.1-90 .
The
.Fn faccessat
system call follows The Open Group Extended API Set 2 specification.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Fn access
function appeared in
.At v7 .
The
.Fn faccessat
system call appeared in
.Fx 8.0 .
.Sh SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
The
.Fn access
system call
is a potential security hole due to race conditions and
should never be used.
Set-user-ID and set-group-ID applications should restore the
effective user or group ID,
and perform actions directly rather than use
.Fn access
to simulate access checks for the real user or group ID.
The
.Fn eaccess
system call
likewise may be subject to races if used inappropriately.
.Pp
.Fn access
remains useful for providing clues to users as to whether operations
make sense for particular filesystem objects (e.g. 'delete' menu
item only highlighted in a writable folder ... avoiding interpretation
of the st_mode bits that the application might not understand --
e.g. in the case of AFS).
It also allows a cheaper file existence test than
.Xr stat 2 .