aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/lib/ReaderWriter/MachO/MachONormalizedFileBinaryWriter.cpp
blob: da27c7cadf96cee3c0ca88b2f8d72ae23c92073c (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
//===- lib/ReaderWriter/MachO/MachONormalizedFileBinaryWriter.cpp ---------===//
//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See https://llvm.org/LICENSE.txt for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
//
//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//

///
/// \file For mach-o object files, this implementation converts normalized
/// mach-o in memory to mach-o binary on disk.
///
///                 +---------------+
///                 | binary mach-o |
///                 +---------------+
///                        ^
///                        |
///                        |
///                  +------------+
///                  | normalized |
///                  +------------+

#include "MachONormalizedFile.h"
#include "MachONormalizedFileBinaryUtils.h"
#include "lld/Common/LLVM.h"
#include "lld/Core/Error.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallString.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallVector.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/StringRef.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/ilist.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/ilist_node.h"
#include "llvm/BinaryFormat/MachO.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Casting.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Debug.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Errc.h"
#include "llvm/Support/ErrorHandling.h"
#include "llvm/Support/FileOutputBuffer.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Format.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Host.h"
#include "llvm/Support/MemoryBuffer.h"
#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
#include <functional>
#include <list>
#include <map>
#include <system_error>

using namespace llvm::MachO;

namespace lld {
namespace mach_o {
namespace normalized {

struct TrieNode; // Forward declaration.

struct TrieEdge : public llvm::ilist_node<TrieEdge> {
  TrieEdge(StringRef s, TrieNode *node) : _subString(s), _child(node) {}

  StringRef          _subString;
  struct TrieNode   *_child;
};

} // namespace normalized
} // namespace mach_o
} // namespace lld


namespace llvm {
using lld::mach_o::normalized::TrieEdge;
template <>
struct ilist_alloc_traits<TrieEdge> : ilist_noalloc_traits<TrieEdge> {};
} // namespace llvm


namespace lld {
namespace mach_o {
namespace normalized {

struct TrieNode {
  typedef llvm::ilist<TrieEdge> TrieEdgeList;

  TrieNode(StringRef s)
      : _cummulativeString(s), _address(0), _flags(0), _other(0),
        _trieOffset(0), _hasExportInfo(false) {}
  ~TrieNode() = default;

  void addSymbol(const Export &entry, BumpPtrAllocator &allocator,
                 std::vector<TrieNode *> &allNodes);

  void addOrderedNodes(const Export &entry,
                       std::vector<TrieNode *> &allNodes);
  bool updateOffset(uint32_t &offset);
  void appendToByteBuffer(ByteBuffer &out);

private:
  StringRef                 _cummulativeString;
  TrieEdgeList              _children;
  uint64_t                  _address;
  uint64_t                  _flags;
  uint64_t                  _other;
  StringRef                 _importedName;
  uint32_t                  _trieOffset;
  bool                      _hasExportInfo;
  bool                      _ordered = false;
};

/// Utility class for writing a mach-o binary file given an in-memory
/// normalized file.
class MachOFileLayout {
public:
  /// All layout computation is done in the constructor.
  MachOFileLayout(const NormalizedFile &file, bool alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts);

  /// Returns the final file size as computed in the constructor.
  size_t      size() const;

  // Returns size of the mach_header and load commands.
  size_t      headerAndLoadCommandsSize() const;

  /// Writes the normalized file as a binary mach-o file to the specified
  /// path.  This does not have a stream interface because the generated
  /// file may need the 'x' bit set.
  llvm::Error writeBinary(StringRef path);

private:
  uint32_t    loadCommandsSize(uint32_t &count,
                               bool alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts);
  void        buildFileOffsets();
  void        writeMachHeader();
  llvm::Error writeLoadCommands();
  void        writeSectionContent();
  void        writeRelocations();
  void        writeSymbolTable();
  void        writeRebaseInfo();
  void        writeBindingInfo();
  void        writeLazyBindingInfo();
  void        writeExportInfo();
  void        writeFunctionStartsInfo();
  void        writeDataInCodeInfo();
  void        writeLinkEditContent();
  void        buildLinkEditInfo();
  void        buildRebaseInfo();
  void        buildBindInfo();
  void        buildLazyBindInfo();
  void        buildExportTrie();
  void        computeFunctionStartsSize();
  void        computeDataInCodeSize();
  void        computeSymbolTableSizes();
  void        buildSectionRelocations();
  void        appendSymbols(const std::vector<Symbol> &symbols,
                                      uint32_t &symOffset, uint32_t &strOffset);
  uint32_t    indirectSymbolIndex(const Section &sect, uint32_t &index);
  uint32_t    indirectSymbolElementSize(const Section &sect);

  // For use as template parameter to load command methods.
  struct MachO64Trait {
    typedef llvm::MachO::segment_command_64 command;
    typedef llvm::MachO::section_64         section;
    enum { LC = llvm::MachO::LC_SEGMENT_64 };
  };

  // For use as template parameter to load command methods.
  struct MachO32Trait {
    typedef llvm::MachO::segment_command   command;
    typedef llvm::MachO::section           section;
    enum { LC = llvm::MachO::LC_SEGMENT };
  };

  template <typename T>
  llvm::Error writeSingleSegmentLoadCommand(uint8_t *&lc);
  template <typename T> llvm::Error writeSegmentLoadCommands(uint8_t *&lc);

  uint32_t pointerAlign(uint32_t value);
  static StringRef dyldPath();

  struct SegExtraInfo {
    uint32_t                    fileOffset;
    uint32_t                    fileSize;
    std::vector<const Section*> sections;
  };
  typedef std::map<const Segment*, SegExtraInfo> SegMap;
  struct SectionExtraInfo {
    uint32_t                    fileOffset;
  };
  typedef std::map<const Section*, SectionExtraInfo> SectionMap;

  const NormalizedFile &_file;
  std::error_code _ec;
  uint8_t              *_buffer;
  const bool            _is64;
  const bool            _swap;
  const bool            _bigEndianArch;
  uint64_t              _seg1addr;
  uint32_t              _startOfLoadCommands;
  uint32_t              _countOfLoadCommands;
  uint32_t              _endOfLoadCommands;
  uint32_t              _startOfRelocations;
  uint32_t              _startOfFunctionStarts;
  uint32_t              _startOfDataInCode;
  uint32_t              _startOfSymbols;
  uint32_t              _startOfIndirectSymbols;
  uint32_t              _startOfSymbolStrings;
  uint32_t              _endOfSymbolStrings;
  uint32_t              _symbolTableLocalsStartIndex;
  uint32_t              _symbolTableGlobalsStartIndex;
  uint32_t              _symbolTableUndefinesStartIndex;
  uint32_t              _symbolStringPoolSize;
  uint32_t              _symbolTableSize;
  uint32_t              _functionStartsSize;
  uint32_t              _dataInCodeSize;
  uint32_t              _indirectSymbolTableCount;
  // Used in object file creation only
  uint32_t              _startOfSectionsContent;
  uint32_t              _endOfSectionsContent;
  // Used in final linked image only
  uint32_t              _startOfLinkEdit;
  uint32_t              _startOfRebaseInfo;
  uint32_t              _endOfRebaseInfo;
  uint32_t              _startOfBindingInfo;
  uint32_t              _endOfBindingInfo;
  uint32_t              _startOfLazyBindingInfo;
  uint32_t              _endOfLazyBindingInfo;
  uint32_t              _startOfExportTrie;
  uint32_t              _endOfExportTrie;
  uint32_t              _endOfLinkEdit;
  uint64_t              _addressOfLinkEdit;
  SegMap                _segInfo;
  SectionMap            _sectInfo;
  ByteBuffer            _rebaseInfo;
  ByteBuffer            _bindingInfo;
  ByteBuffer            _lazyBindingInfo;
  ByteBuffer            _weakBindingInfo;
  ByteBuffer            _exportTrie;
};

size_t headerAndLoadCommandsSize(const NormalizedFile &file,
                                 bool includeFunctionStarts) {
  MachOFileLayout layout(file, includeFunctionStarts);
  return layout.headerAndLoadCommandsSize();
}

StringRef MachOFileLayout::dyldPath() {
  return "/usr/lib/dyld";
}

uint32_t MachOFileLayout::pointerAlign(uint32_t value) {
  return llvm::alignTo(value, _is64 ? 8 : 4);
}


size_t MachOFileLayout::headerAndLoadCommandsSize() const {
  return _endOfLoadCommands;
}

MachOFileLayout::MachOFileLayout(const NormalizedFile &file,
                                 bool alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts)
    : _file(file),
      _is64(MachOLinkingContext::is64Bit(file.arch)),
      _swap(!MachOLinkingContext::isHostEndian(file.arch)),
      _bigEndianArch(MachOLinkingContext::isBigEndian(file.arch)),
      _seg1addr(INT64_MAX) {
  _startOfLoadCommands = _is64 ? sizeof(mach_header_64) : sizeof(mach_header);
  const size_t segCommandBaseSize =
          (_is64 ? sizeof(segment_command_64) : sizeof(segment_command));
  const size_t sectsSize = (_is64 ? sizeof(section_64) : sizeof(section));
  if (file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_OBJECT) {
    // object files have just one segment load command containing all sections
    _endOfLoadCommands = _startOfLoadCommands
                               + segCommandBaseSize
                               + file.sections.size() * sectsSize
                               + sizeof(symtab_command);
    _countOfLoadCommands = 2;
    if (file.hasMinVersionLoadCommand) {
      _endOfLoadCommands += sizeof(version_min_command);
      _countOfLoadCommands++;
    }
    if (!_file.functionStarts.empty() || alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts) {
      _endOfLoadCommands += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
      _countOfLoadCommands++;
    }
    if (_file.generateDataInCodeLoadCommand) {
      _endOfLoadCommands += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
      _countOfLoadCommands++;
    }
    // Assign file offsets to each section.
    _startOfSectionsContent = _endOfLoadCommands;
    unsigned relocCount = 0;
    uint64_t offset = _startOfSectionsContent;
    for (const Section &sect : file.sections) {
      if (isZeroFillSection(sect.type))
        _sectInfo[&sect].fileOffset = 0;
      else {
        offset = llvm::alignTo(offset, sect.alignment);
        _sectInfo[&sect].fileOffset = offset;
        offset += sect.content.size();
      }
      relocCount += sect.relocations.size();
    }
    _endOfSectionsContent = offset;

    computeSymbolTableSizes();
    computeFunctionStartsSize();
    computeDataInCodeSize();

    // Align start of relocations.
    _startOfRelocations = pointerAlign(_endOfSectionsContent);
    _startOfFunctionStarts = _startOfRelocations + relocCount * 8;
    _startOfDataInCode = _startOfFunctionStarts + _functionStartsSize;
    _startOfSymbols = _startOfDataInCode + _dataInCodeSize;
    // Add Indirect symbol table.
    _startOfIndirectSymbols = _startOfSymbols + _symbolTableSize;
    // Align start of symbol table and symbol strings.
    _startOfSymbolStrings = _startOfIndirectSymbols
                  + pointerAlign(_indirectSymbolTableCount * sizeof(uint32_t));
    _endOfSymbolStrings = _startOfSymbolStrings
                          + pointerAlign(_symbolStringPoolSize);
    _endOfLinkEdit = _endOfSymbolStrings;
    DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("MachOFileLayout",
                  llvm::dbgs() << "MachOFileLayout()\n"
      << "  startOfLoadCommands=" << _startOfLoadCommands << "\n"
      << "  countOfLoadCommands=" << _countOfLoadCommands << "\n"
      << "  endOfLoadCommands=" << _endOfLoadCommands << "\n"
      << "  startOfRelocations=" << _startOfRelocations << "\n"
      << "  startOfSymbols=" << _startOfSymbols << "\n"
      << "  startOfSymbolStrings=" << _startOfSymbolStrings << "\n"
      << "  endOfSymbolStrings=" << _endOfSymbolStrings << "\n"
      << "  startOfSectionsContent=" << _startOfSectionsContent << "\n"
      << "  endOfSectionsContent=" << _endOfSectionsContent << "\n");
  } else {
    // Final linked images have one load command per segment.
    _endOfLoadCommands = _startOfLoadCommands
                          + loadCommandsSize(_countOfLoadCommands,
                                             alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts);

    // Assign section file offsets.
    buildFileOffsets();
    buildLinkEditInfo();

    // LINKEDIT of final linked images has in order:
    // rebase info, binding info, lazy binding info, weak binding info,
    // data-in-code, symbol table, indirect symbol table, symbol table strings.
    _startOfRebaseInfo = _startOfLinkEdit;
    _endOfRebaseInfo = _startOfRebaseInfo + _rebaseInfo.size();
    _startOfBindingInfo = _endOfRebaseInfo;
    _endOfBindingInfo = _startOfBindingInfo + _bindingInfo.size();
    _startOfLazyBindingInfo = _endOfBindingInfo;
    _endOfLazyBindingInfo = _startOfLazyBindingInfo + _lazyBindingInfo.size();
    _startOfExportTrie = _endOfLazyBindingInfo;
    _endOfExportTrie = _startOfExportTrie + _exportTrie.size();
    _startOfFunctionStarts = _endOfExportTrie;
    _startOfDataInCode = _startOfFunctionStarts + _functionStartsSize;
    _startOfSymbols = _startOfDataInCode + _dataInCodeSize;
    _startOfIndirectSymbols = _startOfSymbols + _symbolTableSize;
    _startOfSymbolStrings = _startOfIndirectSymbols
                  + pointerAlign(_indirectSymbolTableCount * sizeof(uint32_t));
    _endOfSymbolStrings = _startOfSymbolStrings
                          + pointerAlign(_symbolStringPoolSize);
    _endOfLinkEdit = _endOfSymbolStrings;
    DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("MachOFileLayout",
                  llvm::dbgs() << "MachOFileLayout()\n"
      << "  startOfLoadCommands=" << _startOfLoadCommands << "\n"
      << "  countOfLoadCommands=" << _countOfLoadCommands << "\n"
      << "  endOfLoadCommands=" << _endOfLoadCommands << "\n"
      << "  startOfLinkEdit=" << _startOfLinkEdit << "\n"
      << "  startOfRebaseInfo=" << _startOfRebaseInfo << "\n"
      << "  endOfRebaseInfo=" << _endOfRebaseInfo << "\n"
      << "  startOfBindingInfo=" << _startOfBindingInfo << "\n"
      << "  endOfBindingInfo=" << _endOfBindingInfo << "\n"
      << "  startOfLazyBindingInfo=" << _startOfLazyBindingInfo << "\n"
      << "  endOfLazyBindingInfo=" << _endOfLazyBindingInfo << "\n"
      << "  startOfExportTrie=" << _startOfExportTrie << "\n"
      << "  endOfExportTrie=" << _endOfExportTrie << "\n"
      << "  startOfFunctionStarts=" << _startOfFunctionStarts << "\n"
      << "  startOfDataInCode=" << _startOfDataInCode << "\n"
      << "  startOfSymbols=" << _startOfSymbols << "\n"
      << "  startOfSymbolStrings=" << _startOfSymbolStrings << "\n"
      << "  endOfSymbolStrings=" << _endOfSymbolStrings << "\n"
      << "  addressOfLinkEdit=" << _addressOfLinkEdit << "\n");
  }
}

uint32_t MachOFileLayout::loadCommandsSize(uint32_t &count,
                                           bool alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts) {
  uint32_t size = 0;
  count = 0;

  const size_t segCommandSize =
          (_is64 ? sizeof(segment_command_64) : sizeof(segment_command));
  const size_t sectionSize = (_is64 ? sizeof(section_64) : sizeof(section));

  // Add LC_SEGMENT for each segment.
  size += _file.segments.size() * segCommandSize;
  count += _file.segments.size();
  // Add section record for each section.
  size += _file.sections.size() * sectionSize;

  // If creating a dylib, add LC_ID_DYLIB.
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_DYLIB) {
    size += sizeof(dylib_command) + pointerAlign(_file.installName.size() + 1);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_DYLD_INFO
  size += sizeof(dyld_info_command);
  ++count;

  // Add LC_SYMTAB
  size += sizeof(symtab_command);
  ++count;

  // Add LC_DYSYMTAB
  if (_file.fileType != llvm::MachO::MH_PRELOAD) {
    size += sizeof(dysymtab_command);
    ++count;
  }

  // If main executable add LC_LOAD_DYLINKER
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_EXECUTE) {
    size += pointerAlign(sizeof(dylinker_command) + dyldPath().size()+1);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_VERSION_MIN_MACOSX, LC_VERSION_MIN_IPHONEOS, LC_VERSION_MIN_WATCHOS,
  // LC_VERSION_MIN_TVOS
  if (_file.hasMinVersionLoadCommand) {
    size += sizeof(version_min_command);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_SOURCE_VERSION
  size += sizeof(source_version_command);
  ++count;

  // If main executable add LC_MAIN
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_EXECUTE) {
    size += sizeof(entry_point_command);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_LOAD_DYLIB for each dependent dylib.
  for (const DependentDylib &dep : _file.dependentDylibs) {
    size += sizeof(dylib_command) + pointerAlign(dep.path.size()+1);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_RPATH
  for (const StringRef &path : _file.rpaths) {
    size += pointerAlign(sizeof(rpath_command) + path.size() + 1);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_FUNCTION_STARTS if needed
  if (!_file.functionStarts.empty() || alwaysIncludeFunctionStarts) {
    size += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
    ++count;
  }

  // Add LC_DATA_IN_CODE if requested.  Note, we do encode zero length entries.
  // FIXME: Zero length entries is only to match ld64.  Should we change this?
  if (_file.generateDataInCodeLoadCommand) {
    size += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
    ++count;
  }

  return size;
}

static bool overlaps(const Segment &s1, const Segment &s2) {
  if (s2.address >= s1.address+s1.size)
    return false;
  if (s1.address >= s2.address+s2.size)
    return false;
  return true;
}

static bool overlaps(const Section &s1, const Section &s2) {
  if (s2.address >= s1.address+s1.content.size())
    return false;
  if (s1.address >= s2.address+s2.content.size())
    return false;
  return true;
}

void MachOFileLayout::buildFileOffsets() {
  // Verify no segments overlap
  for (const Segment &sg1 : _file.segments) {
    for (const Segment &sg2 : _file.segments) {
      if (&sg1 == &sg2)
        continue;
      if (overlaps(sg1,sg2)) {
        _ec = make_error_code(llvm::errc::executable_format_error);
        return;
      }
    }
  }

  // Verify no sections overlap
  for (const Section &s1 : _file.sections) {
    for (const Section &s2 : _file.sections) {
      if (&s1 == &s2)
        continue;
      if (overlaps(s1,s2)) {
        _ec = make_error_code(llvm::errc::executable_format_error);
        return;
      }
    }
  }

  // Build side table of extra info about segments and sections.
  SegExtraInfo t;
  t.fileOffset = 0;
  for (const Segment &sg : _file.segments) {
    _segInfo[&sg] = t;
  }
  SectionExtraInfo t2;
  t2.fileOffset = 0;
  // Assign sections to segments.
  for (const Section &s : _file.sections) {
    _sectInfo[&s] = t2;
    bool foundSegment = false;
    for (const Segment &sg : _file.segments) {
      if (sg.name.equals(s.segmentName)) {
        if ((s.address >= sg.address)
                        && (s.address+s.content.size() <= sg.address+sg.size)) {
          _segInfo[&sg].sections.push_back(&s);
          foundSegment = true;
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    if (!foundSegment) {
      _ec = make_error_code(llvm::errc::executable_format_error);
      return;
    }
  }

  // Assign file offsets.
  uint32_t fileOffset = 0;
  DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("MachOFileLayout",
                  llvm::dbgs() << "buildFileOffsets()\n");
  for (const Segment &sg : _file.segments) {
    _segInfo[&sg].fileOffset = fileOffset;
    if ((_seg1addr == INT64_MAX) && sg.init_access)
      _seg1addr = sg.address;
    DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("MachOFileLayout",
                  llvm::dbgs() << "  segment=" << sg.name
                  << ", fileOffset=" << _segInfo[&sg].fileOffset << "\n");

    uint32_t segFileSize = 0;
    // A segment that is not zero-fill must use a least one page of disk space.
    if (sg.init_access)
      segFileSize = _file.pageSize;
    for (const Section *s : _segInfo[&sg].sections) {
      uint32_t sectOffset = s->address - sg.address;
      uint32_t sectFileSize =
        isZeroFillSection(s->type) ? 0 : s->content.size();
      segFileSize = std::max(segFileSize, sectOffset + sectFileSize);

      _sectInfo[s].fileOffset = _segInfo[&sg].fileOffset + sectOffset;
      DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("MachOFileLayout",
                  llvm::dbgs() << "    section=" << s->sectionName
                  << ", fileOffset=" << fileOffset << "\n");
    }

    // round up all segments to page aligned, except __LINKEDIT
    if (!sg.name.equals("__LINKEDIT")) {
      _segInfo[&sg].fileSize = llvm::alignTo(segFileSize, _file.pageSize);
      fileOffset = llvm::alignTo(fileOffset + segFileSize, _file.pageSize);
    }
    _addressOfLinkEdit = sg.address + sg.size;
  }
  _startOfLinkEdit = fileOffset;
}

size_t MachOFileLayout::size() const {
  return _endOfSymbolStrings;
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeMachHeader() {
  auto cpusubtype = MachOLinkingContext::cpuSubtypeFromArch(_file.arch);
  // dynamic x86 executables on newer OS version should also set the
  // CPU_SUBTYPE_LIB64 mask in the CPU subtype.
  // FIXME: Check that this is a dynamic executable, not a static one.
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_EXECUTE &&
      cpusubtype == CPU_SUBTYPE_X86_64_ALL &&
      _file.os == MachOLinkingContext::OS::macOSX) {
    uint32_t version;
    bool failed = MachOLinkingContext::parsePackedVersion("10.5", version);
    if (!failed && _file.minOSverson >= version)
      cpusubtype |= CPU_SUBTYPE_LIB64;
  }

  mach_header *mh = reinterpret_cast<mach_header*>(_buffer);
  mh->magic = _is64 ? llvm::MachO::MH_MAGIC_64 : llvm::MachO::MH_MAGIC;
  mh->cputype =  MachOLinkingContext::cpuTypeFromArch(_file.arch);
  mh->cpusubtype = cpusubtype;
  mh->filetype = _file.fileType;
  mh->ncmds = _countOfLoadCommands;
  mh->sizeofcmds = _endOfLoadCommands - _startOfLoadCommands;
  mh->flags = _file.flags;
  if (_swap)
    swapStruct(*mh);
}

uint32_t MachOFileLayout::indirectSymbolIndex(const Section &sect,
                                                   uint32_t &index) {
  if (sect.indirectSymbols.empty())
    return 0;
  uint32_t result = index;
  index += sect.indirectSymbols.size();
  return result;
}

uint32_t MachOFileLayout::indirectSymbolElementSize(const Section &sect) {
  if (sect.indirectSymbols.empty())
    return 0;
  if (sect.type != S_SYMBOL_STUBS)
    return 0;
  return sect.content.size() / sect.indirectSymbols.size();
}

template <typename T>
llvm::Error MachOFileLayout::writeSingleSegmentLoadCommand(uint8_t *&lc) {
  typename T::command* seg = reinterpret_cast<typename T::command*>(lc);
  seg->cmd = T::LC;
  seg->cmdsize = sizeof(typename T::command)
                          + _file.sections.size() * sizeof(typename T::section);
  uint8_t *next = lc + seg->cmdsize;
  memset(seg->segname, 0, 16);
  seg->vmaddr = 0;
  seg->vmsize = _file.sections.back().address
              + _file.sections.back().content.size();
  seg->fileoff = _endOfLoadCommands;
  seg->filesize = _sectInfo[&_file.sections.back()].fileOffset +
                  _file.sections.back().content.size() -
                  _sectInfo[&_file.sections.front()].fileOffset;
  seg->maxprot = VM_PROT_READ|VM_PROT_WRITE|VM_PROT_EXECUTE;
  seg->initprot = VM_PROT_READ|VM_PROT_WRITE|VM_PROT_EXECUTE;
  seg->nsects = _file.sections.size();
  seg->flags = 0;
  if (_swap)
    swapStruct(*seg);
  typename T::section *sout = reinterpret_cast<typename T::section*>
                                              (lc+sizeof(typename T::command));
  uint32_t relOffset = _startOfRelocations;
  uint32_t indirectSymRunningIndex = 0;
  for (const Section &sin : _file.sections) {
    setString16(sin.sectionName, sout->sectname);
    setString16(sin.segmentName, sout->segname);
    sout->addr = sin.address;
    sout->size = sin.content.size();
    sout->offset = _sectInfo[&sin].fileOffset;
    sout->align = llvm::Log2_32(sin.alignment);
    sout->reloff = sin.relocations.empty() ? 0 : relOffset;
    sout->nreloc = sin.relocations.size();
    sout->flags = sin.type | sin.attributes;
    sout->reserved1 = indirectSymbolIndex(sin, indirectSymRunningIndex);
    sout->reserved2 = indirectSymbolElementSize(sin);
    relOffset += sin.relocations.size() * sizeof(any_relocation_info);
    if (_swap)
      swapStruct(*sout);
    ++sout;
  }
  lc = next;
  return llvm::Error::success();
}

template <typename T>
llvm::Error MachOFileLayout::writeSegmentLoadCommands(uint8_t *&lc) {
  uint32_t indirectSymRunningIndex = 0;
  for (const Segment &seg : _file.segments) {
    // Link edit has no sections and a custom range of address, so handle it
    // specially.
    SegExtraInfo &segInfo = _segInfo[&seg];
    if (seg.name.equals("__LINKEDIT")) {
      size_t linkeditSize = _endOfLinkEdit - _startOfLinkEdit;
      typename T::command* cmd = reinterpret_cast<typename T::command*>(lc);
      cmd->cmd = T::LC;
      cmd->cmdsize = sizeof(typename T::command);
      uint8_t *next = lc + cmd->cmdsize;
      setString16("__LINKEDIT", cmd->segname);
      cmd->vmaddr   = _addressOfLinkEdit;
      cmd->vmsize   = llvm::alignTo(linkeditSize, _file.pageSize);
      cmd->fileoff  = _startOfLinkEdit;
      cmd->filesize = linkeditSize;
      cmd->initprot = seg.init_access;
      cmd->maxprot  = seg.max_access;
      cmd->nsects   = 0;
      cmd->flags    = 0;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*cmd);
      lc = next;
      continue;
    }
    // Write segment command with trailing sections.
    typename T::command* cmd = reinterpret_cast<typename T::command*>(lc);
    cmd->cmd = T::LC;
    cmd->cmdsize = sizeof(typename T::command)
                        + segInfo.sections.size() * sizeof(typename T::section);
    uint8_t *next = lc + cmd->cmdsize;
    setString16(seg.name, cmd->segname);
    cmd->vmaddr   = seg.address;
    cmd->vmsize   = seg.size;
    cmd->fileoff  = segInfo.fileOffset;
    cmd->filesize = segInfo.fileSize;
    cmd->initprot = seg.init_access;
    cmd->maxprot  = seg.max_access;
    cmd->nsects   = segInfo.sections.size();
    cmd->flags    = 0;
    if (_swap)
      swapStruct(*cmd);
    typename T::section *sect = reinterpret_cast<typename T::section*>
                                               (lc+sizeof(typename T::command));
    for (const Section *section : segInfo.sections) {
      setString16(section->sectionName, sect->sectname);
      setString16(section->segmentName, sect->segname);
      sect->addr      = section->address;
      sect->size      = section->content.size();
      if (isZeroFillSection(section->type))
        sect->offset  = 0;
      else
        sect->offset  = section->address - seg.address + segInfo.fileOffset;
      sect->align     = llvm::Log2_32(section->alignment);
      sect->reloff    = 0;
      sect->nreloc    = 0;
      sect->flags     = section->type | section->attributes;
      sect->reserved1 = indirectSymbolIndex(*section, indirectSymRunningIndex);
      sect->reserved2 = indirectSymbolElementSize(*section);
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*sect);
      ++sect;
    }
    lc = reinterpret_cast<uint8_t*>(next);
  }
  return llvm::Error::success();
}

static void writeVersionMinLoadCommand(const NormalizedFile &_file,
                                       bool _swap,
                                       uint8_t *&lc) {
  if (!_file.hasMinVersionLoadCommand)
    return;
  version_min_command *vm = reinterpret_cast<version_min_command*>(lc);
  switch (_file.os) {
    case MachOLinkingContext::OS::unknown:
      vm->cmd     = _file.minOSVersionKind;
      vm->cmdsize = sizeof(version_min_command);
      vm->version = _file.minOSverson;
      vm->sdk     = 0;
      break;
    case MachOLinkingContext::OS::macOSX:
      vm->cmd     = LC_VERSION_MIN_MACOSX;
      vm->cmdsize = sizeof(version_min_command);
      vm->version = _file.minOSverson;
      vm->sdk     = _file.sdkVersion;
      break;
    case MachOLinkingContext::OS::iOS:
    case MachOLinkingContext::OS::iOS_simulator:
      vm->cmd     = LC_VERSION_MIN_IPHONEOS;
      vm->cmdsize = sizeof(version_min_command);
      vm->version = _file.minOSverson;
      vm->sdk     = _file.sdkVersion;
      break;
  }
  if (_swap)
    swapStruct(*vm);
  lc += sizeof(version_min_command);
}

llvm::Error MachOFileLayout::writeLoadCommands() {
  uint8_t *lc = &_buffer[_startOfLoadCommands];
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_OBJECT) {
    // Object files have one unnamed segment which holds all sections.
    if (_is64) {
     if (auto ec = writeSingleSegmentLoadCommand<MachO64Trait>(lc))
       return ec;
    } else {
      if (auto ec = writeSingleSegmentLoadCommand<MachO32Trait>(lc))
        return ec;
    }
    // Add LC_SYMTAB with symbol table info
    symtab_command* st = reinterpret_cast<symtab_command*>(lc);
    st->cmd     = LC_SYMTAB;
    st->cmdsize = sizeof(symtab_command);
    st->symoff  = _startOfSymbols;
    st->nsyms   = _file.stabsSymbols.size() + _file.localSymbols.size() +
                  _file.globalSymbols.size() + _file.undefinedSymbols.size();
    st->stroff  = _startOfSymbolStrings;
    st->strsize = _endOfSymbolStrings - _startOfSymbolStrings;
    if (_swap)
      swapStruct(*st);
    lc += sizeof(symtab_command);

    // Add LC_VERSION_MIN_MACOSX, LC_VERSION_MIN_IPHONEOS,
    // LC_VERSION_MIN_WATCHOS, LC_VERSION_MIN_TVOS
    writeVersionMinLoadCommand(_file, _swap, lc);

    // Add LC_FUNCTION_STARTS if needed.
    if (_functionStartsSize != 0) {
      linkedit_data_command* dl = reinterpret_cast<linkedit_data_command*>(lc);
      dl->cmd      = LC_FUNCTION_STARTS;
      dl->cmdsize  = sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
      dl->dataoff  = _startOfFunctionStarts;
      dl->datasize = _functionStartsSize;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dl);
      lc += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
    }

    // Add LC_DATA_IN_CODE if requested.
    if (_file.generateDataInCodeLoadCommand) {
      linkedit_data_command* dl = reinterpret_cast<linkedit_data_command*>(lc);
      dl->cmd      = LC_DATA_IN_CODE;
      dl->cmdsize  = sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
      dl->dataoff  = _startOfDataInCode;
      dl->datasize = _dataInCodeSize;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dl);
      lc += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
    }
  } else {
    // Final linked images have sections under segments.
    if (_is64) {
      if (auto ec = writeSegmentLoadCommands<MachO64Trait>(lc))
        return ec;
    } else {
      if (auto ec = writeSegmentLoadCommands<MachO32Trait>(lc))
        return ec;
    }

    // Add LC_ID_DYLIB command for dynamic libraries.
    if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_DYLIB) {
      dylib_command *dc = reinterpret_cast<dylib_command*>(lc);
      StringRef path = _file.installName;
      uint32_t size = sizeof(dylib_command) + pointerAlign(path.size() + 1);
      dc->cmd                         = LC_ID_DYLIB;
      dc->cmdsize                     = size;
      dc->dylib.name                  = sizeof(dylib_command); // offset
      // needs to be some constant value different than the one in LC_LOAD_DYLIB
      dc->dylib.timestamp             = 1;
      dc->dylib.current_version       = _file.currentVersion;
      dc->dylib.compatibility_version = _file.compatVersion;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dc);
      memcpy(lc + sizeof(dylib_command), path.begin(), path.size());
      lc[sizeof(dylib_command) + path.size()] = '\0';
      lc += size;
    }

    // Add LC_DYLD_INFO_ONLY.
    dyld_info_command* di = reinterpret_cast<dyld_info_command*>(lc);
    di->cmd            = LC_DYLD_INFO_ONLY;
    di->cmdsize        = sizeof(dyld_info_command);
    di->rebase_off     = _rebaseInfo.size() ? _startOfRebaseInfo : 0;
    di->rebase_size    = _rebaseInfo.size();
    di->bind_off       = _bindingInfo.size() ? _startOfBindingInfo : 0;
    di->bind_size      = _bindingInfo.size();
    di->weak_bind_off  = 0;
    di->weak_bind_size = 0;
    di->lazy_bind_off  = _lazyBindingInfo.size() ? _startOfLazyBindingInfo : 0;
    di->lazy_bind_size = _lazyBindingInfo.size();
    di->export_off     = _exportTrie.size() ? _startOfExportTrie : 0;
    di->export_size    = _exportTrie.size();
    if (_swap)
      swapStruct(*di);
    lc += sizeof(dyld_info_command);

    // Add LC_SYMTAB with symbol table info.
    symtab_command* st = reinterpret_cast<symtab_command*>(lc);
    st->cmd     = LC_SYMTAB;
    st->cmdsize = sizeof(symtab_command);
    st->symoff  = _startOfSymbols;
    st->nsyms   = _file.stabsSymbols.size() + _file.localSymbols.size() +
                  _file.globalSymbols.size() + _file.undefinedSymbols.size();
    st->stroff  = _startOfSymbolStrings;
    st->strsize = _endOfSymbolStrings - _startOfSymbolStrings;
    if (_swap)
      swapStruct(*st);
    lc += sizeof(symtab_command);

    // Add LC_DYSYMTAB
    if (_file.fileType != llvm::MachO::MH_PRELOAD) {
      dysymtab_command* dst = reinterpret_cast<dysymtab_command*>(lc);
      dst->cmd            = LC_DYSYMTAB;
      dst->cmdsize        = sizeof(dysymtab_command);
      dst->ilocalsym      = _symbolTableLocalsStartIndex;
      dst->nlocalsym      = _file.stabsSymbols.size() +
                            _file.localSymbols.size();
      dst->iextdefsym     = _symbolTableGlobalsStartIndex;
      dst->nextdefsym     = _file.globalSymbols.size();
      dst->iundefsym      = _symbolTableUndefinesStartIndex;
      dst->nundefsym      = _file.undefinedSymbols.size();
      dst->tocoff         = 0;
      dst->ntoc           = 0;
      dst->modtaboff      = 0;
      dst->nmodtab        = 0;
      dst->extrefsymoff   = 0;
      dst->nextrefsyms    = 0;
      dst->indirectsymoff = _startOfIndirectSymbols;
      dst->nindirectsyms  = _indirectSymbolTableCount;
      dst->extreloff      = 0;
      dst->nextrel        = 0;
      dst->locreloff      = 0;
      dst->nlocrel        = 0;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dst);
      lc += sizeof(dysymtab_command);
    }

    // If main executable, add LC_LOAD_DYLINKER
    if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_EXECUTE) {
      // Build LC_LOAD_DYLINKER load command.
      uint32_t size=pointerAlign(sizeof(dylinker_command)+dyldPath().size()+1);
      dylinker_command* dl = reinterpret_cast<dylinker_command*>(lc);
      dl->cmd              = LC_LOAD_DYLINKER;
      dl->cmdsize          = size;
      dl->name             = sizeof(dylinker_command); // offset
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dl);
      memcpy(lc+sizeof(dylinker_command), dyldPath().data(), dyldPath().size());
      lc[sizeof(dylinker_command)+dyldPath().size()] = '\0';
      lc += size;
    }

    // Add LC_VERSION_MIN_MACOSX, LC_VERSION_MIN_IPHONEOS, LC_VERSION_MIN_WATCHOS,
    // LC_VERSION_MIN_TVOS
    writeVersionMinLoadCommand(_file, _swap, lc);

    // Add LC_SOURCE_VERSION
    {
      // Note, using a temporary here to appease UB as we may not be aligned
      // enough for a struct containing a uint64_t when emitting a 32-bit binary
      source_version_command sv;
      sv.cmd       = LC_SOURCE_VERSION;
      sv.cmdsize   = sizeof(source_version_command);
      sv.version   = _file.sourceVersion;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(sv);
      memcpy(lc, &sv, sizeof(source_version_command));
      lc += sizeof(source_version_command);
    }

    // If main executable, add LC_MAIN.
    if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_EXECUTE) {
      // Build LC_MAIN load command.
      // Note, using a temporary here to appease UB as we may not be aligned
      // enough for a struct containing a uint64_t when emitting a 32-bit binary
      entry_point_command ep;
      ep.cmd       = LC_MAIN;
      ep.cmdsize   = sizeof(entry_point_command);
      ep.entryoff  = _file.entryAddress - _seg1addr;
      ep.stacksize = _file.stackSize;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(ep);
      memcpy(lc, &ep, sizeof(entry_point_command));
      lc += sizeof(entry_point_command);
    }

    // Add LC_LOAD_DYLIB commands
    for (const DependentDylib &dep : _file.dependentDylibs) {
      dylib_command* dc = reinterpret_cast<dylib_command*>(lc);
      uint32_t size = sizeof(dylib_command) + pointerAlign(dep.path.size()+1);
      dc->cmd                         = dep.kind;
      dc->cmdsize                     = size;
      dc->dylib.name                  = sizeof(dylib_command); // offset
      // needs to be some constant value different than the one in LC_ID_DYLIB
      dc->dylib.timestamp             = 2;
      dc->dylib.current_version       = dep.currentVersion;
      dc->dylib.compatibility_version = dep.compatVersion;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dc);
      memcpy(lc+sizeof(dylib_command), dep.path.begin(), dep.path.size());
      lc[sizeof(dylib_command)+dep.path.size()] = '\0';
      lc += size;
    }

    // Add LC_RPATH
    for (const StringRef &path : _file.rpaths) {
      rpath_command *rpc = reinterpret_cast<rpath_command *>(lc);
      uint32_t size = pointerAlign(sizeof(rpath_command) + path.size() + 1);
      rpc->cmd                         = LC_RPATH;
      rpc->cmdsize                     = size;
      rpc->path                        = sizeof(rpath_command); // offset
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*rpc);
      memcpy(lc+sizeof(rpath_command), path.begin(), path.size());
      lc[sizeof(rpath_command)+path.size()] = '\0';
      lc += size;
    }

    // Add LC_FUNCTION_STARTS if needed.
    if (_functionStartsSize != 0) {
      linkedit_data_command* dl = reinterpret_cast<linkedit_data_command*>(lc);
      dl->cmd      = LC_FUNCTION_STARTS;
      dl->cmdsize  = sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
      dl->dataoff  = _startOfFunctionStarts;
      dl->datasize = _functionStartsSize;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dl);
      lc += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
    }

    // Add LC_DATA_IN_CODE if requested.
    if (_file.generateDataInCodeLoadCommand) {
      linkedit_data_command* dl = reinterpret_cast<linkedit_data_command*>(lc);
      dl->cmd      = LC_DATA_IN_CODE;
      dl->cmdsize  = sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
      dl->dataoff  = _startOfDataInCode;
      dl->datasize = _dataInCodeSize;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*dl);
      lc += sizeof(linkedit_data_command);
    }
  }
  assert(lc == &_buffer[_endOfLoadCommands]);
  return llvm::Error::success();
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeSectionContent() {
  for (const Section &s : _file.sections) {
    // Copy all section content to output buffer.
    if (isZeroFillSection(s.type))
      continue;
    if (s.content.empty())
      continue;
    uint32_t offset = _sectInfo[&s].fileOffset;
    assert(offset >= _endOfLoadCommands);
    uint8_t *p = &_buffer[offset];
    memcpy(p, &s.content[0], s.content.size());
    p += s.content.size();
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeRelocations() {
  uint32_t relOffset = _startOfRelocations;
  for (Section sect : _file.sections) {
    for (Relocation r : sect.relocations) {
      any_relocation_info* rb = reinterpret_cast<any_relocation_info*>(
                                                           &_buffer[relOffset]);
      *rb = packRelocation(r, _swap, _bigEndianArch);
      relOffset += sizeof(any_relocation_info);
    }
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::appendSymbols(const std::vector<Symbol> &symbols,
                                   uint32_t &symOffset, uint32_t &strOffset) {
  for (const Symbol &sym : symbols) {
    if (_is64) {
      nlist_64* nb = reinterpret_cast<nlist_64*>(&_buffer[symOffset]);
      nb->n_strx = strOffset - _startOfSymbolStrings;
      nb->n_type = sym.type | sym.scope;
      nb->n_sect = sym.sect;
      nb->n_desc = sym.desc;
      nb->n_value = sym.value;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*nb);
      symOffset += sizeof(nlist_64);
    } else {
      nlist* nb = reinterpret_cast<nlist*>(&_buffer[symOffset]);
      nb->n_strx = strOffset - _startOfSymbolStrings;
      nb->n_type = sym.type | sym.scope;
      nb->n_sect = sym.sect;
      nb->n_desc = sym.desc;
      nb->n_value = sym.value;
      if (_swap)
        swapStruct(*nb);
      symOffset += sizeof(nlist);
    }
    memcpy(&_buffer[strOffset], sym.name.begin(), sym.name.size());
    strOffset += sym.name.size();
    _buffer[strOffset++] ='\0'; // Strings in table have nul terminator.
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeFunctionStartsInfo() {
  if (!_functionStartsSize)
    return;
  memcpy(&_buffer[_startOfFunctionStarts], _file.functionStarts.data(),
         _functionStartsSize);
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeDataInCodeInfo() {
  uint32_t offset = _startOfDataInCode;
  for (const DataInCode &entry : _file.dataInCode) {
    data_in_code_entry *dst = reinterpret_cast<data_in_code_entry*>(
                                                             &_buffer[offset]);
    dst->offset = entry.offset;
    dst->length = entry.length;
    dst->kind   = entry.kind;
    if (_swap)
      swapStruct(*dst);
    offset += sizeof(data_in_code_entry);
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeSymbolTable() {
  // Write symbol table and symbol strings in parallel.
  uint32_t symOffset = _startOfSymbols;
  uint32_t strOffset = _startOfSymbolStrings;
  // Reserve n_strx offset of zero to mean no name.
  _buffer[strOffset++] = ' ';
  _buffer[strOffset++] = '\0';
  appendSymbols(_file.stabsSymbols, symOffset, strOffset);
  appendSymbols(_file.localSymbols, symOffset, strOffset);
  appendSymbols(_file.globalSymbols, symOffset, strOffset);
  appendSymbols(_file.undefinedSymbols, symOffset, strOffset);
  // Write indirect symbol table array.
  uint32_t *indirects = reinterpret_cast<uint32_t*>
                                            (&_buffer[_startOfIndirectSymbols]);
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_OBJECT) {
    // Object files have sections in same order as input normalized file.
    for (const Section &section : _file.sections) {
      for (uint32_t index : section.indirectSymbols) {
        if (_swap)
          *indirects++ = llvm::sys::getSwappedBytes(index);
        else
          *indirects++ = index;
      }
    }
  } else {
    // Final linked images must sort sections from normalized file.
    for (const Segment &seg : _file.segments) {
      SegExtraInfo &segInfo = _segInfo[&seg];
      for (const Section *section : segInfo.sections) {
        for (uint32_t index : section->indirectSymbols) {
          if (_swap)
            *indirects++ = llvm::sys::getSwappedBytes(index);
          else
            *indirects++ = index;
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeRebaseInfo() {
  memcpy(&_buffer[_startOfRebaseInfo], _rebaseInfo.bytes(), _rebaseInfo.size());
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeBindingInfo() {
  memcpy(&_buffer[_startOfBindingInfo],
                                    _bindingInfo.bytes(), _bindingInfo.size());
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeLazyBindingInfo() {
  memcpy(&_buffer[_startOfLazyBindingInfo],
                            _lazyBindingInfo.bytes(), _lazyBindingInfo.size());
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeExportInfo() {
  memcpy(&_buffer[_startOfExportTrie], _exportTrie.bytes(), _exportTrie.size());
}

void MachOFileLayout::buildLinkEditInfo() {
  buildRebaseInfo();
  buildBindInfo();
  buildLazyBindInfo();
  buildExportTrie();
  computeSymbolTableSizes();
  computeFunctionStartsSize();
  computeDataInCodeSize();
}

void MachOFileLayout::buildSectionRelocations() {

}

void MachOFileLayout::buildRebaseInfo() {
  // TODO: compress rebasing info.
  for (const RebaseLocation& entry : _file.rebasingInfo) {
    _rebaseInfo.append_byte(REBASE_OPCODE_SET_TYPE_IMM | entry.kind);
    _rebaseInfo.append_byte(REBASE_OPCODE_SET_SEGMENT_AND_OFFSET_ULEB
                            | entry.segIndex);
    _rebaseInfo.append_uleb128(entry.segOffset);
    _rebaseInfo.append_uleb128(REBASE_OPCODE_DO_REBASE_IMM_TIMES | 1);
  }
  _rebaseInfo.append_byte(REBASE_OPCODE_DONE);
  _rebaseInfo.align(_is64 ? 8 : 4);
}

void MachOFileLayout::buildBindInfo() {
  // TODO: compress bind info.
  uint64_t lastAddend = 0;
  int lastOrdinal = 0x80000000;
  StringRef lastSymbolName;
  BindType lastType = (BindType)0;
  Hex32 lastSegOffset = ~0U;
  uint8_t lastSegIndex = (uint8_t)~0U;
  for (const BindLocation& entry : _file.bindingInfo) {
    if (entry.ordinal != lastOrdinal) {
      if (entry.ordinal <= 0)
        _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_SPECIAL_IMM |
                                 (entry.ordinal & BIND_IMMEDIATE_MASK));
      else if (entry.ordinal <= BIND_IMMEDIATE_MASK)
        _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_ORDINAL_IMM |
                                 entry.ordinal);
      else {
        _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_ORDINAL_ULEB);
        _bindingInfo.append_uleb128(entry.ordinal);
      }
      lastOrdinal = entry.ordinal;
    }

    if (lastSymbolName != entry.symbolName) {
      _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_SYMBOL_TRAILING_FLAGS_IMM);
      _bindingInfo.append_string(entry.symbolName);
      lastSymbolName = entry.symbolName;
    }

    if (lastType != entry.kind) {
      _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_TYPE_IMM | entry.kind);
      lastType = entry.kind;
    }

    if (lastSegIndex != entry.segIndex || lastSegOffset != entry.segOffset) {
      _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_SEGMENT_AND_OFFSET_ULEB
                               | entry.segIndex);
      _bindingInfo.append_uleb128(entry.segOffset);
      lastSegIndex = entry.segIndex;
      lastSegOffset = entry.segOffset;
    }
    if (entry.addend != lastAddend) {
      _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_ADDEND_SLEB);
      _bindingInfo.append_sleb128(entry.addend);
      lastAddend = entry.addend;
    }
    _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_DO_BIND);
  }
  _bindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_DONE);
  _bindingInfo.align(_is64 ? 8 : 4);
}

void MachOFileLayout::buildLazyBindInfo() {
  for (const BindLocation& entry : _file.lazyBindingInfo) {
    _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_SEGMENT_AND_OFFSET_ULEB
                            | entry.segIndex);
    _lazyBindingInfo.append_uleb128(entry.segOffset);
    if (entry.ordinal <= 0)
      _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_SPECIAL_IMM |
                                   (entry.ordinal & BIND_IMMEDIATE_MASK));
    else if (entry.ordinal <= BIND_IMMEDIATE_MASK)
      _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_ORDINAL_IMM |
                                   entry.ordinal);
    else {
      _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_ORDINAL_ULEB);
      _lazyBindingInfo.append_uleb128(entry.ordinal);
    }
    // FIXME: We need to | the opcode here with flags.
    _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_SET_SYMBOL_TRAILING_FLAGS_IMM);
    _lazyBindingInfo.append_string(entry.symbolName);
    _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_DO_BIND);
    _lazyBindingInfo.append_byte(BIND_OPCODE_DONE);
  }
  _lazyBindingInfo.align(_is64 ? 8 : 4);
}

void TrieNode::addSymbol(const Export& entry,
                         BumpPtrAllocator &allocator,
                         std::vector<TrieNode*> &allNodes) {
  StringRef partialStr = entry.name.drop_front(_cummulativeString.size());
  for (TrieEdge &edge : _children) {
    StringRef edgeStr = edge._subString;
    if (partialStr.startswith(edgeStr)) {
      // Already have matching edge, go down that path.
      edge._child->addSymbol(entry, allocator, allNodes);
      return;
    }
    // See if string has commmon prefix with existing edge.
    for (int n=edgeStr.size()-1; n > 0; --n) {
      if (partialStr.substr(0, n).equals(edgeStr.substr(0, n))) {
        // Splice in new node:  was A -> C,  now A -> B -> C
        StringRef bNodeStr = edge._child->_cummulativeString;
        bNodeStr = bNodeStr.drop_back(edgeStr.size()-n).copy(allocator);
        auto *bNode = new (allocator) TrieNode(bNodeStr);
        allNodes.push_back(bNode);
        TrieNode* cNode = edge._child;
        StringRef abEdgeStr = edgeStr.substr(0,n).copy(allocator);
        StringRef bcEdgeStr = edgeStr.substr(n).copy(allocator);
        DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("trie-builder", llvm::dbgs()
                        << "splice in TrieNode('" << bNodeStr
                        << "') between edge '"
                        << abEdgeStr << "' and edge='"
                        << bcEdgeStr<< "'\n");
        TrieEdge& abEdge = edge;
        abEdge._subString = abEdgeStr;
        abEdge._child = bNode;
        auto *bcEdge = new (allocator) TrieEdge(bcEdgeStr, cNode);
        bNode->_children.insert(bNode->_children.end(), bcEdge);
        bNode->addSymbol(entry, allocator, allNodes);
        return;
      }
    }
  }
  if (entry.flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_REEXPORT) {
    assert(entry.otherOffset != 0);
  }
  if (entry.flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_STUB_AND_RESOLVER) {
    assert(entry.otherOffset != 0);
  }
  // No commonality with any existing child, make a new edge.
  auto *newNode = new (allocator) TrieNode(entry.name.copy(allocator));
  auto *newEdge = new (allocator) TrieEdge(partialStr, newNode);
  _children.insert(_children.end(), newEdge);
  DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("trie-builder", llvm::dbgs()
                   << "new TrieNode('" << entry.name << "') with edge '"
                   << partialStr << "' from node='"
                   << _cummulativeString << "'\n");
  newNode->_address = entry.offset;
  newNode->_flags = entry.flags | entry.kind;
  newNode->_other = entry.otherOffset;
  if ((entry.flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_REEXPORT) && !entry.otherName.empty())
    newNode->_importedName = entry.otherName.copy(allocator);
  newNode->_hasExportInfo = true;
  allNodes.push_back(newNode);
}

void TrieNode::addOrderedNodes(const Export& entry,
                               std::vector<TrieNode*> &orderedNodes) {
  if (!_ordered) {
    orderedNodes.push_back(this);
    _ordered = true;
  }

  StringRef partialStr = entry.name.drop_front(_cummulativeString.size());
  for (TrieEdge &edge : _children) {
    StringRef edgeStr = edge._subString;
    if (partialStr.startswith(edgeStr)) {
      // Already have matching edge, go down that path.
      edge._child->addOrderedNodes(entry, orderedNodes);
      return;
    }
  }
}

bool TrieNode::updateOffset(uint32_t& offset) {
  uint32_t nodeSize = 1; // Length when no export info
  if (_hasExportInfo) {
    if (_flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_REEXPORT) {
      nodeSize = llvm::getULEB128Size(_flags);
      nodeSize += llvm::getULEB128Size(_other); // Other contains ordinal.
      nodeSize += _importedName.size();
      ++nodeSize; // Trailing zero in imported name.
    } else {
      nodeSize = llvm::getULEB128Size(_flags) + llvm::getULEB128Size(_address);
      if (_flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_STUB_AND_RESOLVER)
        nodeSize += llvm::getULEB128Size(_other);
    }
    // Overall node size so far is uleb128 of export info + actual export info.
    nodeSize += llvm::getULEB128Size(nodeSize);
  }
  // Compute size of all child edges.
  ++nodeSize; // Byte for number of chidren.
  for (TrieEdge &edge : _children) {
    nodeSize += edge._subString.size() + 1 // String length.
              + llvm::getULEB128Size(edge._child->_trieOffset); // Offset len.
  }
  // On input, 'offset' is new prefered location for this node.
  bool result = (_trieOffset != offset);
  // Store new location in node object for use by parents.
  _trieOffset = offset;
  // Update offset for next iteration.
  offset += nodeSize;
  // Return true if _trieOffset was changed.
  return result;
}

void TrieNode::appendToByteBuffer(ByteBuffer &out) {
  if (_hasExportInfo) {
    if (_flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_REEXPORT) {
      if (!_importedName.empty()) {
        // nodes with re-export info: size, flags, ordinal, import-name
        uint32_t nodeSize = llvm::getULEB128Size(_flags)
                          + llvm::getULEB128Size(_other)
                          + _importedName.size() + 1;
        assert(nodeSize < 256);
        out.append_byte(nodeSize);
        out.append_uleb128(_flags);
        out.append_uleb128(_other);
        out.append_string(_importedName);
      } else {
        // nodes without re-export info: size, flags, ordinal, empty-string
        uint32_t nodeSize = llvm::getULEB128Size(_flags)
                          + llvm::getULEB128Size(_other) + 1;
        assert(nodeSize < 256);
        out.append_byte(nodeSize);
        out.append_uleb128(_flags);
        out.append_uleb128(_other);
        out.append_byte(0);
      }
    } else if ( _flags & EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_STUB_AND_RESOLVER ) {
      // Nodes with export info: size, flags, address, other
      uint32_t nodeSize = llvm::getULEB128Size(_flags)
                        + llvm::getULEB128Size(_address)
                        + llvm::getULEB128Size(_other);
      assert(nodeSize < 256);
      out.append_byte(nodeSize);
      out.append_uleb128(_flags);
      out.append_uleb128(_address);
      out.append_uleb128(_other);
    } else {
      // Nodes with export info: size, flags, address
      uint32_t nodeSize = llvm::getULEB128Size(_flags)
                        + llvm::getULEB128Size(_address);
      assert(nodeSize < 256);
      out.append_byte(nodeSize);
      out.append_uleb128(_flags);
      out.append_uleb128(_address);
    }
  } else {
    // Node with no export info.
    uint32_t nodeSize = 0;
    out.append_byte(nodeSize);
  }
  // Add number of children.
  assert(_children.size() < 256);
  out.append_byte(_children.size());
  // Append each child edge substring and node offset.
  for (TrieEdge &edge : _children) {
    out.append_string(edge._subString);
    out.append_uleb128(edge._child->_trieOffset);
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::buildExportTrie() {
  if (_file.exportInfo.empty())
    return;

  // For all temporary strings and objects used building trie.
  BumpPtrAllocator allocator;

  // Build trie of all exported symbols.
  auto *rootNode = new (allocator) TrieNode(StringRef());
  std::vector<TrieNode*> allNodes;
  allNodes.reserve(_file.exportInfo.size()*2);
  allNodes.push_back(rootNode);
  for (const Export& entry : _file.exportInfo) {
    rootNode->addSymbol(entry, allocator, allNodes);
  }

  std::vector<TrieNode*> orderedNodes;
  orderedNodes.reserve(allNodes.size());

  for (const Export& entry : _file.exportInfo)
    rootNode->addOrderedNodes(entry, orderedNodes);

  // Assign each node in the vector an offset in the trie stream, iterating
  // until all uleb128 sizes have stabilized.
  bool more;
  do {
    uint32_t offset = 0;
    more = false;
    for (TrieNode* node : orderedNodes) {
      if (node->updateOffset(offset))
        more = true;
    }
  } while (more);

  // Serialize trie to ByteBuffer.
  for (TrieNode* node : orderedNodes) {
    node->appendToByteBuffer(_exportTrie);
  }
  _exportTrie.align(_is64 ? 8 : 4);
}

void MachOFileLayout::computeSymbolTableSizes() {
  // MachO symbol tables have three ranges: locals, globals, and undefines
  const size_t nlistSize = (_is64 ? sizeof(nlist_64) : sizeof(nlist));
  _symbolTableSize = nlistSize * (_file.stabsSymbols.size()
                                + _file.localSymbols.size()
                                + _file.globalSymbols.size()
                                + _file.undefinedSymbols.size());
  // Always reserve 1-byte for the empty string and 1-byte for its terminator.
  _symbolStringPoolSize = 2;
  for (const Symbol &sym : _file.stabsSymbols) {
    _symbolStringPoolSize += (sym.name.size()+1);
  }
  for (const Symbol &sym : _file.localSymbols) {
    _symbolStringPoolSize += (sym.name.size()+1);
  }
  for (const Symbol &sym : _file.globalSymbols) {
    _symbolStringPoolSize += (sym.name.size()+1);
  }
  for (const Symbol &sym : _file.undefinedSymbols) {
    _symbolStringPoolSize += (sym.name.size()+1);
  }
  _symbolTableLocalsStartIndex = 0;
  _symbolTableGlobalsStartIndex = _file.stabsSymbols.size() +
                                  _file.localSymbols.size();
  _symbolTableUndefinesStartIndex = _symbolTableGlobalsStartIndex
                                    + _file.globalSymbols.size();

  _indirectSymbolTableCount = 0;
  for (const Section &sect : _file.sections) {
    _indirectSymbolTableCount += sect.indirectSymbols.size();
  }
}

void MachOFileLayout::computeFunctionStartsSize() {
  _functionStartsSize = _file.functionStarts.size();
}

void MachOFileLayout::computeDataInCodeSize() {
  _dataInCodeSize = _file.dataInCode.size() * sizeof(data_in_code_entry);
}

void MachOFileLayout::writeLinkEditContent() {
  if (_file.fileType == llvm::MachO::MH_OBJECT) {
    writeRelocations();
    writeFunctionStartsInfo();
    writeDataInCodeInfo();
    writeSymbolTable();
  } else {
    writeRebaseInfo();
    writeBindingInfo();
    writeLazyBindingInfo();
    // TODO: add weak binding info
    writeExportInfo();
    writeFunctionStartsInfo();
    writeDataInCodeInfo();
    writeSymbolTable();
  }
}

llvm::Error MachOFileLayout::writeBinary(StringRef path) {
  // Check for pending error from constructor.
  if (_ec)
    return llvm::errorCodeToError(_ec);
  // Create FileOutputBuffer with calculated size.
  unsigned flags = 0;
  if (_file.fileType != llvm::MachO::MH_OBJECT)
    flags = llvm::FileOutputBuffer::F_executable;
  Expected<std::unique_ptr<llvm::FileOutputBuffer>> fobOrErr =
      llvm::FileOutputBuffer::create(path, size(), flags);
  if (Error E = fobOrErr.takeError())
    return E;
  std::unique_ptr<llvm::FileOutputBuffer> &fob = *fobOrErr;
  // Write content.
  _buffer = fob->getBufferStart();
  writeMachHeader();
  if (auto ec = writeLoadCommands())
    return ec;
  writeSectionContent();
  writeLinkEditContent();
  if (Error E = fob->commit())
    return E;

  return llvm::Error::success();
}

/// Takes in-memory normalized view and writes a mach-o object file.
llvm::Error writeBinary(const NormalizedFile &file, StringRef path) {
  MachOFileLayout layout(file, false);
  return layout.writeBinary(path);
}

} // namespace normalized
} // namespace mach_o
} // namespace lld