.\" Copyright (c) 1993 Paul Kranenburg
.\" All rights reserved.
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
.\" This product includes software developed by Paul Kranenburg.
.\" 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
.\" derived from this software without specific prior written permission
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
.\" OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
.\" IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
.\" INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
.\" NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
.\" DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
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.\" THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\" $Id: ld.1,v 1.7 1994/06/15 22:39:35 rich Exp $
.Dd October 14, 1993
.Dt LD 8
.Os FreeBSD 1.1
.Nd link editor
.Op Fl MNnrSstXxz
.Op Fl A Ar symbol-file
.Op Fl assert Ar keyword
.Op Fl B Ar linkmode
.Op Fl D Ar datasize
.Op Fl d Ar c
.Op Fl d Ar p
.Op Fl e Ar entry
.Op Fl l Ar library-specifier
.Op Fl L Ar library-search-path
.Op Fl o Ar filename
.Op Fl T Ar address
.Op Fl u Ar symbol
.Op Fl V Ar shlib-version
.Op Fl y Ar symbol
combines the object and archive files given on the command line into a new
object file. The output object file is either an executable program, a
shared object suitable for loading at run-time, or an object file that can
once again be processed by
Object files and archives are processed in the order given on the command line.
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl A Ar symbol-file
The the symbol-file is taken as a base for link-editing the object files
on the command line.
.It Fl a\&ssert Ar keyword
This option has currently no effect. It is here for compatibility with
SunOS ld. All conditions which would cause a Sun assertion to fail will
currently always cause error or warning messages from
.It Fl B Ar dynamic
Specifies that linking against dynamic libraries can take place. If a library
specifier of the form -lx appears on the command line,
searches for a library of the from libx.so.n.m (see the
option) according to the search rules in effect. If such a file can not be
found a traditional archive is looked for.
This options can appear anywhere on the command line and is complementary
.It Fl B Ar static
The counterpart of -Bdynamic. This option turns off dynamic linking for
all library specifiers until a -Bdynamic is once again given. Any explicitly
mentioned shared object encountered on the command line while this option is
in effect is flagged as an error.
.It Fl B Ar shareable
Instructs the linker to build a shared object from the object files rather
than a normal executable image.
.It Fl B Ar symbolic
This option causes all symbolic references in the output to be resolved in
this link-edit session. The only remaining run-time relocation requirements are
relocations, ie. translation with respect to the load address. Failure to
resolve any symbolic reference causes an error to be reported.
.It Fl B Ar forcearchive
Force all members of archives to be loaded, whether or not such members
contribute a definition to any plain object files. Useful for making a
shared library from an archive of PIC objects without having to unpack
.It Fl B Ar silly
silly archive companions of shared objects. Useful for compatibility with
version 3 shared objects.
.It Fl D Ar data-size
Set the size of the data segment. For sanity's sake, this should be larger
than the cumulative data sizes of the input files.
.It Fl d Ar c
Force allocation of commons even producing relocatable output.
.It Fl d Ar p
Force alias definitions of procedure calls in non-PIC code. Useful to
obtain shareable code in the presence of run-time relocations as such
calls will be re-directed through the Procedure Linkage Table (see
.Xr link 5)
.It Fl e Ar entry-symbol
Specifies the entry symbol for an executable.
.It Fl L Ar path
to the list of directories to search for libraries specified with the
.It Fl l Ar lib-spec
This option specifies a library to be considered for inclusion in the
output. If the -Bdynamic option is in effect, a shared library of the
form lib<spec>.so.m.n (where
is the major, and
is the minor version number, respectively) is searched for first. The
library with the highest version found in the search path is selected.
If no shared library is found or the -Bstatic options is in effect,
an archive of the form lib<spec>.a is looked for in the library seach path.
.It Fl M
Produce output about the mapping of segments of the input files and the
values assigned to (global) symbols in the output file.
.It Fl N
Produce a OMAGIC output file.
.It Fl n
Produce a NMAGIC output file.
.It Fl o Ar filename
Specifies the name of the output file. Defaults to
.It Fl Q
Make a BSD/386 / FreeBSD 1.1 output file. This is the default.
.It Fl r
Produce relocatable object file, suitable for another pass through
.It Fl S
Strip all debugger symbols from the output.
.It Fl s
Strip all symbols from the output.
.It Fl T
Specifies the start address of the text segment, with respect to which
all input files will be relocated.
.It Fl t
Leave a trace of the input files as they are processed.
.It Fl u Ar symbol
to be marked as undefined. Useful to force loading of an archive member
in the absence of any other references to that member.
.It Fl V Ar version
Put the given version number into the output shared library (if one is
created). Useful to make shared libaries compatible with other operating
systems. Eg. SunOS 4.x libraries use version number 3. Defaults to 8.
.It Fl X
Discard local symbols in the input files that start with the letter
.It Fl x
Discard all local symbols in the input files.
.It Fl y Ar symbol
Trace the manipulations inflicted on
.It Fl Z
Make a 386BSD ZMAGIC output file.
.It Fl z
Make a NetBSD 0.9 ZMAGIC output file.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr ldconfig 1 ,
.Xr link 5
An entry point must now explicitly be given if the output is intended to be
a normal executable program. This was not the case for the previous version of
Shared objects are not properly checked for undefined symbols.
Cascading of shared object defeats the
All shared objects presented to
are marked for run-time loading in the output file, even if no symbols
are needed from them.
The shared library model employed by
appeared first in SunOS 4.0