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=pod

=head1 NAME

ts - Time Stamping Authority tool (client/server)

=head1 SYNOPSIS

B<openssl> B<ts>
B<-query>
[B<-rand> file:file...]
[B<-config> configfile]
[B<-data> file_to_hash]
[B<-digest> digest_bytes]
[B<-md2>|B<-md4>|B<-md5>|B<-sha>|B<-sha1>|B<-mdc2>|B<-ripemd160>|B<...>]
[B<-policy> object_id]
[B<-no_nonce>]
[B<-cert>]
[B<-in> request.tsq]
[B<-out> request.tsq]
[B<-text>]

B<openssl> B<ts>
B<-reply>
[B<-config> configfile]
[B<-section> tsa_section]
[B<-queryfile> request.tsq]
[B<-passin> password_src]
[B<-signer> tsa_cert.pem]
[B<-inkey> private.pem]
[B<-chain> certs_file.pem]
[B<-policy> object_id]
[B<-in> response.tsr]
[B<-token_in>]
[B<-out> response.tsr]
[B<-token_out>]
[B<-text>]
[B<-engine> id]

B<openssl> B<ts>
B<-verify>
[B<-data> file_to_hash]
[B<-digest> digest_bytes]
[B<-queryfile> request.tsq]
[B<-in> response.tsr]
[B<-token_in>]
[B<-CApath> trusted_cert_path]
[B<-CAfile> trusted_certs.pem]
[B<-untrusted> cert_file.pem]

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The B<ts> command is a basic Time Stamping Authority (TSA) client and server
application as specified in RFC 3161 (Time-Stamp Protocol, TSP). A
TSA can be part of a PKI deployment and its role is to provide long
term proof of the existence of a certain datum before a particular
time. Here is a brief description of the protocol:

=over 4

=item 1.

The TSA client computes a one-way hash value for a data file and sends
the hash to the TSA.

=item 2.

The TSA attaches the current date and time to the received hash value,
signs them and sends the time stamp token back to the client. By
creating this token the TSA certifies the existence of the original
data file at the time of response generation.

=item 3.

The TSA client receives the time stamp token and verifies the
signature on it. It also checks if the token contains the same hash
value that it had sent to the TSA.

=back

There is one DER encoded protocol data unit defined for transporting a time
stamp request to the TSA and one for sending the time stamp response
back to the client. The B<ts> command has three main functions:
creating a time stamp request based on a data file,
creating a time stamp response based on a request, verifying if a
response corresponds to a particular request or a data file.

There is no support for sending the requests/responses automatically
over HTTP or TCP yet as suggested in RFC 3161. The users must send the
requests either by ftp or e-mail.

=head1 OPTIONS

=head2 Time Stamp Request generation

The B<-query> switch can be used for creating and printing a time stamp
request with the following options:

=over 4

=item B<-rand> file:file...

The files containing random data for seeding the random number
generator. Multiple files can be specified, the separator is B<;> for
MS-Windows, B<,> for VMS and B<:> for all other platforms. (Optional)

=item B<-config> configfile

The configuration file to use, this option overrides the
B<OPENSSL_CONF> environment variable. Only the OID section
of the config file is used with the B<-query> command. (Optional)

=item B<-data> file_to_hash

The data file for which the time stamp request needs to be
created. stdin is the default if neither the B<-data> nor the B<-digest>
parameter is specified. (Optional)

=item B<-digest> digest_bytes

It is possible to specify the message imprint explicitly without the data
file. The imprint must be specified in a hexadecimal format, two characters
per byte, the bytes optionally separated by colons (e.g. 1A:F6:01:... or
1AF601...). The number of bytes must match the message digest algorithm 
in use. (Optional)

=item B<-md2>|B<-md4>|B<-md5>|B<-sha>|B<-sha1>|B<-mdc2>|B<-ripemd160>|B<...>

The message digest to apply to the data file, it supports all the message
digest algorithms that are supported by the openssl B<dgst> command.
The default is SHA-1. (Optional)

=item B<-policy> object_id

The policy that the client expects the TSA to use for creating the
time stamp token. Either the dotted OID notation or OID names defined
in the config file can be used. If no policy is requested the TSA will
use its own default policy. (Optional)

=item B<-no_nonce>

No nonce is specified in the request if this option is
given. Otherwise a 64 bit long pseudo-random none is
included in the request. It is recommended to use nonce to
protect against replay-attacks. (Optional)

=item B<-cert>

The TSA is expected to include its signing certificate in the
response. (Optional)

=item B<-in> request.tsq

This option specifies a previously created time stamp request in DER
format that will be printed into the output file. Useful when you need
to examine the content of a request in human-readable

format. (Optional)

=item B<-out> request.tsq

Name of the output file to which the request will be written. Default
is stdout. (Optional)

=item B<-text>

If this option is specified the output is human-readable text format
instead of DER. (Optional)

=back

=head2 Time Stamp Response generation

A time stamp response (TimeStampResp) consists of a response status
and the time stamp token itself (ContentInfo), if the token generation was
successful. The B<-reply> command is for creating a time stamp
response or time stamp token based on a request and printing the
response/token in human-readable format. If B<-token_out> is not
specified the output is always a time stamp response (TimeStampResp),
otherwise it is a time stamp token (ContentInfo).

=over 4

=item B<-config> configfile

The configuration file to use, this option overrides the
B<OPENSSL_CONF> environment variable. See B<CONFIGURATION FILE
OPTIONS> for configurable variables. (Optional)

=item B<-section> tsa_section

The name of the config file section conatining the settings for the
response generation. If not specified the default TSA section is
used, see B<CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS> for details. (Optional)

=item B<-queryfile> request.tsq

The name of the file containing a DER encoded time stamp request. (Optional)

=item B<-passin> password_src

Specifies the password source for the private key of the TSA. See
B<PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS> in L<openssl(1)|openssl(1)>. (Optional)

=item B<-signer> tsa_cert.pem

The signer certificate of the TSA in PEM format. The TSA signing
certificate must have exactly one extended key usage assigned to it:
timeStamping. The extended key usage must also be critical, otherwise
the certificate is going to be refused. Overrides the B<signer_cert>
variable of the config file. (Optional)

=item B<-inkey> private.pem

The signer private key of the TSA in PEM format. Overrides the
B<signer_key> config file option. (Optional)

=item B<-chain> certs_file.pem

The collection of certificates in PEM format that will all
be included in the response in addition to the signer certificate if
the B<-cert> option was used for the request. This file is supposed to
contain the certificate chain for the signer certificate from its
issuer upwards. The B<-reply> command does not build a certificate
chain automatically. (Optional)

=item B<-policy> object_id

The default policy to use for the response unless the client
explicitly requires a particular TSA policy. The OID can be specified
either in dotted notation or with its name. Overrides the
B<default_policy> config file option. (Optional)

=item B<-in> response.tsr

Specifies a previously created time stamp response or time stamp token
(if B<-token_in> is also specified) in DER format that will be written
to the output file. This option does not require a request, it is
useful e.g. when you need to examine the content of a response or
token or you want to extract the time stamp token from a response. If
the input is a token and the output is a time stamp response a default
'granted' status info is added to the token. (Optional)

=item B<-token_in>

This flag can be used together with the B<-in> option and indicates
that the input is a DER encoded time stamp token (ContentInfo) instead
of a time stamp response (TimeStampResp). (Optional)

=item B<-out> response.tsr

The response is written to this file. The format and content of the
file depends on other options (see B<-text>, B<-token_out>). The default is
stdout. (Optional)

=item B<-token_out>

The output is a time stamp token (ContentInfo) instead of time stamp
response (TimeStampResp). (Optional)

=item B<-text>

If this option is specified the output is human-readable text format
instead of DER. (Optional)

=item B<-engine> id

Specifying an engine (by its unique B<id> string) will cause B<ts>
to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default
for all available algorithms. Default is builtin. (Optional)

=back

=head2 Time Stamp Response verification

The B<-verify> command is for verifying if a time stamp response or time
stamp token is valid and matches a particular time stamp request or
data file. The B<-verify> command does not use the configuration file.

=over 4

=item B<-data> file_to_hash

The response or token must be verified against file_to_hash. The file
is hashed with the message digest algorithm specified in the token. 
The B<-digest> and B<-queryfile> options must not be specified with this one.
(Optional)

=item B<-digest> digest_bytes

The response or token must be verified against the message digest specified
with this option. The number of bytes must match the message digest algorithm
specified in the token. The B<-data> and B<-queryfile> options must not be
specified with this one. (Optional)

=item B<-queryfile> request.tsq

The original time stamp request in DER format. The B<-data> and B<-digest>
options must not be specified with this one. (Optional)

=item B<-in> response.tsr

The time stamp response that needs to be verified in DER format. (Mandatory)

=item B<-token_in>

This flag can be used together with the B<-in> option and indicates
that the input is a DER encoded time stamp token (ContentInfo) instead
of a time stamp response (TimeStampResp). (Optional)

=item B<-CApath> trusted_cert_path

The name of the directory containing the trused CA certificates of the
client. See the similar option of L<verify(1)|verify(1)> for additional
details. Either this option or B<-CAfile> must be specified. (Optional)


=item B<-CAfile> trusted_certs.pem

The name of the file containing a set of trusted self-signed CA 
certificates in PEM format. See the similar option of 
L<verify(1)|verify(1)> for additional details. Either this option 
or B<-CApath> must be specified.
(Optional)

=item B<-untrusted> cert_file.pem

Set of additional untrusted certificates in PEM format which may be
needed when building the certificate chain for the TSA's signing
certificate. This file must contain the TSA signing certificate and
all intermediate CA certificates unless the response includes them.
(Optional)

=back

=head1 CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS

The B<-query> and B<-reply> commands make use of a configuration file
defined by the B<OPENSSL_CONF> environment variable. See L<config(5)|config(5)>
for a general description of the syntax of the config file. The
B<-query> command uses only the symbolic OID names section
and it can work without it. However, the B<-reply> command needs the
config file for its operation.

When there is a command line switch equivalent of a variable the
switch always overrides the settings in the config file.

=over 4

=item B<tsa> section, B<default_tsa>	

This is the main section and it specifies the name of another section
that contains all the options for the B<-reply> command. This default
section can be overriden with the B<-section> command line switch. (Optional)

=item B<oid_file>

See L<ca(1)|ca(1)> for description. (Optional)

=item B<oid_section>

See L<ca(1)|ca(1)> for description. (Optional)

=item B<RANDFILE>

See L<ca(1)|ca(1)> for description. (Optional)

=item B<serial>

The name of the file containing the hexadecimal serial number of the
last time stamp response created. This number is incremented by 1 for
each response. If the file does not exist at the time of response
generation a new file is created with serial number 1. (Mandatory)

=item B<crypto_device>

Specifies the OpenSSL engine that will be set as the default for 
all available algorithms. The default value is builtin, you can specify 
any other engines supported by OpenSSL (e.g. use chil for the NCipher HSM).
(Optional)

=item B<signer_cert>

TSA signing certificate in PEM format. The same as the B<-signer>
command line option. (Optional)

=item B<certs>

A file containing a set of PEM encoded certificates that need to be
included in the response. The same as the B<-chain> command line
option. (Optional)

=item B<signer_key>

The private key of the TSA in PEM format. The same as the B<-inkey>
command line option. (Optional)

=item B<default_policy>

The default policy to use when the request does not mandate any
policy. The same as the B<-policy> command line option. (Optional)

=item B<other_policies>

Comma separated list of policies that are also acceptable by the TSA
and used only if the request explicitly specifies one of them. (Optional)

=item B<digests>

The list of message digest algorithms that the TSA accepts. At least
one algorithm must be specified. (Mandatory)

=item B<accuracy>

The accuracy of the time source of the TSA in seconds, milliseconds
and microseconds. E.g. secs:1, millisecs:500, microsecs:100. If any of
the components is missing zero is assumed for that field. (Optional)

=item B<clock_precision_digits>

Specifies the maximum number of digits, which represent the fraction of 
seconds, that  need to be included in the time field. The trailing zeroes
must be removed from the time, so there might actually be fewer digits,
or no fraction of seconds at all. Supported only on UNIX platforms.
The maximum value is 6, default is 0.
(Optional)

=item B<ordering>

If this option is yes the responses generated by this TSA can always
be ordered, even if the time difference between two responses is less
than the sum of their accuracies. Default is no. (Optional)

=item B<tsa_name>

Set this option to yes if the subject name of the TSA must be included in
the TSA name field of the response. Default is no. (Optional)

=item B<ess_cert_id_chain>

The SignedData objects created by the TSA always contain the
certificate identifier of the signing certificate in a signed
attribute (see RFC 2634, Enhanced Security Services). If this option
is set to yes and either the B<certs> variable or the B<-chain> option
is specified then the certificate identifiers of the chain will also
be included in the SigningCertificate signed attribute. If this
variable is set to no, only the signing certificate identifier is
included. Default is no. (Optional)

=back

=head1 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

B<OPENSSL_CONF> contains the path of the configuration file and can be
overriden by the B<-config> command line option.

=head1 EXAMPLES

All the examples below presume that B<OPENSSL_CONF> is set to a proper
configuration file, e.g. the example configuration file 
openssl/apps/openssl.cnf will do.

=head2 Time Stamp Request

To create a time stamp request for design1.txt with SHA-1 
without nonce and policy and no certificate is required in the response:

  openssl ts -query -data design1.txt -no_nonce \
	-out design1.tsq

To create a similar time stamp request with specifying the message imprint
explicitly:

  openssl ts -query -digest b7e5d3f93198b38379852f2c04e78d73abdd0f4b \
	 -no_nonce -out design1.tsq

To print the content of the previous request in human readable format:

  openssl ts -query -in design1.tsq -text

To create a time stamp request which includes the MD-5 digest 
of design2.txt, requests the signer certificate and nonce,
specifies a policy id (assuming the tsa_policy1 name is defined in the
OID section of the config file):

  openssl ts -query -data design2.txt -md5 \
	-policy tsa_policy1 -cert -out design2.tsq

=head2 Time Stamp Response

Before generating a response a signing certificate must be created for
the TSA that contains the B<timeStamping> critical extended key usage extension
without any other key usage extensions. You can add the
'extendedKeyUsage = critical,timeStamping' line to the user certificate section
of the config file to generate a proper certificate. See L<req(1)|req(1)>,
L<ca(1)|ca(1)>, L<x509(1)|x509(1)> for instructions. The examples
below assume that cacert.pem contains the certificate of the CA,
tsacert.pem is the signing certificate issued by cacert.pem and
tsakey.pem is the private key of the TSA.

To create a time stamp response for a request:

  openssl ts -reply -queryfile design1.tsq -inkey tsakey.pem \
	-signer tsacert.pem -out design1.tsr

If you want to use the settings in the config file you could just write:

  openssl ts -reply -queryfile design1.tsq -out design1.tsr

To print a time stamp reply to stdout in human readable format:

  openssl ts -reply -in design1.tsr -text

To create a time stamp token instead of time stamp response:

  openssl ts -reply -queryfile design1.tsq -out design1_token.der -token_out

To print a time stamp token to stdout in human readable format:

  openssl ts -reply -in design1_token.der -token_in -text -token_out

To extract the time stamp token from a response:

  openssl ts -reply -in design1.tsr -out design1_token.der -token_out

To add 'granted' status info to a time stamp token thereby creating a
valid response:

  openssl ts -reply -in design1_token.der -token_in -out design1.tsr

=head2 Time Stamp Verification

To verify a time stamp reply against a request:

  openssl ts -verify -queryfile design1.tsq -in design1.tsr \
	-CAfile cacert.pem -untrusted tsacert.pem

To verify a time stamp reply that includes the certificate chain:

  openssl ts -verify -queryfile design2.tsq -in design2.tsr \
	-CAfile cacert.pem

To verify a time stamp token against the original data file:
  openssl ts -verify -data design2.txt -in design2.tsr \
	-CAfile cacert.pem

To verify a time stamp token against a message imprint:
  openssl ts -verify -digest b7e5d3f93198b38379852f2c04e78d73abdd0f4b \
	 -in design2.tsr -CAfile cacert.pem

You could also look at the 'test' directory for more examples.

=head1 BUGS

If you find any bugs or you have suggestions please write to
Zoltan Glozik <zglozik@opentsa.org>. Known issues:

=over 4

=item * No support for time stamps over SMTP, though it is quite easy
to implement an automatic e-mail based TSA with L<procmail(1)|procmail(1)> 
and L<perl(1)|perl(1)>. HTTP server support is provided in the form of 
a separate apache module. HTTP client support is provided by
L<tsget(1)|tsget(1)>. Pure TCP/IP protocol is not supported.

=item * The file containing the last serial number of the TSA is not
locked when being read or written. This is a problem if more than one
instance of L<openssl(1)|openssl(1)> is trying to create a time stamp
response at the same time. This is not an issue when using the apache
server module, it does proper locking.

=item * Look for the FIXME word in the source files.

=item * The source code should really be reviewed by somebody else, too.

=item * More testing is needed, I have done only some basic tests (see
test/testtsa).

=back

=cut

=head1 AUTHOR

Zoltan Glozik <zglozik@opentsa.org>, OpenTSA project (http://www.opentsa.org)

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<tsget(1)|tsget(1)>, L<openssl(1)|openssl(1)>, L<req(1)|req(1)>, 
L<x509(1)|x509(1)>, L<ca(1)|ca(1)>, L<genrsa(1)|genrsa(1)>, 
L<config(5)|config(5)>

=cut