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 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384  .TH LESSKEY 1 "Version 416: 22 Nov 2007" .SH NAME lesskey \- specify key bindings for less .SH SYNOPSIS .B "lesskey [-o output] [--] [input]" .br .B "lesskey [--output=output] [--] [input]" .br .B "lesskey -V" .br .B "lesskey --version" .SH DESCRIPTION .I Lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by .I less. The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings, If the input file is "-", standard input is read. If no input file is specified, a standard filename is used as the name of the input file, which depends on the system being used: On Unix systems, $HOME/.lesskey is used; on MS-DOS systems,$HOME/_lesskey is used; and on OS/2 systems $HOME/lesskey.ini is used, or$INIT/lesskey.ini if $HOME is undefined. The output file is a binary file which is used by .I less. If no output file is specified, and the environment variable LESSKEY is set, the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file. Otherwise, a standard filename is used as the name of the output file, which depends on the system being used: On Unix and OS-9 systems,$HOME/.less is used; on MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_less is used; and on OS/2 systems,$HOME/less.ini is used, or $INIT/less.ini if$HOME is undefined. If the output file already exists, .I lesskey will overwrite it. .PP The -V or --version option causes .I lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. If -V or --version is present, other options and arguments are ignored. .PP The input file consists of one or more .I sections. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. Possible sections are: .IP #command Defines new command keys. .IP #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. .IP #env Defines environment variables. .PP Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored, except for the special section header lines. .SH "COMMAND SECTION" The command section begins with the line .sp #command .sp If the command section is the first section in the file, this line may be omitted. The command section consists of lines of the form: .sp \fIstring\fP \fIaction\fP [extra-string] .sp Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. The \fIstring\fP is the command key(s) which invoke the action. The \fIstring\fP may be a single command key, or a sequence of up to 15 keys. The \fIaction\fP is the name of the less action, from the list below. The characters in the \fIstring\fP may appear literally, or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: .IP \eb BACKSPACE .IP \ee ESCAPE .IP \en NEWLINE .IP \er RETURN .IP \et TAB .IP \eku UP ARROW .IP \ekd DOWN ARROW .IP \ekr RIGHT ARROW .IP \ekl LEFT ARROW .IP \ekU PAGE UP .IP \ekD PAGE DOWN .IP \ekh HOME .IP \eke END .IP \ekx DELETE .PP A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret, space, tab and the backslash itself. .PP An action may be followed by an "extra" string. When such a command is entered while running .I less, the action is performed, and then the extra string is parsed, just as if it were typed in to .I less. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. For example, see the "{" and ":t" commands in the example below. The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when .I less quits, first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. .SH EXAMPLE The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: .sp .nf #command \er forw-line \en forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \ekd forw-line ^E forw-line ^N forw-line k back-line y back-line ^Y back-line ^K back-line ^P back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ^D forw-scroll u back-scroll ^U back-scroll \e40 forw-screen f forw-screen ^F forw-screen ^V forw-screen \ekD forw-screen b back-screen ^B back-screen \eev back-screen \ekU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \ee\e40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ^R repaint ^L repaint \eeu undo-hilite g goto-line \ekh goto-line < goto-line \ee< goto-line p percent % percent \ee[ left-scroll \ee] right-scroll \ee( left-scroll \ee) right-scroll { forw-bracket {} } back-bracket {} ( forw-bracket () ) back-bracket () [ forw-bracket [] ] back-bracket [] \ee^F forw-bracket \ee^B back-bracket G goto-end \ee> goto-end > goto-end \eke goto-end = status ^G status :f status / forw-search ? back-search \ee/ forw-search * \ee? back-search * n repeat-search \een repeat-search-all N reverse-search \eeN reverse-search-all m set-mark ' goto-mark ^X^X goto-mark E examine :e examine ^X^V examine :n next-file :p prev-file t next-tag T prev-tag :x index-file :d remove-file - toggle-option :t toggle-option t s toggle-option o _ display-option | pipe v visual ! shell + firstcmd H help h help V version 0 digit 1 digit 2 digit 3 digit 4 digit 5 digit 6 digit 7 digit 8 digit 9 digit q quit Q quit :q quit :Q quit ZZ quit .fi .sp .SH PRECEDENCE Commands specified by .I lesskey take precedence over the default commands. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". Alternatively, a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". "noaction" is similar to "invalid", but .I less will give an error beep for an "invalid" command, but not for a "noaction" command. In addition, ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: .sp #stop .sp This will cause all default commands to be ignored. The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file. .PP Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. Since all default commands are disabled, you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. For example, failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. .SH "LINE EDITING SECTION" The line-editing section begins with the line: .sp #line-edit .sp This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands, in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions, one per line as in the example below. .SH EXAMPLE The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: .sp .nf #line-edit \et forw-complete \e17 back-complete \ee\et back-complete ^L expand ^V literal ^A literal \eel right \ekr right \eeh left \ekl left \eeb word-left \ee\ekl word-left \eew word-right \ee\ekr word-right \eei insert \eex delete \ekx delete \eeX word-delete \eekx word-delete \ee\eb word-backspace \ee0 home \ekh home \ee\$ end \eke end \eek up \eku up \eej down .fi .sp .SH "LESS ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES" The environment variable section begins with the line .sp #env .sp Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. Each line consists of an environment variable name, an equals sign (=) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. White space before and after the equals sign is ignored. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to .I less. If a variable is specified in the system environment and also in a lesskey file, the value in the lesskey file takes precedence. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment, the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all .I less configuration information stored in one file. .SH EXAMPLE The following input file sets the -i option whenever .I less is run, and specifies the character set to be "latin1": .sp .nf #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 .fi .sp .SH "SEE ALSO" less(1) .SH WARNINGS It is not possible to specify special keys, such as uparrow, in a keyboard-independent manner. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. .PP On MS-DOS and OS/2 systems, certain keys send a sequence of characters which start with a NUL character (0). This NUL character should be represented as \e340 in a lesskey file. .SH COPYRIGHT Copyright (C) 2000-2007 Mark Nudelman .PP lesskey is part of the GNU project and is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version. .PP lesskey is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. .PP You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with lesskey; see the file COPYING. If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA. .SH AUTHOR .PP Mark Nudelman .br Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to bug-less@gnu.org.