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-.\" NOTE: changes to the manual page for "top" should be made in the
-.\" file "top.X" and NOT in the file "top.1".
-.nr N %topn%
-.nr D %delay%
-.TH TOP 1 Local
-.UC 4
-.SH NAME
-top \- display and update information about the top cpu processes
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B top
-[
-.B \-SbiInquv
-] [
-.BI \-d count
-] [
-.BI \-s time
-] [
-.BI \-o field
-] [
-.BI \-U username
-] [
-.I number
-]
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-.\" This defines appropriate quote strings for nroff and troff
-.ds lq \&"
-.ds rq \&"
-.if t .ds lq ``
-.if t .ds rq ''
-.\" Just in case these number registers aren't set yet...
-.if \nN==0 .nr N 10
-.if \nD==0 .nr D 5
-.I Top
-displays the top
-.if !\nN==-1 \nN
-processes on the system and periodically updates this information.
-.if \nN==-1 \
-\{\
-If standard output is an intelligent terminal (see below) then
-as many processes as will fit on the terminal screen are displayed
-by default. Otherwise, a good number of them are shown (around 20).
-.\}
-Raw cpu percentage is used to rank the processes. If
-.I number
-is given, then the top
-.I number
-processes will be displayed instead of the default.
-.PP
-.I Top
-makes a distinction between terminals that support advanced capabilities
-and those that do not. This
-distinction affects the choice of defaults for certain options. In the
-remainder of this document, an \*(lqintelligent\*(rq terminal is one that
-supports cursor addressing, clear screen, and clear to end of line.
-Conversely, a \*(lqdumb\*(rq terminal is one that does not support such
-features. If the output of
-.I top
-is redirected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a dumb
-terminal.
-.SH OPTIONS
-.TP
-.B \-S
-Show system processes in the display. Normally, system processes such as
-the pager and the swapper are not shown. This option makes them visible.
-.TP
-.B \-b
-Use \*(lqbatch\*(rq mode. In this mode, all input from the terminal is
-ignored. Interrupt characters (such as ^C and ^\e) still have an effect.
-This is the default on a dumb terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.
-.TP
-.B \-i
-Use \*(lqinteractive\*(rq mode. In this mode, any input is immediately
-read for processing. See the section on \*(lqInteractive Mode\*(rq
-for an explanation of
-which keys perform what functions. After the command is processed, the
-screen will immediately be updated, even if the command was not
-understood. This mode is the default when standard output is an
-intelligent terminal.
-.TP
-.B \-I
-Do not display idle processes.
-By default, top displays both active and idle processes.
-.TP
-.B \-n
-Use \*(lqnon-interactive\*(rq mode. This is indentical to \*(lqbatch\*(rq
-mode.
-.TP
-.B \-q
-Renice
-.I top
-to -20 so that it will run faster. This can be used when the system is
-being very sluggish to improve the possibility of discovering the problem.
-This option can only be used by root.
-.TP
-.B \-u
-Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames. Normally,
-.I top
-will read as much of the file \*(lq/etc/passwd\*(rq as is necessary to map
-all the user id numbers it encounters into login names. This option
-disables all that, while possibly decreasing execution time. The uid
-numbers are displayed instead of the names.
-.TP
-.B \-v
-Write version number information to stderr then exit immediately.
-No other processing takes place when this option is used. To see current
-revision information while top is running, use the help command \*(lq?\*(rq.
-.TP
-.BI \-d count
-Show only
-.I count
-displays, then exit. A display is considered to be one update of the
-screen. This option allows the user to select the number of displays he
-wants to see before
-.I top
-automatically exits. For intelligent terminals, no upper limit
-is set. The default is 1 for dumb terminals.
-.TP
-.BI \-s time
-Set the delay between screen updates to
-.I time
-seconds. The default delay between updates is \nD seconds.
-.TP
-.BI \-o field
-Sort the process display area on the specified field. The field name is
-the name of the column as seen in the output, but in lower case. Likely
-values are \*(lqcpu\*(rq, \*(lqsize\*(rq, \*(lqres\*(rq, and \*(lqtime\*(rq,
-but may vary on different operating systems. Note that
-not all operating systems support this option.
-.TP
-.BI \-U username
-Show only those processes owned by
-.IR username .
-This option currently only accepts usernames and will not understand
-uid numbers.
-.PP
-Both
-.I count
-and
-.I number
-fields can be specified as \*(lqinfinite\*(rq, indicating that they can
-stretch as far as possible. This is accomplished by using any proper
-prefix of the keywords
-\*(lqinfinity\*(rq,
-\*(lqmaximum\*(rq,
-or
-\*(lqall\*(rq.
-The default for
-.I count
-on an intelligent terminal is, in fact,
-.BI infinity .
-.PP
-The environment variable
-.B TOP
-is examined for options before the command line is scanned. This enables
-a user to set his or her own defaults. The number of processes to display
-can also be specified in the environment variable
-.BR TOP .
-The options
-.BR \-I ,
-.BR \-S ,
-and
-.B \-u
-are actually toggles. A second specification of any of these options
-will negate the first. Thus a user who has the environment variable
-.B TOP
-set to \*(lq\-I\*(rq may use the command \*(lqtop \-I\*(rq to see idle processes.
-.SH "INTERACTIVE MODE"
-When
-.I top
-is running in \*(lqinteractive mode\*(rq, it reads commands from the
-terminal and acts upon them accordingly. In this mode, the terminal is
-put in \*(lqCBREAK\*(rq, so that a character will be
-processed as soon as it is typed. Almost always, a key will be
-pressed when
-.I top
-is between displays; that is, while it is waiting for
-.I time
-seconds to elapse. If this is the case, the command will be
-processed and the display will be updated immediately thereafter
-(reflecting any changes that the command may have specified). This
-happens even if the command was incorrect. If a key is pressed while
-.I top
-is in the middle of updating the display, it will finish the update and
-then process the command. Some commands require additional information,
-and the user will be prompted accordingly. While typing this information
-in, the user's erase and kill keys (as set up by the command
-.IR stty )
-are recognized, and a newline terminates the input.
-.PP
-These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to control-L):
-.TP
-.B ^L
-Redraw the screen.
-.IP "\fBh\fP\ or\ \fB?\fP"
-Display a summary of the commands (help screen). Version information
-is included in this display.
-.TP
-.B q
-Quit
-.IR top.
-.TP
-.B d
-Change the number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
-Remember that the next display counts as one, so typing
-.B d1
-will make
-.I top
-show one final display and then immediately exit.
-.TP
-.B n or #
-Change the number of processes to display (prompt for new number).
-.TP
-.B s
-Change the number of seconds to delay between displays
-(prompt for new number).
-.TP
-.B k
-Send a signal (\*(lqkill\*(rq by default) to a list of processes. This
-acts similarly to the command
-.IR kill (1)).
-.TP
-.B r
-Change the priority (the \*(lqnice\*(rq) of a list of processes.
-This acts similarly to the command
-.IR renice (8)).
-.TP
-.B u
-Display only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for username).
-If the username specified is simply \*(lq+\*(rq, then processes belonging
-to all users will be displayed.
-.TP
-.B o
-Change the order in which the display is sorted. This command is not
-available on all systems. The sort key names vary fron system to system
-but usually include: \*(lqcpu\*(rq, \*(lqres\*(rq, \*(lqsize\*(rq,
-\*(lqtime\*(rq. The default is cpu.
-.TP
-.B e
-Display a list of system errors (if any) generated by the last
-.BR k ill
-or
-.BR r enice
-command.
-.TP
-.B i
-(or
-.BR I)
-Toggle the display of idle processes.
-.SH "THE DISPLAY"
-The actual display varies depending on the specific variant of Unix
-that the machine is running. This description may not exactly match
-what is seen by top running on this particular machine. Differences
-are listed at the end of this manual entry.
-.PP
-The top few lines of the display show general information
-about the state of the system, including
-the last process id assigned to a process (on most systems),
-the three load averages,
-the current time,
-the number of existing processes,
-the number of processes in each state
-(sleeping, running, starting, zombies, and stopped),
-and a percentage of time spent in each of the processor states
-(user, nice, system, and idle).
-It also includes information about physial and virtual memory allocation.
-.PP
-The remainder of the screen displays information about individual
-processes. This display is similar in spirit to
-.IR ps (1)
-but it is not exactly the same. PID is the process id, USERNAME is the name
-of the process's owner (if
-.B \-u
-is specified, a UID column will be substituted for USERNAME),
-PRI is the current priority of the process,
-NICE is the nice amount (in the range \-20 to 20),
-SIZE is the total size of the process (text, data, and stack),
-RES is the current amount of resident memory (both SIZE and RES are
-given in kilobytes),
-STATE is the current state (one of \*(lqsleep\*(rq, \*(lqWAIT\*(rq,
-\*(lqrun\*(rq, \*(lqidl\*(rq, \*(lqzomb\*(rq, or \*(lqstop\*(rq),
-TIME is the number of system and user cpu seconds that the process has used,
-WCPU, when displayed, is the weighted cpu percentage (this is the same
-value that
-.IR ps (1)
-displays as CPU),
-CPU is the raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to determine
-the order of the processes, and
-COMMAND is the name of the command that the process is currently running
-(if the process is swapped out, this column is marked \*(lq<swapped>\*(rq).
-.SH NOTES
-The \*(lqABANDONED\*(rq state (known in the kernel as \*(lqSWAIT\*(rq) was
-abandoned, thus the name. A process should never end up in this state.
-.SH AUTHOR
-William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University
-.SH ENVIRONMENT
-.DT
-TOP user-configurable defaults for options.
-.SH FILES
-.DT
-/dev/kmem kernel memory
-.br
-/dev/mem physical memory
-.br
-/etc/passwd used to map uid numbers to user names
-.br
-/vmunix system image
-.SH BUGS
-Don't shoot me, but the default for
-.B \-I
-has changed once again. So many people were confused by the fact that
-.I top
-wasn't showing them all the processes that I have decided to make the
-default behavior show idle processes, just like it did in version 2.
-But to appease folks who can't stand that behavior, I have added the
-ability to set \*(lqdefault\*(rq options in the environment variable
-.B TOP
-(see the OPTIONS section). Those who want the behavior that version
-3.0 had need only set the environment variable
-.B TOP
-to \*(lq\-I\*(rq.
-.PP
-The command name for swapped processes should be tracked down, but this
-would make the program run slower.
-.PP
-As with
-.IR ps (1),
-things can change while
-.I top
-is collecting information for an update. The picture it gives is only a
-close approximation to reality.
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-kill(1),
-ps(1),
-stty(1),
-mem(4),
-renice(8)