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+.rm #[ #] #H #V #F C
+.\" ========================================================================
+.\"
+.IX Title "PKCS12 1"
+.TH PKCS12 1 "2015-03-19" "1.0.1m" "OpenSSL"
+.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
+.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
+.if n .ad l
+.nh
+.SH "NAME"
+pkcs12 \- PKCS#12 file utility
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
+\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBpkcs12\fR
+[\fB\-export\fR]
+[\fB\-chain\fR]
+[\fB\-inkey filename\fR]
+[\fB\-certfile filename\fR]
+[\fB\-name name\fR]
+[\fB\-caname name\fR]
+[\fB\-in filename\fR]
+[\fB\-out filename\fR]
+[\fB\-noout\fR]
+[\fB\-nomacver\fR]
+[\fB\-nocerts\fR]
+[\fB\-clcerts\fR]
+[\fB\-cacerts\fR]
+[\fB\-nokeys\fR]
+[\fB\-info\fR]
+[\fB\-des | \-des3 | \-idea | \-aes128 | \-aes192 | \-aes256 | \-camellia128 | \-camellia192 | \-camellia256 | \-nodes\fR]
+[\fB\-noiter\fR]
+[\fB\-maciter | \-nomaciter | \-nomac\fR]
+[\fB\-twopass\fR]
+[\fB\-descert\fR]
+[\fB\-certpbe cipher\fR]
+[\fB\-keypbe cipher\fR]
+[\fB\-macalg digest\fR]
+[\fB\-keyex\fR]
+[\fB\-keysig\fR]
+[\fB\-password arg\fR]
+[\fB\-passin arg\fR]
+[\fB\-passout arg\fR]
+[\fB\-rand file(s)\fR]
+[\fB\-CAfile file\fR]
+[\fB\-CApath dir\fR]
+[\fB\-CSP name\fR]
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
+.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
+The \fBpkcs12\fR command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as
+\&\s-1PFX\s0 files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several
+programs including Netscape, \s-1MSIE\s0 and \s-1MS\s0 Outlook.
+.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
+.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
+There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a PKCS#12 file
+is being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is parsed. A PKCS#12
+file can be created by using the \fB\-export\fR option (see below).
+.SH "PARSING OPTIONS"
+.IX Header "PARSING OPTIONS"
+.IP "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-in filename"
+This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard input is used
+by default.
+.IP "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-out filename"
+The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard output by
+default. They are all written in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
+.IP "\fB\-passin arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-passin arg"
+the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more information about
+the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+\&\fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
+.IP "\fB\-passout arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-passout arg"
+pass phrase source to encrypt any outputted private keys with. For more
+information about the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section
+in \fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
+.IP "\fB\-password arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-password arg"
+With \-export, \-password is equivalent to \-passout.
+Otherwise, \-password is equivalent to \-passin.
+.IP "\fB\-noout\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-noout"
+this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the output file
+version of the PKCS#12 file.
+.IP "\fB\-clcerts\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-clcerts"
+only output client certificates (not \s-1CA\s0 certificates).
+.IP "\fB\-cacerts\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-cacerts"
+only output \s-1CA\s0 certificates (not client certificates).
+.IP "\fB\-nocerts\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nocerts"
+no certificates at all will be output.
+.IP "\fB\-nokeys\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nokeys"
+no private keys will be output.
+.IP "\fB\-info\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-info"
+output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure, algorithms used and
+iteration counts.
+.IP "\fB\-des\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-des"
+use \s-1DES\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting.
+.IP "\fB\-des3\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-des3"
+use triple \s-1DES\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is the default.
+.IP "\fB\-idea\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-idea"
+use \s-1IDEA\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting.
+.IP "\fB\-aes128\fR, \fB\-aes192\fR, \fB\-aes256\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-aes128, -aes192, -aes256"
+use \s-1AES\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting.
+.IP "\fB\-camellia128\fR, \fB\-camellia192\fR, \fB\-camellia256\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-camellia128, -camellia192, -camellia256"
+use Camellia to encrypt private keys before outputting.
+.IP "\fB\-nodes\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nodes"
+don't encrypt the private keys at all.
+.IP "\fB\-nomacver\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nomacver"
+don't attempt to verify the integrity \s-1MAC\s0 before reading the file.
+.IP "\fB\-twopass\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-twopass"
+prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most software
+always assumes these are the same so this option will render such
+PKCS#12 files unreadable.
+.SH "FILE CREATION OPTIONS"
+.IX Header "FILE CREATION OPTIONS"
+.IP "\fB\-export\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-export"
+This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather than
+parsed.
+.IP "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-out filename"
+This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard output is used
+by default.
+.IP "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-in filename"
+The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard input by
+default. They must all be in \s-1PEM\s0 format. The order doesn't matter but one
+private key and its corresponding certificate should be present. If additional
+certificates are present they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.
+.IP "\fB\-inkey filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-inkey filename"
+file to read private key from. If not present then a private key must be present
+in the input file.
+.IP "\fB\-name friendlyname\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-name friendlyname"
+This specifies the \*(L"friendly name\*(R" for the certificate and private key. This
+name is typically displayed in list boxes by software importing the file.
+.IP "\fB\-certfile filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-certfile filename"
+A filename to read additional certificates from.
+.IP "\fB\-caname friendlyname\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-caname friendlyname"
+This specifies the \*(L"friendly name\*(R" for other certificates. This option may be
+used multiple times to specify names for all certificates in the order they
+appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on other certificates whereas \s-1MSIE\s0
+displays them.
+.IP "\fB\-pass arg\fR, \fB\-passout arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-pass arg, -passout arg"
+the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For more information about
+the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+\&\fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
+.IP "\fB\-passin password\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-passin password"
+pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more information
+about the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+\&\fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
+.IP "\fB\-chain\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-chain"
+if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the entire
+certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard \s-1CA\s0 store is used
+for this search. If the search fails it is considered a fatal error.
+.IP "\fB\-descert\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-descert"
+encrypt the certificate using triple \s-1DES,\s0 this may render the PKCS#12
+file unreadable by some \*(L"export grade\*(R" software. By default the private
+key is encrypted using triple \s-1DES\s0 and the certificate using 40 bit \s-1RC2.\s0
+.IP "\fB\-keypbe alg\fR, \fB\-certpbe alg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-keypbe alg, -certpbe alg"
+these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and
+certificates to be selected. Any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 \s-1PBE\s0 algorithm name
+can be used (see \fB\s-1NOTES\s0\fR section for more information). If a a cipher name
+(as output by the \fBlist-cipher-algorithms\fR command is specified then it
+is used with PKCS#5 v2.0. For interoperability reasons it is advisable to only
+use PKCS#12 algorithms.
+.IP "\fB\-keyex|\-keysig\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-keyex|-keysig"
+specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or just signing.
+This option is only interpreted by \s-1MSIE\s0 and similar \s-1MS\s0 software. Normally
+\&\*(L"export grade\*(R" software will only allow 512 bit \s-1RSA\s0 keys to be used for
+encryption purposes but arbitrary length keys for signing. The \fB\-keysig\fR
+option marks the key for signing only. Signing only keys can be used for
+S/MIME signing, authenticode (ActiveX control signing) and \s-1SSL\s0 client
+authentication, however due to a bug only \s-1MSIE 5.0\s0 and later support
+the use of signing only keys for \s-1SSL\s0 client authentication.
+.IP "\fB\-macalg digest\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-macalg digest"
+specify the \s-1MAC\s0 digest algorithm. If not included them \s-1SHA1\s0 will be used.
+.IP "\fB\-nomaciter\fR, \fB\-noiter\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nomaciter, -noiter"
+these options affect the iteration counts on the \s-1MAC\s0 and key algorithms.
+Unless you wish to produce files compatible with \s-1MSIE 4.0\s0 you should leave
+these options alone.
+.Sp
+To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common passwords the
+algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have an iteration count applied
+to it: this causes a certain part of the algorithm to be repeated and slows it
+down. The \s-1MAC\s0 is used to check the file integrity but since it will normally
+have the same password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.
+By default both \s-1MAC\s0 and encryption iteration counts are set to 2048, using
+these options the \s-1MAC\s0 and encryption iteration counts can be set to 1, since
+this reduces the file security you should not use these options unless you
+really have to. Most software supports both \s-1MAC\s0 and key iteration counts.
+\&\s-1MSIE 4.0\s0 doesn't support \s-1MAC\s0 iteration counts so it needs the \fB\-nomaciter\fR
+option.
+.IP "\fB\-maciter\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-maciter"
+This option is included for compatibility with previous versions, it used
+to be needed to use \s-1MAC\s0 iterations counts but they are now used by default.
+.IP "\fB\-nomac\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nomac"
+don't attempt to provide the \s-1MAC\s0 integrity.
+.IP "\fB\-rand file(s)\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-rand file(s)"
+a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
+generator, or an \s-1EGD\s0 socket (see \fIRAND_egd\fR\|(3)).
+Multiple files can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character.
+The separator is \fB;\fR for MS-Windows, \fB,\fR for OpenVMS, and \fB:\fR for
+all others.
+.IP "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-CAfile file"
+\&\s-1CA\s0 storage as a file.
+.IP "\fB\-CApath dir\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-CApath dir"
+\&\s-1CA\s0 storage as a directory. This directory must be a standard certificate
+directory: that is a hash of each subject name (using \fBx509 \-hash\fR) should be
+linked to each certificate.
+.IP "\fB\-CSP name\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-CSP name"
+write \fBname\fR as a Microsoft \s-1CSP\s0 name.
+.SH "NOTES"
+.IX Header "NOTES"
+Although there are a large number of options most of them are very rarely
+used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only \fB\-in\fR and \fB\-out\fR need to be used
+for PKCS#12 file creation \fB\-export\fR and \fB\-name\fR are also used.
+.PP
+If none of the \fB\-clcerts\fR, \fB\-cacerts\fR or \fB\-nocerts\fR options are present
+then all certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input
+PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present is
+the one corresponding to the private key. Certain software which requires
+a private key and certificate and assumes the first certificate in the
+file is the one corresponding to the private key: this may not always
+be the case. Using the \fB\-clcerts\fR option will solve this problem by only
+outputting the certificate corresponding to the private key. If the \s-1CA\s0
+certificates are required then they can be output to a separate file using
+the \fB\-nokeys \-cacerts\fR options to just output \s-1CA\s0 certificates.
+.PP
+The \fB\-keypbe\fR and \fB\-certpbe\fR algorithms allow the precise encryption
+algorithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally
+the defaults are fine but occasionally software can't handle triple \s-1DES\s0
+encrypted private keys, then the option \fB\-keypbe \s-1PBE\-SHA1\-RC2\-40\s0\fR can
+be used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit \s-1RC2. A\s0 complete
+description of all algorithms is contained in the \fBpkcs8\fR manual page.
+.SH "EXAMPLES"
+.IX Header "EXAMPLES"
+Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 \-in file.p12 \-out file.pem
+.Ve
+.PP
+Output only client certificates to a file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 \-in file.p12 \-clcerts \-out file.pem
+.Ve
+.PP
+Don't encrypt the private key:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 \-in file.p12 \-out file.pem \-nodes
+.Ve
+.PP
+Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 \-in file.p12 \-info \-noout
+.Ve
+.PP
+Create a PKCS#12 file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 \-export \-in file.pem \-out file.p12 \-name "My Certificate"
+.Ve
+.PP
+Include some extra certificates:
+.PP
+.Vb 2
+\& openssl pkcs12 \-export \-in file.pem \-out file.p12 \-name "My Certificate" \e
+\& \-certfile othercerts.pem
+.Ve
+.SH "BUGS"
+.IX Header "BUGS"
+Some would argue that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :\-)
+.PP
+Versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key generation
+routines. Under rare circumstances this could produce a PKCS#12 file encrypted
+with an invalid key. As a result some PKCS#12 files which triggered this bug
+from other implementations (\s-1MSIE\s0 or Netscape) could not be decrypted
+by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could produce PKCS#12 files which could
+not be decrypted by other implementations. The chances of producing such
+a file are relatively small: less than 1 in 256.
+.PP
+A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly encrypted PKCS#12
+files cannot no longer be parsed by the fixed version. Under such circumstances
+the \fBpkcs12\fR utility will report that the \s-1MAC\s0 is \s-1OK\s0 but fail with a decryption
+error when extracting private keys.
+.PP
+This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys and certificates
+from the PKCS#12 file using an older version of OpenSSL and recreating the PKCS#12
+file from the keys and certificates using a newer version of OpenSSL. For example:
+.PP
+.Vb 2
+\& old\-openssl \-in bad.p12 \-out keycerts.pem
+\& openssl \-in keycerts.pem \-export \-name "My PKCS#12 file" \-out fixed.p12
+.Ve
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
+\&\fIpkcs8\fR\|(1)