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-rw-r--r--lib/libalias/libalias.314
-rw-r--r--lib/libarchive/archive_entry.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libarchive/archive_read.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libarchive/archive_write.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libbluetooth/bluetooth.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libbsnmp/modules/snmp_netgraph/snmp_netgraph.357
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/compat-43/gethostid.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/compat-43/sigvec.224
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/db/man/btree.34
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/db/man/dbopen.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/db/man/recno.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/basename.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/directory.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/dirname.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/dladdr.318
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/dllockinit.336
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/fmtcheck.311
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/ftok.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/fts.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/getbootfile.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/getcap.380
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/getdiskbyname.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/getdomainname.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/getgrent.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/getobjformat.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/lockf.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/msgrcv.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/rand48.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/setjmp.34
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/setproctitle.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/shm_open.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/signal.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/sleep.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/sysctl.314
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/tzset.345
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/ualarm.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/unvis.324
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/gen/vis.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_get_ioperm.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_set_watch.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/locale/rune.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/locale/setlocale.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/locale/utf2.56
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/addr2ascii.333
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/byteorder.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/gethostbyname.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/getifaddrs.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/getipnodebyname.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/getnetent.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/getprotoent.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/getservent.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/inet.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/inet6_opt_init.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/inet6_rthdr_space.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/net/resolver.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_entry.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_perm.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_dup.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_free.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_from_text.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_entry.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_qualifier.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_init.316
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_qualifier.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_tag_type.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_to_text.318
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/posix1e/acl_valid.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/regex/re_format.72
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/regex/regex.34
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/rpc/getrpcent.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/rpc/getrpcport.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/rpc/rpc_secure.324
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdio/stdio.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdlib/getenv.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdlib/qsort.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdlib/radixsort.35
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdlib/random.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdlib/tsearch.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdtime/ctime.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdtime/strftime.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/stdtime/strptime.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/string/strlcpy.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/string/strsep.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/accept.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/aio_error.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/aio_read.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/aio_suspend.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/aio_write.212
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/chmod.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/chroot.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/clock_gettime.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/close.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/dup.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/execve.212
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/fcntl.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/flock.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/fork.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getdtablesize.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getitimer.212
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getlogin.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getpriority.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getrlimit.212
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getrusage.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getsockname.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/getsockopt.218
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/gettimeofday.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/intro.260
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/ioctl.22
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/issetugid.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/kldnext.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/kldstat.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/kqueue.245
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/link.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/lseek.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/madvise.230
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/mmap.22
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/modnext.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/modstat.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/nanosleep.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/open.22
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/poll.247
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/read.25
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/rename.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/rfork.215
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/sched_get_priority_max.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/sched_setparam.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/sched_setscheduler.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/sched_yield.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/select.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/semctl.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/semget.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/send.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/shm_open.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/shmat.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/shmctl.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/shmget.29
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/sigaction.22
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/socket.226
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/swapon.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/sysarch.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/truncate.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/umask.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/unlink.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/vfork.23
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/wait.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libc/sys/write.26
-rw-r--r--lib/libcalendar/calendar.310
-rw-r--r--lib/libcam/cam.358
-rw-r--r--lib/libcam/cam_cdbparse.360
-rw-r--r--lib/libcompat/4.3/rexec.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libcompat/4.4/cuserid.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libcompat/regexp/regexp.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libcrypt/crypt.332
-rw-r--r--lib/libdevstat/devstat.310
-rw-r--r--lib/libdisk/libdisk.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libfetch/fetch.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libftpio/ftpio.327
-rw-r--r--lib/libipx/ipx.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libkiconv/kiconv.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm_getfiles.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm_getprocs.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm_getswapinfo.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm_nlist.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm_open.315
-rw-r--r--lib/libkvm/kvm_read.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libnetgraph/netgraph.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_chroot/pam_chroot.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_echo/pam_echo.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_exec/pam_exec.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_ftpusers/pam_ftpusers.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_group/pam_group.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_guest/pam_guest.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_lastlog/pam_lastlog.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/login.access.59
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/pam_login_access.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_opieaccess/pam_opieaccess.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_passwdqc/pam_passwdqc.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_radius/pam_radius.85
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_rhosts/pam_rhosts.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_self/pam_self.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_ssh/pam_ssh.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libpam/modules/pam_tacplus/pam_tacplus.82
-rw-r--r--lib/libradius/radius.conf.546
-rw-r--r--lib/libsdp/sdp.311
-rw-r--r--lib/libstand/libstand.385
-rw-r--r--lib/libtacplus/libtacplus.3102
-rw-r--r--lib/libtacplus/tacplus.conf.542
-rw-r--r--lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule_count.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libugidfw/bsde_parse_rule.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libugidfw/bsde_rule_to_string.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libugidfw/libugidfw.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/auth.conf.53
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/login.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/login.conf.52
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/login_cap.32
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/login_ok.34
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/login_times.34
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/login_tty.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/logout.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/property.39
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/pty.318
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/realhostname.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/realhostname_sa.33
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/trimdomain.36
-rw-r--r--lib/libutil/uucplock.312
-rw-r--r--lib/libvgl/vgl.312
-rw-r--r--lib/msun/man/atan2.33
-rw-r--r--lib/msun/man/erf.36
-rw-r--r--lib/msun/man/exp.35
-rw-r--r--lib/msun/man/ieee.33
215 files changed, 1395 insertions, 732 deletions
diff --git a/lib/libalias/libalias.3 b/lib/libalias/libalias.3
index 7a582dba6f1c..bb77e30384d3 100644
--- a/lib/libalias/libalias.3
+++ b/lib/libalias/libalias.3
@@ -196,7 +196,7 @@ mode bit is set.
This bit should be set when the packet aliasing host originates network
traffic as well as forwards it.
When the packet aliasing host is waiting for a connection from an unknown
-host address or unknown port number (e.g. an FTP data connection), this
+host address or unknown port number (e.g.\& an FTP data connection), this
mode bit specifies that a socket be allocated as a place holder to prevent
port conflicts.
Once a connection is established, usually within a minute or so, the socket
@@ -237,7 +237,7 @@ possible to use a hole for another connection.
A hole is removed when the connection that uses it dies.
To cater to unexpected death of a program using
.Nm
-(e.g. kill -9),
+(e.g.\& kill -9),
changing the state of the flag will clear the entire firewall range
allocated for holes.
This will also happen on the initial call to
@@ -560,7 +560,7 @@ For links created with
.Fn LibAliasRedirectAddr ,
the
.Fa port
-argument is ignored and could have any value, e.g. htons(~0).
+argument is ignored and could have any value, e.g.\& htons(~0).
.Pp
This function returns 0 on success, \-1 otherwise.
.Ed
@@ -571,15 +571,15 @@ This function returns 0 on success, \-1 otherwise.
This function marks the specified static redirect rule entered by
.Fn LibAliasRedirectPort
as dynamic.
-This can be used to e.g. dynamically redirect a single TCP connection,
+This can be used to e.g.\& dynamically redirect a single TCP connection,
after which the rule is removed.
Only fully specified links can be made dynamic.
(See the
.Sx STATIC AND DYNAMIC LINKS
and
.Sx PARTIALLY SPECIFIED ALIASING LINKS
-sections below for a definition of static vs. dynamic,
-and partially vs. fully specified links.)
+sections below for a definition of static vs.\& dynamic,
+and partially vs.\& fully specified links.)
.Pp
This function returns 0 on success, \-1 otherwise.
.Ed
@@ -878,7 +878,7 @@ and
.Fa maxpacketsize
is provided for error checking purposes.
This function can be used if an already-aliased packet needs to have its
-original IP header restored for further processing (eg. logging).
+original IP header restored for further processing (e.g.\& logging).
.Ed
.Sh BUGS
PPTP aliasing does not work when more than one internal client
diff --git a/lib/libarchive/archive_entry.3 b/lib/libarchive/archive_entry.3
index a0eba790205c..9629b2d6c321 100644
--- a/lib/libarchive/archive_entry.3
+++ b/lib/libarchive/archive_entry.3
@@ -299,7 +299,8 @@ recognized.
.Xr strtofflags 3 ,
which stops parsing at the first unrecognized name.)
.Ss ACL Handling
-XXX This needs serious help. XXX
+XXX This needs serious help.
+XXX
.Pp
An
.Dq Access Control List
diff --git a/lib/libarchive/archive_read.3 b/lib/libarchive/archive_read.3
index 15910c9e9256..d1a6e586b5ea 100644
--- a/lib/libarchive/archive_read.3
+++ b/lib/libarchive/archive_read.3
@@ -269,7 +269,8 @@ and
objects can be found in the overview manual page for
.Xr libarchive 3 .
.Sh EXAMPLE
-The following illustrates basic usage of the library. In this example,
+The following illustrates basic usage of the library.
+In this example,
the callback functions are simply wrappers around the standard
.Xr open 2 ,
.Xr read 2 ,
diff --git a/lib/libarchive/archive_write.3 b/lib/libarchive/archive_write.3
index a4a135f7d17e..a6fd8da8afbd 100644
--- a/lib/libarchive/archive_write.3
+++ b/lib/libarchive/archive_write.3
@@ -225,7 +225,8 @@ overview.
Compression support is built-in to libarchive, which uses zlib and bzlib
to handle gzip and bzip2 compression, respectively.
.Sh EXAMPLE
-The following sketch illustrates basic usage of the library. In this example,
+The following sketch illustrates basic usage of the library.
+In this example,
the callback functions are simply wrappers around the standard
.Xr open 2 ,
.Xr write 2 ,
diff --git a/lib/libbluetooth/bluetooth.3 b/lib/libbluetooth/bluetooth.3
index 5980027cc876..9c81f6cfe8db 100644
--- a/lib/libbluetooth/bluetooth.3
+++ b/lib/libbluetooth/bluetooth.3
@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@ should point to an address which is
.Fa len
bytes long,
in binary form
-(i.e. not an Bluetooth BD_ADDR in human readable
+(i.e., not an Bluetooth BD_ADDR in human readable
.Tn ASCII
form).
The
diff --git a/lib/libbsnmp/modules/snmp_netgraph/snmp_netgraph.3 b/lib/libbsnmp/modules/snmp_netgraph/snmp_netgraph.3
index f470496d6cde..81cdd74de010 100644
--- a/lib/libbsnmp/modules/snmp_netgraph/snmp_netgraph.3
+++ b/lib/libbsnmp/modules/snmp_netgraph/snmp_netgraph.3
@@ -135,15 +135,18 @@
The
.Nm snmp_netgraph
module implements a number of tables and scalars that enable remote access to
-the netgraph subsystem. It also exports a number of global variables and
+the netgraph subsystem.
+It also exports a number of global variables and
functions, that allow other modules to easily use the netgraph system.
.Pp
If upon start up of the module the variable
.Va begemotNgControlNodeName
is not empty the module opens a netgraph socket and names that socket node.
If the variable is empty, the socket is created, as soon as the variable is
-written with a non-empty name. The socket can be closed by writing an empty
-string to the variable. The socket itself and its name are available in
+written with a non-empty name.
+The socket can be closed by writing an empty
+string to the variable.
+The socket itself and its name are available in
.Va snmp_node
and
.Va snmp_nodename .
@@ -169,7 +172,8 @@ is the node specific command cookie,
.It Fa opcode
is the node specific code for the operation to performa,
.It Fa arg
-is a pointer to the message itself. This message must start with a
+is a pointer to the message itself.
+This message must start with a
.Vt struct ng_mesg .
.It Fa arglen
is the overall length of the message (header plus arguments).
@@ -178,8 +182,10 @@ The functions return the message id that can be used to match incoming responses
or -1 if an error occurs.
.Pp
Another class of functions is used to send a control message and to wait for
-a matching response. Note, that this operation blocks the daemon, so use it
-only if you are sure that the response will happen. There is a maximum timeout
+a matching response.
+Note, that this operation blocks the daemon, so use it
+only if you are sure that the response will happen.
+There is a maximum timeout
that is configurable in the MIB variable
.Va begemotNgTimeout .
Other messages arriving while the functions are waiting for the response are
@@ -201,9 +207,11 @@ and waits for a matching response.
.Pp
All three functions take the same arguments as the
.Fn ng_output*
-functions. The functions return the reponse message in a buffer allocated by
+functions.
+The functions return the reponse message in a buffer allocated by
.Xr malloc 3
-or NULL in case of an error. The maximum size of the response buffer can be
+or NULL in case of an error.
+The maximum size of the response buffer can be
configured in the variable
.Va begemotNgResBufSiz .
.Pp
@@ -212,16 +220,19 @@ A data message can be send with the function
This function takes the name of the
.Va snmp_node Ns 's
hook through which to send the data, a pointer to the message buffer and
-the size of the message. It returns -1 if an error happens.
+the size of the message.
+It returns -1 if an error happens.
.Ss ASYNCHRONOUS CONTROL AND DATA MESSAGES
A module can register functions to asynchronuosly receive control and data
message.
.Pp
The function
.Fn ng_register_cookie
-registers a control message receive function. If a control message is
+registers a control message receive function.
+If a control message is
received, that is not consumed by the dialog functions, the list of registerred
-control message receive functions is scanned. If the cookie in the received
+control message receive functions is scanned.
+If the cookie in the received
message is the same as the
.Fa cookie
argument to the
@@ -238,7 +249,8 @@ is called with a pointer to the received message, the hook on which the
message was received (or NULL if it was received not on a hook), the id
of the sender's node and the
.Fa uarg
-argument of the registration call. The handler function should not modify
+argument of the registration call.
+The handler function should not modify
the contents of the message, because more than one function may be registered
to the same cookie and node id.
.Pp
@@ -253,12 +265,14 @@ A module can call
.Fn ng_register_hook
to register a callback for data messages on one of the
.Va snmp_node Ns 's
-hooks. If a data message is received on that hook, the callback function
+hooks.
+If a data message is received on that hook, the callback function
.Fa func
is called with the hook name, a pointer to the data message, the size of
the message and the argument
.Fa uarg
-to the registration function. The message should be treated as read-only.
+to the registration function.
+The message should be treated as read-only.
A data message registration can be undone by calling
.Fn ng_unregister_hook
with the return value of the registration call.
@@ -291,7 +305,8 @@ and writes it to the buffer pointed to by
.Fa name .
This buffer should be at least
.Li NG_NODESIZ
-bytes long. The function returns the node id or 0 if the
+bytes long.
+The function returns the node id or 0 if the
node is not found
.Pp
The function
@@ -302,7 +317,8 @@ and writes it to the buffer pointed to by
.Fa type .
This buffer should be at least
.Li NG_TYPESIZ
-bytes long. The function returns the node id or 0 if the
+bytes long.
+The function returns the node id or 0 if the
node is not found.
.Pp
The function
@@ -315,8 +331,10 @@ to the buffer pointed to by
.Fa peer_hook .
The buffer should be at least
.Li NG_HOOKSIZ
-bytes long. The function returns 0 if the node and the hook is found, -1
-otherwise. The function skips intermediate tee nodes (see
+bytes long.
+The function returns 0 if the node and the hook is found, -1
+otherwise.
+The function skips intermediate tee nodes (see
.Xr ng_tee 4 ).
.Pp
The function
@@ -348,7 +366,8 @@ of node
.Fa id .
If
.Fa name
-is not NULL the new node is named with this name. The function returns
+is not NULL the new node is named with this name.
+The function returns
The node id of the new node or 0 if an error happens.
.Pp
The functions
diff --git a/lib/libc/compat-43/gethostid.3 b/lib/libc/compat-43/gethostid.3
index 6a7c98b6117c..8d58004f7332 100644
--- a/lib/libc/compat-43/gethostid.3
+++ b/lib/libc/compat-43/gethostid.3
@@ -53,8 +53,10 @@ The
function
establishes a 32-bit identifier for the
current processor that is intended to be unique among all
-UNIX systems in existence. This is normally a DARPA Internet
-address for the local machine. This call is allowed only to the
+UNIX systems in existence.
+This is normally a DARPA Internet
+address for the local machine.
+This call is allowed only to the
super-user and is normally performed at boot time.
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/compat-43/sigvec.2 b/lib/libc/compat-43/sigvec.2
index 230e4b3f1928..a3f95e241f58 100644
--- a/lib/libc/compat-43/sigvec.2
+++ b/lib/libc/compat-43/sigvec.2
@@ -60,7 +60,8 @@ This interface is made obsolete by
The system defines a set of signals that may be delivered to a process.
Signal delivery resembles the occurrence of a hardware interrupt:
the signal is blocked from further occurrence, the current process
-context is saved, and a new one is built. A process may specify a
+context is saved, and a new one is built.
+A process may specify a
.Em handler
to which a signal is delivered, or specify that a signal is to be
.Em blocked
@@ -69,7 +70,8 @@ or
A process may also specify that a default action is to be taken
by the system when a signal occurs.
Normally, signal handlers execute on the current stack
-of the process. This may be changed, on a per-handler basis,
+of the process.
+This may be changed, on a per-handler basis,
so that signals are taken on a special
.Em "signal stack" .
.Pp
@@ -82,8 +84,10 @@ but other signals may yet occur.
A global
.Em "signal mask"
defines the set of signals currently blocked from delivery
-to a process. The signal mask for a process is initialized
-from that of its parent (normally 0). It
+to a process.
+The signal mask for a process is initialized
+from that of its parent (normally 0).
+It
may be changed with a
.Xr sigblock 2
or
@@ -92,12 +96,15 @@ call, or when a signal is delivered to the process.
.Pp
When a signal
condition arises for a process, the signal is added to a set of
-signals pending for the process. If the signal is not currently
+signals pending for the process.
+If the signal is not currently
.Em blocked
-by the process then it is delivered to the process. When a signal
+by the process then it is delivered to the process.
+When a signal
is delivered, the current state of the process is saved,
a new signal mask is calculated (as described below),
-and the signal handler is invoked. The call to the handler
+and the signal handler is invoked.
+The call to the handler
is arranged so that if the signal handling routine returns
normally the process will resume execution in the context
from before the signal's delivery.
@@ -119,7 +126,8 @@ in the signal mask associated with the handler to be invoked.
The
.Fn sigvec
function
-assigns a handler for a specific signal. If
+assigns a handler for a specific signal.
+If
.Fa vec
is non-zero, it
specifies a handler routine and mask
diff --git a/lib/libc/db/man/btree.3 b/lib/libc/db/man/btree.3
index 9c5fbfec6aa8..5712d18aaeda 100644
--- a/lib/libc/db/man/btree.3
+++ b/lib/libc/db/man/btree.3
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ The flag value is specified by
any of the following values:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Dv R_DUP
-Permit duplicate keys in the tree, i.e. permit insertion if the key to be
+Permit duplicate keys in the tree, i.e., permit insertion if the key to be
inserted already exists in the tree.
The default behavior, as described in
.Xr dbopen 3 ,
@@ -145,7 +145,7 @@ Not currently implemented.
.It Va minkeypage
The minimum number of keys which will be stored on any single page.
This value is used to determine which keys will be stored on overflow
-pages, i.e. if a key or data item is longer than the pagesize divided
+pages, i.e., if a key or data item is longer than the pagesize divided
by the minkeypage value, it will be stored on overflow pages instead
of in the page itself.
If
diff --git a/lib/libc/db/man/dbopen.3 b/lib/libc/db/man/dbopen.3
index e68e3b52c1c1..e2475635d72b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/db/man/dbopen.3
+++ b/lib/libc/db/man/dbopen.3
@@ -335,7 +335,7 @@ or
.Va sync
routines.
Modifications to the database during a sequential scan will be reflected
-in the scan, i.e. records inserted behind the cursor will not be returned
+in the scan, i.e., records inserted behind the cursor will not be returned
while records inserted in front of the cursor will be returned.
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/db/man/recno.3 b/lib/libc/db/man/recno.3
index 9a786ddfe3cc..726f74f8b3cc 100644
--- a/lib/libc/db/man/recno.3
+++ b/lib/libc/db/man/recno.3
@@ -190,7 +190,7 @@ field of the key should be the size of that type.
Because there can be no meta-data associated with the underlying
.Nm
access method files, any changes made to the default values
-(e.g. fixed record length or byte separator value) must be explicitly
+(e.g.\& fixed record length or byte separator value) must be explicitly
specified each time the file is opened.
.Pp
In the interface specified by
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/basename.3 b/lib/libc/gen/basename.3
index 5da5e4f72d7e..6f03b4ae57db 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/basename.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/basename.3
@@ -100,4 +100,4 @@ function first appeared in
and
.Fx 4.2 .
.Sh AUTHORS
-Todd C. Miller <Todd.Miller@courtesan.com>
+.An "Todd C. Miller" Aq Todd.Miller@courtesan.com
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/directory.3 b/lib/libc/gen/directory.3
index ce1ead75b422..5cd666774530 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/directory.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/directory.3
@@ -78,7 +78,8 @@ with it
and
returns a pointer to be used to identify the
.Em directory stream
-in subsequent operations. The pointer
+in subsequent operations.
+The pointer
.Dv NULL
is returned if
.Fa filename
@@ -89,7 +90,8 @@ enough memory to hold the whole thing.
The
.Fn readdir
function
-returns a pointer to the next directory entry. It returns
+returns a pointer to the next directory entry.
+It returns
.Dv NULL
upon reaching the end of the directory or detecting an invalid
.Fn seekdir
@@ -102,7 +104,8 @@ provides the same functionality as
.Fn readdir ,
but the caller must provide a directory
.Fa entry
-buffer to store the results in. If the read succeeds,
+buffer to store the results in.
+If the read succeeds,
.Fa result
is pointed at the
.Fa entry ;
@@ -126,7 +129,8 @@ are good only for the lifetime of the
.Dv DIR
pointer,
.Fa dirp ,
-from which they are derived. If the directory is closed and then
+from which they are derived.
+If the directory is closed and then
reopened, prior values returned by
.Fn telldir
will no longer be valid.
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/dirname.3 b/lib/libc/gen/dirname.3
index d66eeaaf08f6..eac042d173bb 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/dirname.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/dirname.3
@@ -107,4 +107,4 @@ function first appeared in
and
.Fx 4.2 .
.Sh AUTHORS
-Todd C. Miller <Todd.Miller@courtesan.com>
+.An "Todd C. Miller" Aq Todd.Miller@courtesan.com
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/dladdr.3 b/lib/libc/gen/dladdr.3
index 84ea1b59844c..414fa49a3e90 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/dladdr.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/dladdr.3
@@ -93,7 +93,8 @@ The
function first appeared in the Solaris operating system.
.Sh BUGS
This implementation is bug-compatible with the Solaris
-implementation. In particular, the following bugs are present:
+implementation.
+In particular, the following bugs are present:
.Bl -bullet
.It
If
@@ -101,12 +102,15 @@ If
lies in the main executable rather than in a shared library, the
pathname returned in
.Va dli_fname
-may not be correct. The pathname is taken directly from
+may not be correct.
+The pathname is taken directly from
.Va argv[0]
-of the calling process. When executing a program specified by its
+of the calling process.
+When executing a program specified by its
full pathname, most shells set
.Va argv[0]
-to the pathname. But this is not required of shells or guaranteed
+to the pathname.
+But this is not required of shells or guaranteed
by the operating system.
.It
If
@@ -115,10 +119,12 @@ is of the form
.Va &func ,
where
.Va func
-is a global function, its value may be an unpleasant surprise. In
+is a global function, its value may be an unpleasant surprise.
+In
dynamically linked programs, the address of a global function is
considered to point to its program linkage table entry, rather than to
-the entry point of the function itself. This causes most global
+the entry point of the function itself.
+This causes most global
functions to appear to be defined within the main executable, rather
than in the shared libraries where the actual code resides.
.It
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/dllockinit.3 b/lib/libc/gen/dllockinit.3
index 6af2cf747f6a..98d10749485e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/dllockinit.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/dllockinit.3
@@ -40,22 +40,26 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Bf Sy
Due to enhancements in the dynamic linker, this interface is no longer
-needed. It is deprecated and will be removed from future releases.
+needed.
+It is deprecated and will be removed from future releases.
In current releases it still exists, but only as a stub which does nothing.
.Ef
.Pp
Threads packages can call
.Fn dllockinit
at initialization time to register locking functions for the dynamic
-linker to use. This enables the dynamic linker to prevent multiple
+linker to use.
+This enables the dynamic linker to prevent multiple
threads from entering its critical sections simultaneously.
.Pp
The
.Fa context
-argument specifies an opaque context for creating locks. The
+argument specifies an opaque context for creating locks.
+The
dynamic linker will pass it to the
.Fa lock_create
-function when creating the locks it needs. When the dynamic linker
+function when creating the locks it needs.
+When the dynamic linker
is permanently finished using the locking functions (e.g., if the
program makes a subsequent call to
.Fn dllockinit
@@ -65,7 +69,8 @@ to destroy the context.
.Pp
The
.Fa lock_create
-argument specifies a function for creating a read/write lock. It
+argument specifies a function for creating a read/write lock.
+It
must return a pointer to the new lock.
.Pp
The
@@ -73,18 +78,23 @@ The
and
.Fa wlock_acquire
arguments specify functions which lock a lock for reading or
-writing, respectively. The
+writing, respectively.
+The
.Fa lock_release
-argument specifies a function which unlocks a lock. Each of these
+argument specifies a function which unlocks a lock.
+Each of these
functions is passed a pointer to the lock.
.Pp
The
.Fa lock_destroy
-argument specifies a function to destroy a lock. It may be
+argument specifies a function to destroy a lock.
+It may be
.Dv NULL
-if locks do not need to be destroyed. The
+if locks do not need to be destroyed.
+The
.Fa context_destroy
-argument specifies a function to destroy the context. It may be
+argument specifies a function to destroy the context.
+It may be
.Dv NULL
if the context does not need to be destroyed.
.Pp
@@ -96,9 +106,11 @@ a default locking mechanism which works by blocking the
.Dv SIGPROF ,
and
.Dv SIGALRM
-signals. This is sufficient for many application level threads
+signals.
+This is sufficient for many application level threads
packages, which typically use one of these signals to implement
-preemption. An application which has registered its own locking
+preemption.
+An application which has registered its own locking
methods with
.Fn dllockinit
can restore the default locking by calling
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/fmtcheck.3 b/lib/libc/gen/fmtcheck.3
index 1cb48838b86a..366355849fdb 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/fmtcheck.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/fmtcheck.3
@@ -64,7 +64,8 @@ is a valid format string.
The
.Xr printf 3
family of functions cannot verify the types of arguments that they are
-passed at run-time. In some cases, like
+passed at run-time.
+In some cases, like
.Xr catgets 3 ,
it is useful or necessary to use a user-supplied format string with no
guarantee that the format string matches the specified arguments.
@@ -76,10 +77,11 @@ was designed to be used in these cases, as in:
printf(fmtcheck(user_format, standard_format), arg1, arg2);
.Ed
.Pp
-In the check, field widths, fillers, precisions, etc. are ignored (unless
+In the check, field widths, fillers, precisions, etc.\& are ignored (unless
the field width or precision is an asterisk
.Ql *
-instead of a digit string). Also, any text other than the format specifiers
+instead of a digit string).
+Also, any text other than the format specifiers
is completely ignored.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
If
@@ -94,7 +96,8 @@ Otherwise, it will return
.Fa fmt_default .
.Sh SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
Note that the formats may be quite different as long as they accept the
-same arguments. For example,
+same arguments.
+For example,
.Qq Li "%p %o %30s %#llx %-10.*e %n"
is compatible with
.Qq Li "This number %lu %d%% and string %s has %qd numbers and %.*g floats (%n)" .
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/ftok.3 b/lib/libc/gen/ftok.3
index b43ce96c7019..a1c7dde54589 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/ftok.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/ftok.3
@@ -53,7 +53,8 @@ of an existing file and a user-selectable
The specified
.Fa path
must specify an existing file that is accessible to the calling process
-or the call will fail. Also, note that links to files will return the
+or the call will fail.
+Also, note that links to files will return the
same key, given the same
.Fa id .
.Sh RETURN VALUES
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/fts.3 b/lib/libc/gen/fts.3
index 3245ba89e148..3ef0220e74d2 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/fts.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/fts.3
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ A directory being visited in post-order.
The contents of the
.Vt FTSENT
structure will be unchanged from when
-it was returned in pre-order, i.e. with the
+it was returned in pre-order, i.e., with the
.Fa fts_info
field set to
.Dv FTS_D .
@@ -306,7 +306,7 @@ It is initialized to
A pointer to the
.Vt FTSENT
structure referencing the file in the hierarchy
-immediately above the current file, i.e. the directory of which this
+immediately above the current file, i.e., the directory of which this
file is a member.
A parent structure for the initial entry point is provided as well,
however, only the
@@ -601,7 +601,7 @@ has not yet been called for a hierarchy,
.Fn fts_children
will return a pointer to the files in the logical directory specified to
.Fn fts_open ,
-i.e. the arguments specified to
+i.e., the arguments specified to
.Fn fts_open .
Otherwise, if the
.Vt FTSENT
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/getbootfile.3 b/lib/libc/gen/getbootfile.3
index 4ceaf6629a25..03e4c122834a 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/getbootfile.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/getbootfile.3
@@ -54,7 +54,8 @@ A read/write interface to this information is available via the
MIB variable
.Dq Li kern.bootfile .
.Sh RETURN VALUES
-If the call succeeds a string giving the pathname is returned. If it
+If the call succeeds a string giving the pathname is returned.
+If it
fails, a null pointer is returned and an error code is
placed in the global location
.Va errno .
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/getcap.3 b/lib/libc/gen/getcap.3
index 57072b4aa8ab..6ab7721badbd 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/getcap.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/getcap.3
@@ -135,9 +135,11 @@ is
the current entry is removed from the database.
A call to
.Fn cgetset
-must precede the database traversal. It must be called before the
+must precede the database traversal.
+It must be called before the
.Fn cgetent
-call. If a sequential access is being performed (see below), it must be called
+call.
+If a sequential access is being performed (see below), it must be called
before the first sequential access call
.Fn ( cgetfirst
or
@@ -166,16 +168,19 @@ with type
.Fa type .
A
.Fa type
-is specified using any single character. If a colon (`:') is used, an
+is specified using any single character.
+If a colon (`:') is used, an
untyped capability will be searched for (see below for explanation of
-types). A pointer to the value of
+types).
+A pointer to the value of
.Fa cap
in
.Fa buf
is returned on success,
.Dv NULL
if the requested capability couldn't be
-found. The end of the capability value is signaled by a `:' or
+found.
+The end of the capability value is signaled by a `:' or
.Tn ASCII
.Dv NUL
(see below for capability database syntax).
@@ -240,7 +245,8 @@ record returned by the previous
.Fn cgetfirst
or
.Fn cgetnext
-call. If there is no such previous call, the first record in the database is
+call.
+If there is no such previous call, the first record in the database is
returned.
Each record is returned in a
.Xr malloc 3 Ns \&'d
@@ -263,27 +269,35 @@ Upon completion of database (0 return) the database is closed.
The
.Fn cgetclose
function closes the sequential access and frees any memory and file descriptors
-being used. Note that it does not erase the buffer pushed by a call to
+being used.
+Note that it does not erase the buffer pushed by a call to
.Fn cgetset .
.Sh CAPABILITY DATABASE SYNTAX
Capability databases are normally
.Tn ASCII
and may be edited with standard
-text editors. Blank lines and lines beginning with a `#' are comments
-and are ignored. Lines ending with a `\|\e' indicate that the next line
+text editors.
+Blank lines and lines beginning with a `#' are comments
+and are ignored.
+Lines ending with a `\|\e' indicate that the next line
is a continuation of the current line; the `\|\e' and following newline
-are ignored. Long lines are usually continued onto several physical
+are ignored.
+Long lines are usually continued onto several physical
lines by ending each line except the last with a `\|\e'.
.Pp
Capability databases consist of a series of records, one per logical
-line. Each record contains a variable number of `:'-separated fields
-(capabilities). Empty fields consisting entirely of white space
+line.
+Each record contains a variable number of `:'-separated fields
+(capabilities).
+Empty fields consisting entirely of white space
characters (spaces and tabs) are ignored.
.Pp
The first capability of each record specifies its names, separated by `|'
-characters. These names are used to reference records in the database.
+characters.
+These names are used to reference records in the database.
By convention, the last name is usually a comment and is not intended as
-a lookup tag. For example, the
+a lookup tag.
+For example, the
.Em vt100
record from the
.Xr termcap 5
@@ -308,16 +322,21 @@ has value
does not exist
.El
.Pp
-Names consist of one or more characters. Names may contain any character
+Names consist of one or more characters.
+Names may contain any character
except `:', but it's usually best to restrict them to the printable
-characters and avoid use of graphics like `#', `=', `%', `@', etc. Types
+characters and avoid use of graphics like `#', `=', `%', `@', etc.\& Types
are single characters used to separate capability names from their
-associated typed values. Types may be any character except a `:'.
-Typically, graphics like `#', `=', `%', etc. are used. Values may be any
+associated typed values.
+Types may be any character except a `:'.
+Typically, graphics like `#', `=', `%', etc.\& are used.
+Values may be any
number of characters and may contain any character except `:'.
.Sh CAPABILITY DATABASE SEMANTICS
-Capability records describe a set of (name, value) bindings. Names may
-have multiple values bound to them. Different values for a name are
+Capability records describe a set of (name, value) bindings.
+Names may
+have multiple values bound to them.
+Different values for a name are
distinguished by their
.Fa types .
The
@@ -326,7 +345,8 @@ function will return a pointer to a value of a name given the capability
name and the type of the value.
.Pp
The types `#' and `=' are conventionally used to denote numeric and
-string typed values, but no restriction on those types is enforced. The
+string typed values, but no restriction on those types is enforced.
+The
functions
.Fn cgetnum
and
@@ -351,7 +371,8 @@ capabilities may interpolate records which also contain
.Ic tc
capabilities and more than one
.Ic tc
-capability may be used in a record. A
+capability may be used in a record.
+A
.Ic tc
expansion scope (i.e., where the argument is searched for) contains the
file in which the
@@ -359,7 +380,8 @@ file in which the
is declared and all subsequent files in the file array.
.Pp
When a database is searched for a capability record, the first matching
-record in the search is returned. When a record is scanned for a
+record in the search is returned.
+When a record is scanned for a
capability, the first matching capability is returned; the capability
.Ic :nameT@:
will hide any following definition of a value of type
@@ -386,7 +408,8 @@ example\||\|an example of binding multiple values to names:\e
.Ed
.Pp
The capability foo has two values bound to it (bar of type `%' and blah of
-type `^') and any other value bindings are hidden. The capability abc
+type `^') and any other value bindings are hidden.
+The capability abc
also has two values bound but only a value of type `$' is prevented from
being defined in the capability record more.
.Pp
@@ -408,7 +431,8 @@ who-cares@ prevents the definition of any who-cares definitions in old
from being seen, glork#200 is inherited from old, and blah and anything
defined by the record extensions is added to those definitions in old.
Note that the position of the fript=bar and who-cares@ definitions before
-tc=old is important here. If they were after, the definitions in old
+tc=old is important here.
+If they were after, the definitions in old
would take precedence.
.Sh CGETNUM AND CGETSTR SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS
Two types are predefined by
@@ -453,7 +477,8 @@ Otherwise, if the number starts with a
it is interpreted as an octal number.
Otherwise the number is interpreted as a decimal number.
.Pp
-String capability values may contain any character. Non-printable
+String capability values may contain any character.
+Non-printable
.Dv ASCII
codes, new lines, and colons may be conveniently represented by the use
of escape sequences:
@@ -472,7 +497,8 @@ of escape sequences:
.El
.Pp
A `\|\e' may be followed by up to three octal digits directly specifies
-the numeric code for a character. The use of
+the numeric code for a character.
+The use of
.Tn ASCII
.Dv NUL Ns s ,
while easily
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/getdiskbyname.3 b/lib/libc/gen/getdiskbyname.3
index 068bb87a98af..0dffef96eb0c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/getdiskbyname.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/getdiskbyname.3
@@ -52,7 +52,8 @@ takes a disk name (e.g.\&
.Ql rm03 )
and returns a prototype disk label
describing its geometry information and the standard
-disk partition tables. All information is obtained from
+disk partition tables.
+All information is obtained from
the
.Xr disktab 5
file.
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/getdomainname.3 b/lib/libc/gen/getdomainname.3
index e0635906ee3e..ed1f0ff74129 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/getdomainname.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/getdomainname.3
@@ -59,7 +59,8 @@ The
argument
specifies the size of the
.Fa name
-array. The returned name is null-terminated unless insufficient
+array.
+The returned name is null-terminated unless insufficient
space is provided.
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/getgrent.3 b/lib/libc/gen/getgrent.3
index 838e1070328b..b8628b2835c6 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/getgrent.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/getgrent.3
@@ -96,7 +96,8 @@ search the group database for the given group name pointed to by
.Fa name
or the group id pointed to by
.Fa gid ,
-respectively, returning the first one encountered. Identical group
+respectively, returning the first one encountered.
+Identical group
names or group gids may result in undefined behavior.
.Pp
The
@@ -139,12 +140,15 @@ These functions will open the group file for reading, if necessary.
The
.Fn setgroupent
function
-opens the file, or rewinds it if it is already open. If
+opens the file, or rewinds it if it is already open.
+If
.Fa stayopen
is non-zero, file descriptors are left open, significantly speeding
-functions subsequent calls. This functionality is unnecessary for
+functions subsequent calls.
+This functionality is unnecessary for
.Fn getgrent
-as it doesn't close its file descriptors by default. It should also
+as it doesn't close its file descriptors by default.
+It should also
be noted that it is dangerous for long-running programs to use this
functionality as the group file may be updated.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/getobjformat.3 b/lib/libc/gen/getobjformat.3
index f3c15730c0c7..8705f0166622 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/getobjformat.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/getobjformat.3
@@ -43,7 +43,8 @@ function
queries several sources to determine the preferred object file
format, and copies its name into a buffer provided by the caller.
.Pp
-The object file format is determined as follows. If
+The object file format is determined as follows.
+If
.Va argv
is
.No non- Ns Ev NULL
@@ -70,9 +71,11 @@ Otherwise, a built-in system default object file format is returned.
points to a user-supplied buffer into which the name of the object
file format is copied.
.Va bufsize
-gives the size of the buffer in bytes. The string placed in
+gives the size of the buffer in bytes.
+The string placed in
.Va buf
-is always null-terminated. It is an error if the buffer is too
+is always null-terminated.
+It is an error if the buffer is too
small to hold the null-terminated name.
.Pp
.Va argv
@@ -104,7 +107,8 @@ null terminator.
If the supplied buffer is too small to hold the object file format
and its null terminator,
.Fn getobjformat
-returns -1. In that case, the contents of the buffer and argument
+returns -1.
+In that case, the contents of the buffer and argument
vector supplied by the caller are indeterminate.
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Bl -tag -width OBJFORMAT
@@ -118,7 +122,8 @@ is set, it overrides the default object file format.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /etc/objformat -compact
.It Pa /etc/objformat
-If present, specifies the object file format to use. Syntax is
+If present, specifies the object file format to use.
+Syntax is
.Ql OBJFORMAT=xxx .
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/lockf.3 b/lib/libc/gen/lockf.3
index 63cf66967910..cb3b8ef39d46 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/lockf.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/lockf.3
@@ -102,7 +102,8 @@ unlocked.
The section to be locked or unlocked starts at the current
offset in the file and extends forward for a positive size or backward
for a negative size (the preceding bytes up to but not including the
-current offset). However, it is not permitted to lock a section that
+current offset).
+However, it is not permitted to lock a section that
starts or extends before the beginning of the file.
If
.Fa size
@@ -142,7 +143,8 @@ controlled by the process.
Locked sections will be unlocked starting
at the current file offset through
.Fa size
-bytes or to the end of file if size is 0. When all of a locked section
+bytes or to the end of file if size is 0.
+When all of a locked section
is not released (that is, when the beginning or end of the area to be
unlocked falls within a locked section), the remaining portions of
that section are still locked by the process.
@@ -160,13 +162,15 @@ the requested section is the maximum value for an object of type
off_t, when the process has an existing lock in which size is 0 and
which includes the last byte of the requested section, will be treated
as a request to unlock from the start of the requested section with a
-size equal to 0. Otherwise an
+size equal to 0.
+Otherwise an
.Dv F_ULOCK
request will attempt to unlock only the requested section.
.Pp
A potential for deadlock occurs if a process controlling a locked
region is put to sleep by attempting to lock the locked region of
-another process. This implementation detects that sleeping until a
+another process.
+This implementation detects that sleeping until a
locked region is unlocked would cause a deadlock and fails with an
.Er EDEADLK
error.
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/msgrcv.3 b/lib/libc/gen/msgrcv.3
index d6401b654b9d..8c280ae293a0 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/msgrcv.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/msgrcv.3
@@ -72,19 +72,22 @@ has one of the following meanings:
The
.Fa msgtyp
argument
-is greater than 0. The first message of type
+is greater than 0.
+The first message of type
.Fa msgtyp
will be received.
.It
The
.Fa msgtyp
argument
-is equal to 0. The first message on the queue will be received.
+is equal to 0.
+The first message on the queue will be received.
.It
The
.Fa msgtyp
argument
-is less than 0. The first message of the lowest message type that is
+is less than 0.
+The first message of the lowest message type that is
less than or equal to the absolute value of
.Fa msgtyp
will be received.
@@ -133,7 +136,8 @@ The message queue is removed, in which case -1 will be returned, and
set to
.Er EINVAL .
.It
-A signal is received and caught. -1 is returned, and
+A signal is received and caught.
+-1 is returned, and
.Va errno
set to
.Er EINTR .
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/rand48.3 b/lib/libc/gen/rand48.3
index 3a263c8f1e24..1bd315e951a5 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/rand48.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/rand48.3
@@ -81,7 +81,8 @@ and
.Fn nrand48
functions
return values of type long in the range
-[0, 2**31-1]. The high-order (31) bits of
+[0, 2**31-1].
+The high-order (31) bits of
r(n+1) are loaded into the lower bits of the returned value, with
the topmost (sign) bit set to zero.
.Pp
@@ -91,7 +92,8 @@ and
.Fn jrand48
functions
return values of type long in the range
-[-2**31, 2**31-1]. The high-order (32) bits of
+[-2**31, 2**31-1].
+The high-order (32) bits of
r(n+1) are loaded into the returned value.
.Pp
The
@@ -100,7 +102,8 @@ The
and
.Fn mrand48
functions
-use an internal buffer to store r(n). For these functions
+use an internal buffer to store r(n).
+For these functions
the initial value of r(0) = 0x1234abcd330e = 20017429951246.
.Pp
On the other hand,
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/setjmp.3 b/lib/libc/gen/setjmp.3
index fb9753a7b3f6..d59fb8957ee9 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/setjmp.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/setjmp.3
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@ call had just returned the value specified by
.Fa val ,
instead of 0.
.Pp
-Pairs of calls may be intermixed, i.e. both
+Pairs of calls may be intermixed, i.e., both
.Fn sigsetjmp
and
.Fn siglongjmp
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ and
and
.Fn longjmp
combinations may be used in the same program, however, individual
-calls may not, e.g. the
+calls may not, e.g.\& the
.Fa env
argument to
.Fn setjmp
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/setproctitle.3 b/lib/libc/gen/setproctitle.3
index a508441862f9..fe9f19acde6e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/setproctitle.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/setproctitle.3
@@ -68,10 +68,12 @@ setproctitle("talking to %s", inet_ntoa(addr));
The
.Fn setproctitle
function
-is implicitly non-standard. Other methods of causing the
+is implicitly non-standard.
+Other methods of causing the
.Xr ps 1
command line to change, including copying over the argv[0] string are
-also implicitly non-portable. It is preferable to use an operating system
+also implicitly non-portable.
+It is preferable to use an operating system
supplied
.Fn setproctitle
if present.
@@ -79,7 +81,8 @@ if present.
Unfortunately, it is possible that there are other calling conventions
to other versions of
.Fn setproctitle ,
-although none have been found by the author as yet. This is believed to be
+although none have been found by the author as yet.
+This is believed to be
the predominant convention.
.Pp
It is thought that the implementation is compatible with other systems,
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/shm_open.3 b/lib/libc/gen/shm_open.3
index 061913311a3f..ac4c1109af27 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/shm_open.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/shm_open.3
@@ -150,7 +150,8 @@ functions can fail with any error defined for
.Fn open
and
.Fn unlink ,
-respectively. In addition, the following errors are defined for
+respectively.
+In addition, the following errors are defined for
.Fn shm_open :
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EINVAL
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/signal.3 b/lib/libc/gen/signal.3
index b32969157d0f..681483d74e6b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/signal.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/signal.3
@@ -63,7 +63,8 @@ facility.
.Pp
Signals allow the manipulation of a process from outside its
domain as well as allowing the process to manipulate itself or
-copies of itself (children). There are two general types of signals:
+copies of itself (children).
+There are two general types of signals:
those that cause termination of a process and those that do not.
Signals which cause termination of a program might result from
an irrecoverable error or might be the result of a user at a terminal
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/sleep.3 b/lib/libc/gen/sleep.3
index dd0a32204003..4c204dc98d1e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/sleep.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/sleep.3
@@ -66,7 +66,8 @@ and there is no special handling for SIGALRM.
If the
.Fn sleep
function returns because the requested time has elapsed, the value
-returned will be zero. If the
+returned will be zero.
+If the
.Fn sleep
function returns due to the delivery of a signal, the value returned
will be the unslept amount (the requested time minus the time actually
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/sysctl.3 b/lib/libc/gen/sysctl.3
index 7fa187b615fc..24d078aa3065 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/sysctl.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/sysctl.3
@@ -83,7 +83,8 @@ length array of integers.
The
.Fn sysctlbyname
function accepts an ASCII representation of the name and internally
-looks up the integer name vector. Apart from that, it behaves the same
+looks up the integer name vector.
+Apart from that, it behaves the same
as the standard
.Fn sysctl
function.
@@ -454,7 +455,7 @@ The third and fourth level names are as follows:
.El
.Pp
If the third level name is KERN_PROC_ARGS then the command line argument
-array is returned in a flattened form, i.e. zero-terminated arguments
+array is returned in a flattened form, i.e., zero-terminated arguments
follow each other.
The total size of array is returned.
It is also possible for a process to set its own process title this way.
@@ -752,12 +753,14 @@ The returned data consists of a
0 if the statistics-based page management algorithm is in use
or 1 if the near-LRU algorithm is in use.
.It Li VM_SWAPPING_ENABLED
-1 if process swapping is enabled or 0 if disabled. This variable is
+1 if process swapping is enabled or 0 if disabled.
+This variable is
permanently set to 0 if the kernel was built with swapping disabled.
.It Li VM_V_CACHE_MAX
Maximum desired size of the cache queue.
.It Li VM_V_CACHE_MIN
-Minimum desired size of the cache queue. If the cache queue size
+Minimum desired size of the cache queue.
+If the cache queue size
falls very far below this value, the pageout daemon is awakened.
.It Li VM_V_FREE_MIN
Minimum amount of memory (cache memory plus free memory)
@@ -771,7 +774,8 @@ The total amount of free memory (including cache memory) that the
pageout daemon tries to maintain.
.It Li VM_V_INACTIVE_TARGET
The desired number of inactive pages that the pageout daemon should
-achieve when it runs. Inactive pages can be quickly inserted into
+achieve when it runs.
+Inactive pages can be quickly inserted into
process address space when needed.
.It Li VM_V_PAGEOUT_FREE_MIN
If the amount of free and cache memory falls below this value, the
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/tzset.3 b/lib/libc/gen/tzset.3
index e93fa69ac3f6..42bcdbe41edd 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/tzset.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/tzset.3
@@ -131,12 +131,14 @@ Three or more bytes that are the designation for the standard
.Pq Em std
or summer
.Pq Em dst
-time zone. Only
+time zone.
+Only
.Em std
is required; if
.Em dst
is missing, then summer time does not apply in this locale.
-Upper and lowercase letters are explicitly allowed. Any characters
+Upper and lowercase letters are explicitly allowed.
+Any characters
except a leading colon
.Pq Ql \&: ,
digits, comma
@@ -151,7 +153,8 @@ and
are allowed.
.It Em offset
Indicates the value one must add to the local time to arrive at
-Coordinated Universal Time. The
+Coordinated Universal Time.
+The
.Em offset
has the form:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
@@ -167,26 +170,33 @@ The minutes
.Pq Em mm
and seconds
.Pq Em ss
-are optional. The hour
+are optional.
+The hour
.Pq Em hh
-is required and may be a single digit. The
+is required and may be a single digit.
+The
.Em offset
following
.Em std
-is required. If no
+is required.
+If no
.Em offset
follows
.Em dst ,
-summer time is assumed to be one hour ahead of standard time. One or
+summer time is assumed to be one hour ahead of standard time.
+One or
more digits may be used; the value is always interpreted as a decimal
-number. The hour must be between zero and 24, and the minutes (and
-seconds) \(em if present \(em between zero and 59. If preceded by a
+number.
+The hour must be between zero and 24, and the minutes (and
+seconds) \(em if present \(em between zero and 59.
+If preceded by a
.Pq Ql \-
the time zone shall be east of the Prime Meridian; otherwise it shall be
west (which may be indicated by an optional preceding
.Pq Ql + ) .
.It Em rule
-Indicates when to change to and back from summer time. The
+Indicates when to change to and back from summer time.
+The
.Em rule
has the form:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
@@ -198,7 +208,8 @@ where the first
describes when the change from standard to summer time occurs and the
second
.Em date
-describes when the change back happens. Each
+describes when the change back happens.
+Each
.Em time
field describes when, in current local time, the change to the other
time is made.
@@ -214,7 +225,8 @@ The Julian day
.Em n
\*(Le 365).
Leap days are not counted; that is, in all years \(em including leap
-years \(em February 28 is day 59 and March 1 is day 60. It is
+years \(em February 28 is day 59 and March 1 is day 60.
+It is
impossible to explicitly refer to the occasional February 29.
.It Em n
The zero-based Julian day
@@ -246,10 +258,12 @@ the last
day in month
.Em m
.Dc
-which may occur in either the fourth or the fifth week). Week 1 is the
+which may occur in either the fourth or the fifth week).
+Week 1 is the
first week in which the
.Em d Ns 'th
-day occurs. Day zero is Sunday.
+day occurs.
+Day zero is Sunday.
.Pp
The
.Em time
@@ -259,7 +273,8 @@ except that no leading sign
.Pq Ql \-
or
.Pq Ql +
-is allowed. The default, if
+is allowed.
+The default, if
.Em time
is not given, is
.Sy 02:00:00 .
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/ualarm.3 b/lib/libc/gen/ualarm.3
index 639570eb480c..7783a30b6b5c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/ualarm.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/ualarm.3
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ argument is non-zero, the
signal will be sent
to the process every
.Fa interval
-microseconds after the timer expires (e.g. after
+microseconds after the timer expires (e.g.\& after
.Fa microseconds
number of microseconds have passed).
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/unvis.3 b/lib/libc/gen/unvis.3
index 59cd85e55f87..b2cdbaac8a87 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/unvis.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/unvis.3
@@ -60,7 +60,8 @@ are used to decode a visual representation of characters, as produced
by the
.Xr vis 3
function, back into
-the original form. Unvis is called with successive characters in
+the original form.
+Unvis is called with successive characters in
.Fa c
until a valid
sequence is recognized, at which time the decoded character is
@@ -83,7 +84,8 @@ decoding any escape sequences along the way,
and returns the number of characters placed into
.Fa dst ,
or \-1 if an
-invalid escape sequence was detected. The size of
+invalid escape sequence was detected.
+The size of
.Fa dst
should be
equal to the size of
@@ -106,20 +108,24 @@ The
.Fn unvis
function
implements a state machine that can be used to decode an arbitrary
-stream of bytes. All state associated with the bytes being decoded
+stream of bytes.
+All state associated with the bytes being decoded
is stored outside the
.Fn unvis
function (that is, a pointer to the state is passed in), so
-calls decoding different streams can be freely intermixed. To
+calls decoding different streams can be freely intermixed.
+To
start decoding a stream of bytes, first initialize an integer
-to zero. Call
+to zero.
+Call
.Fn unvis
with each successive byte, along with a pointer
to this integer, and a pointer to a destination character.
The
.Fn unvis
function
-has several return codes that must be handled properly. They are:
+has several return codes that must be handled properly.
+They are:
.Bl -tag -width UNVIS_VALIDPUSH
.It Li \&0 (zero)
Another character is necessary; nothing has been recognized yet.
@@ -131,11 +137,13 @@ A valid character has been recognized and is available at the location
pointed to by cp; however, the character currently passed in should
be passed in again.
.It Dv UNVIS_NOCHAR
-A valid sequence was detected, but no character was produced. This
+A valid sequence was detected, but no character was produced.
+This
return code is necessary to indicate a logical break between characters.
.It Dv UNVIS_SYNBAD
An invalid escape sequence was detected, or the decoder is in an
-unknown state. The decoder is placed into the starting state.
+unknown state.
+The decoder is placed into the starting state.
.El
.Pp
When all bytes in the stream have been processed, call
diff --git a/lib/libc/gen/vis.3 b/lib/libc/gen/vis.3
index 3d094eb9945c..8985abdc857b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/gen/vis.3
+++ b/lib/libc/gen/vis.3
@@ -58,9 +58,11 @@ a string which represents the character
.Fa c .
If
.Fa c
-needs no encoding, it is copied in unaltered. The string is
+needs no encoding, it is copied in unaltered.
+The string is
null terminated, and a pointer to the end of the string is
-returned. The maximum length of any encoding is four
+returned.
+The maximum length of any encoding is four
characters (not including the trailing
.Dv NUL ) ;
thus, when
@@ -160,9 +162,11 @@ Synonym for
\&|
.Dv VIS_NL .
.It Dv VIS_SAFE
-Only encode "unsafe" characters. Unsafe means control
+Only encode "unsafe" characters.
+Unsafe means control
characters which may cause common terminals to perform
-unexpected functions. Currently this form allows space,
+unexpected functions.
+Currently this form allows space,
tab, newline, backspace, bell, and return - in addition
to all graphic characters - unencoded.
.El
@@ -259,7 +263,8 @@ where
.Ar d
represents a hexadecimal digit.
.It Dv VIS_OCTAL
-Use a three digit octal sequence. The form is
+Use a three digit octal sequence.
+The form is
.Ql \eddd
where
.Ar d
diff --git a/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_get_ioperm.2 b/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_get_ioperm.2
index 19ef4818f29a..4d3bbf18262b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_get_ioperm.2
+++ b/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_get_ioperm.2
@@ -45,7 +45,8 @@ The
system call
will return the permission for the process' I/O port space in the
.Fa *enable
-argument. The port range starts at
+argument.
+The port range starts at
.Fa start
and the number of contiguous entries will be returned in
.Fa *length .
diff --git a/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_set_watch.3 b/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_set_watch.3
index dfe60d8c3494..15b8497acc95 100644
--- a/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_set_watch.3
+++ b/lib/libc/i386/sys/i386_set_watch.3
@@ -54,11 +54,14 @@ The
.Fn i386_set_watch
function
will set up the specified debug registers as indicated by the
-arguments. The
+arguments.
+The
.Fa watchnum
-argument specifies which watch register is used, 0, 1, 2, 3, or -1. If
+argument specifies which watch register is used, 0, 1, 2, 3, or -1.
+If
.Fa watchnum
-is -1, a free watch register is found and used. If there are no free
+is -1, a free watch register is found and used.
+If there are no free
watch registers, an error code of -1 is returned.
The
.Fa watchaddr
@@ -78,7 +81,8 @@ DBREG_DR7_RDWR Break when the watch area is read from or written
.Ed
.Pp
Note that these functions do not actually set or clear breakpoints;
-they manipulate the indicated debug register set. You must use
+they manipulate the indicated debug register set.
+You must use
.Xr ptrace 2
to retrieve and install the debug register values for a process.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
@@ -96,7 +100,8 @@ will return the
.Fa watchnum
argument, or the watchnum actually used in the case that
.Fa watchnum
-is -1 on success. On error,
+is -1 on success.
+On error,
.Fn i386_set_watch
will return -1 indicating that the watchpoint could not be set up
because either no more watchpoints are available, or
diff --git a/lib/libc/locale/rune.3 b/lib/libc/locale/rune.3
index d3c8b3eaf81d..debb26e42b8c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/locale/rune.3
+++ b/lib/libc/locale/rune.3
@@ -191,7 +191,8 @@ function operates the same as
.Fn sgetrune
with the exception that it attempts to read enough bytes from
.Fa stream
-to decode a single rune. It returns either
+to decode a single rune.
+It returns either
.Dv EOF
on end of file,
.Dv _INVALID_RUNE
diff --git a/lib/libc/locale/setlocale.3 b/lib/libc/locale/setlocale.3
index 7e4ff851dc32..278e18d50d1e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/locale/setlocale.3
+++ b/lib/libc/locale/setlocale.3
@@ -81,7 +81,8 @@ and
functions.
This controls recognition of upper and lower case,
alphabetic or non-alphabetic characters,
-and so on. The real work is done by the
+and so on.
+The real work is done by the
.Fn setrunelocale
function.
.It Dv LC_MESSAGES
diff --git a/lib/libc/locale/utf2.5 b/lib/libc/locale/utf2.5
index a5a18659c002..e41cad860402 100644
--- a/lib/libc/locale/utf2.5
+++ b/lib/libc/locale/utf2.5
@@ -61,9 +61,11 @@ Unicode Standard.
.Pp
.Nm UTF2
representation is backwards compatible with ASCII, so 0x00-0x7f refer to the
-ASCII character set. The multibyte encodings of wide characters between
+ASCII character set.
+The multibyte encodings of wide characters between
0x0080 and 0xffff
-consist entirely of bytes whose high order bit is set. The actual
+consist entirely of bytes whose high order bit is set.
+The actual
encoding is represented by the following table:
.Bd -literal
[0x0000 - 0x007f] [00000000.0bbbbbbb] -> 0bbbbbbb
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/addr2ascii.3 b/lib/libc/net/addr2ascii.3
index fc9373d59cb0..b24c44e4887e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/addr2ascii.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/addr2ascii.3
@@ -52,7 +52,8 @@ The routines
and
.Fn ascii2addr
are used to convert network addresses between binary form and a
-printable form appropriate to the address family. Both functions take
+printable form appropriate to the address family.
+Both functions take
an
.Fa af
argument, specifying the address family to be used in the conversion
@@ -67,14 +68,17 @@ The
.Fn addr2ascii
function
is used to convert binary, network-format addresses into printable
-form. In addition to
+form.
+In addition to
.Fa af ,
-there are three other arguments. The
+there are three other arguments.
+The
.Fa addrp
argument is a pointer to the network address to be converted.
The
.Fa len
-argument is the length of the address. The
+argument is the length of the address.
+The
.Fa buf
argument is an optional pointer to a caller-allocated buffer to hold
the result; if a null pointer is passed,
@@ -94,7 +98,8 @@ and
The
.Fa ascii
argument is a pointer to the string which is to be converted into
-binary. The
+binary.
+The
.Fa result
argument is a pointer to an appropriate network address structure for
the specified family.
@@ -192,7 +197,8 @@ was improperly formatted for address family
.Xr inet 4
.Sh HISTORY
An interface close to this one was originally suggested by Craig
-Partridge. This particular interface originally appeared in the
+Partridge.
+This particular interface originally appeared in the
.Tn INRIA
.Tn IPv6
implementation.
@@ -201,8 +207,10 @@ Code and documentation by
.An Garrett A. Wollman ,
MIT Laboratory for Computer Science.
.Sh BUGS
-The original implementations supported IPv6. This support should
-eventually be resurrected. The
+The original implementations supported IPv6.
+This support should
+eventually be resurrected.
+The
.Tn NRL
implementation also included support for the
.Dv AF_ISO
@@ -210,13 +218,16 @@ and
.Dv AF_NS
address families.
.Pp
-The genericity of this interface is somewhat questionable. A truly
+The genericity of this interface is somewhat questionable.
+A truly
generic interface would provide a means for determining the length of
the buffer to be used so that it could be dynamically allocated, and
would always require a
.Dq Li "struct sockaddr"
-to hold the binary address. Unfortunately, this is incompatible with existing
-practice. This limitation means that a routine for printing network
+to hold the binary address.
+Unfortunately, this is incompatible with existing
+practice.
+This limitation means that a routine for printing network
addresses from arbitrary address families must still have internal
knowledge of the maximum buffer length needed and the appropriate part
of the address to use as the binary address.
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/byteorder.3 b/lib/libc/net/byteorder.3
index 21c105fe9f55..e10613d4b493 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/byteorder.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/byteorder.3
@@ -85,4 +85,5 @@ functions appeared in
On the
.Tn VAX
bytes are handled backwards from most everyone else in
-the world. This is not expected to be fixed in the near future.
+the world.
+This is not expected to be fixed in the near future.
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/gethostbyname.3 b/lib/libc/net/gethostbyname.3
index a4486bc6e9f8..8fb1e96e270e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/gethostbyname.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/gethostbyname.3
@@ -107,7 +107,7 @@ should point to an address which is
.Fa len
bytes long,
in binary form
-(i.e. not an IP address in human readable
+(i.e., not an IP address in human readable
.Tn ASCII
form).
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/getifaddrs.3 b/lib/libc/net/getifaddrs.3
index 3d7ea4283498..83877239aa39 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/getifaddrs.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/getifaddrs.3
@@ -110,7 +110,8 @@ if one exists, otherwise it is NULL.
.Pp
The
.Li ifa_data
-field references address family specific data. For
+field references address family specific data.
+For
.Dv AF_LINK
addresses it contains a pointer to the
.Fa struct if_data
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/getipnodebyname.3 b/lib/libc/net/getipnodebyname.3
index c5e65a326766..d0b18392a0a0 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/getipnodebyname.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/getipnodebyname.3
@@ -217,15 +217,19 @@ flag then the caller wants all addresses: IPv6 and IPv4-mapped IPv6.
A query is first made for
.Li AAAA
records and if successful, the
-IPv6 addresses are returned. Another query is then made for
+IPv6 addresses are returned.
+Another query is then made for
.Li A
records and any found are returned as IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses.
.Li h_length
-will be 16. Only if both queries fail does the function
+will be 16.
+Only if both queries fail does the function
return a
.Dv NULL
-pointer. This flag is ignored unless af equals
-AF_INET6. If both
+pointer.
+This flag is ignored unless af equals
+AF_INET6.
+If both
.Dv AI_ALL
and
.Dv AI_V4MAPPED
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/getnetent.3 b/lib/libc/net/getnetent.3
index f05df36e2d4e..b6cd94424afd 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/getnetent.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/getnetent.3
@@ -72,7 +72,8 @@ broken-out fields of a line in the network data base
.Pa /etc/networks ,
or entries supplied by the
.Xr yp 8
-system. The order of the lookups is controlled by the
+system.
+The order of the lookups is controlled by the
`networks' entry in
.Xr nsswitch.conf 5 .
.Pp
@@ -94,7 +95,8 @@ A zero terminated list of alternate names for the network.
.It Fa n_addrtype
The type of the network number returned; currently only AF_INET.
.It Fa n_net
-The network number. Network numbers are returned in machine byte
+The network number.
+Network numbers are returned in machine byte
order.
.El
.Pp
@@ -106,7 +108,8 @@ reads the next line of the file, opening the file if necessary.
The
.Fn setnetent
function
-opens and rewinds the file. If the
+opens and rewinds the file.
+If the
.Fa stayopen
flag is non-zero,
the net data base will not be closed after each call to
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/getprotoent.3 b/lib/libc/net/getprotoent.3
index 8f48481f8004..7811c788c6a5 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/getprotoent.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/getprotoent.3
@@ -95,7 +95,8 @@ reads the next line of the file, opening the file if necessary.
The
.Fn setprotoent
function
-opens and rewinds the file. If the
+opens and rewinds the file.
+If the
.Fa stayopen
flag is non-zero,
the net data base will not be closed after each call to
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/getservent.3 b/lib/libc/net/getservent.3
index 19cdfdf4e523..26399b5cf208 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/getservent.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/getservent.3
@@ -99,7 +99,8 @@ reads the next line of the file, opening the file if necessary.
The
.Fn setservent
function
-opens and rewinds the file. If the
+opens and rewinds the file.
+If the
.Fa stayopen
flag is non-zero,
the net data base will not be closed after each call to
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/inet.3 b/lib/libc/net/inet.3
index 39b60be9f1d8..21d0d71da9c8 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/inet.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/inet.3
@@ -144,11 +144,13 @@ takes an Internet address and returns an
.Tn ASCII
string representing the address in
.Ql .\&
-notation. The routine
+notation.
+The routine
.Fn inet_makeaddr
takes an Internet network number and a local
network address and constructs an Internet address
-from it. The routines
+from it.
+The routines
.Fn inet_netof
and
.Fn inet_lnaof
@@ -174,7 +176,8 @@ a
.Pp
When four parts are specified, each is interpreted
as a byte of data and assigned, from left to right,
-to the four bytes of an Internet address. Note
+to the four bytes of an Internet address.
+Note
that when an Internet address is viewed as a 32-bit
integer quantity on the
.Tn VAX
@@ -220,7 +223,8 @@ and
.Fn inet_ntoa
functions are semi-deprecated in favor of the
.Xr addr2ascii 3
-family. However, since those functions are not yet widely implemented,
+family.
+However, since those functions are not yet widely implemented,
portable programs cannot rely on their presence and will continue
to use the
.Xr inet 3
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/inet6_opt_init.3 b/lib/libc/net/inet6_opt_init.3
index 8f68380f38f7..410241406b82 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/inet6_opt_init.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/inet6_opt_init.3
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ complicated.
The advanced API therefore defines a set
of functions to help applications.
These functions assume the
-formatting rules specified in Appendix B in RFC2460 i.e. that the
+formatting rules specified in Appendix B in RFC2460 i.e., that the
largest field is placed last in the option.
The function prototypes for
these functions are all in the
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ header.
.Ss inet6_opt_init
.Fn inet6_opt_init
returns the number of bytes needed for the empty
-extension header i.e. without any options.
+extension header i.e., without any options.
If
.Li extbuf
is not NULL it also initializes the extension header to have the correct length
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@ is the 8-bit option type.
.Li len
is the length of the option data
.Po
-i.e. excluding the option type and option length fields.
+i.e., excluding the option type and option length fields.
.Pc
.Pp
Once
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/inet6_rthdr_space.3 b/lib/libc/net/inet6_rthdr_space.3
index 055a290cfda9..9c3e5be85fd5 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/inet6_rthdr_space.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/inet6_rthdr_space.3
@@ -72,7 +72,8 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
RFC2292 IPv6 advanced API defines eight
functions that the application calls to build and examine a Routing
-header. Four functions build a Routing header:
+header.
+Four functions build a Routing header:
.Bl -hang
.It Fn inet6_rthdr_space
return #bytes required for ancillary data
@@ -108,7 +109,8 @@ containing the specified number of
.Fa segments
(addresses).
For an IPv6 Type 0 Routing header, the number
-of segments must be between 1 and 23, inclusive. The return value
+of segments must be between 1 and 23, inclusive.
+The return value
includes the size of the cmsghdr structure that precedes the Routing
header, and any required padding.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/net/resolver.3 b/lib/libc/net/resolver.3
index 235898c61415..49257bf7b7a9 100644
--- a/lib/libc/net/resolver.3
+++ b/lib/libc/net/resolver.3
@@ -191,7 +191,8 @@ This option is enabled by default.
.It Dv RES_NOALIASES
This option turns off the user level aliasing feature controlled by the
.Dq Ev HOSTALIASES
-environment variable. Network daemons should set this option.
+environment variable.
+Network daemons should set this option.
.It Dv RES_USE_INET6
Enables support for IPv6-only applications.
This causes IPv4 addresses to be returned as an IPv4 mapped address.
@@ -227,7 +228,8 @@ it can be overridden by the environment variable
This environment variable may contain several blank-separated
tokens if you wish to override the
.Em "search list"
-on a per-process basis. This is similar to the
+on a per-process basis.
+This is similar to the
.Ic search
command in the configuration file.
Another environment variable
@@ -238,7 +240,8 @@ set by changing fields in the
.Va _res
structure or are inherited from the configuration file's
.Ic options
-command. The syntax of the
+command.
+The syntax of the
.Dq Ev RES_OPTIONS
environment variable is explained in
.Xr resolver 5 .
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete.3
index 8121d2e24a1d..818b1af28639 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete.3
@@ -124,9 +124,11 @@ The file system is read-only.
.Xr acl_set 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_entry.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_entry.3
index 86fe7b233eac..a931db03f04a 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_entry.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_entry.3
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ function fails if:
.It Bq Er EINVAL
Argument
.Fa acl
-does not point to a valid ACL. Argument
+does not point to a valid ACL.
+Argument
.Fa entry_d
is not a valid descriptor for an ACL entry in
.Fa acl .
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_perm.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_perm.3
index a3343aa04467..0740d6133375 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_perm.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_delete_perm.3
@@ -54,7 +54,8 @@ function fails if:
.It Bq Er EINVAL
Argument
.Fa permset_d
-is not a valid descriptor for a permission set. Argument
+is not a valid descriptor for a permission set.
+Argument
.Fa perm
does not contain a valid
.Vt acl_perm_t
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_dup.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_dup.3
index fa4a4f378ee8..ae4ff4f7b474 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_dup.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_dup.3
@@ -46,7 +46,8 @@ The
function returns a pointer to a copy of the ACL pointed to by the argument
.Va acl .
.Pp
-This function may cause memory to be allocated. The caller should free any
+This function may cause memory to be allocated.
+The caller should free any
releasable memory, when the new ACL is no longer required, by calling
.Xr acl_free 3
with the
@@ -62,7 +63,8 @@ support for POSIX.1e interfaces and features is still under
development at this time.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, this function shall return a pointer to the
-duplicate ACL. Otherwise, a value of
+duplicate ACL.
+Otherwise, a value of
.Va (acl_t)NULL
shall be returned, and
.Va errno
@@ -92,9 +94,11 @@ system-imposed memory management constraints.
.Xr acl_get 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_free.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_free.3
index bc06c993e27b..d64c72a7c7e2 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_free.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_free.3
@@ -73,9 +73,11 @@ argument is invalid.
.Xr acl_init 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_from_text.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_from_text.3
index f717d7bbf082..8b10784e502b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_from_text.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_from_text.3
@@ -48,7 +48,8 @@ function converts the text form of an ACL referred to by
into the internal working structure for ACLs, appropriate for applying to
files or manipulating.
.Pp
-This function may cause memory to be allocated. The caller should free any
+This function may cause memory to be allocated.
+The caller should free any
releasable memory, when the new ACL is no longer required, by calling
.Xr acl_free 3
with the
@@ -60,7 +61,8 @@ support for POSIX.1e interfaces and features is still under
development at this time.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, the function shall return a pointer to the
-internal representation of the ACL in working storage. Otherwise, a value
+internal representation of the ACL in working storage.
+Otherwise, a value
of
.Va (acl_t)NULL
shall be returned, and
@@ -90,9 +92,11 @@ hardware or system-imposed memory management constraints.
.Xr acl_to_text 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
@@ -112,7 +116,8 @@ rely on the
.Xr getpwent 3
library calls to manage username and uid mapping, as well as the
.Xr getgrent 3
-library calls to manage groupname and gid mapping. These calls are not
+library calls to manage groupname and gid mapping.
+These calls are not
thread safe, and so transitively, neither are
.Fn acl_from_text
and
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get.3
index 25ead88e0011..fa915df3ec48 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get.3
@@ -78,7 +78,8 @@ is a non-portable variation on
which does not follow a symlink if the target of the call is a
symlink.
.Pp
-These functions may cause memory to be allocated. The caller should free
+These functions may cause memory to be allocated.
+The caller should free
any releasable memory, when the new ACL is no longer required, by calling
.Xr acl_free 3
with the
@@ -96,7 +97,8 @@ support for POSIX.1e interfaces and features is still under
development at this time.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, the function shall return a pointer to the ACL
-that was retrieved. Otherwise, a value of
+that was retrieved.
+Otherwise, a value of
.Va (acl_t)NULL
shall be returned, and
.Va errno
@@ -138,9 +140,11 @@ The file system does not support ACL retrieval.
.Xr acl_set 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_entry.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_entry.3
index 528fd3420cb9..0627ecbd6b04 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_entry.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_entry.3
@@ -82,7 +82,8 @@ If the
function successfully obtains an ACL entry, a value of 1 is returned.
If the ACL has no ACL entries, the
.Fn acl_get_entry
-returns a value of 0. If the value of
+returns a value of 0.
+If the value of
.Fa entry_id
is
.Dv ACL_NEXT_ENTRY
@@ -93,7 +94,8 @@ a value of 0 will be returned until a successful call with
.Fa entry_id
of
.Dv ACL_FIRST_ENTRY
-is made. Otherwise, a value of -1 will be returned and
+is made.
+Otherwise, a value of -1 will be returned and
the global variable
.Va errno
will be set to indicate the error.
@@ -105,7 +107,8 @@ fails if:
.It Bq Er EINVAL
Argument
.Fa acl
-does not point to a valid ACL. Argument
+does not point to a valid ACL.
+Argument
.Fa entry_id
is neither
.Dv ACL_FIRST_ENTRY
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_qualifier.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_qualifier.3
index cdfe8826f637..867809e52da6 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_qualifier.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_get_qualifier.3
@@ -78,7 +78,8 @@ will return a value of
.Vt ( void * ) Ns Dv NULL
and the function will fail.
.Pp
-This function may cause memory to be allocated. The caller should
+This function may cause memory to be allocated.
+The caller should
free any releasable memory, when the new qualifier is no longer
required, by calling
.Fn acl_free
@@ -102,7 +103,8 @@ fails if:
.It Bq Er EINVAL
Argument
.Fa entry_d
-does not point to a valid descriptor for an ACL entry. The
+does not point to a valid descriptor for an ACL entry.
+The
value of the tag type in the ACL entry referenced by argument
.Fa entry_d
is not
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_init.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_init.3
index 8a98643d1a80..dba89231c44a 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_init.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_init.3
@@ -46,13 +46,16 @@ The
function allocates and initializes the working storage for an ACL of at
least
.Va count
-ACL entries. A pointer to the working storage is returned. The working
+ACL entries.
+A pointer to the working storage is returned.
+The working
storage allocated to contain the ACL is freed by a call to
.Xr acl_free 3 .
When the area is first allocated, it shall contain an ACL that contains
no ACL entries.
.Pp
-This function may cause memory to be allocated. The caller should free any
+This function may cause memory to be allocated.
+The caller should free any
releasable memory, when the new ACL is no longer required, by calling
.Xr acl_free 3
with the
@@ -64,7 +67,8 @@ support for POSIX.1e interfaces and features is still under
development at this time.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, this function shall return a pointer to the
-working storage. Otherwise, a value of
+working storage.
+Otherwise, a value of
.Va (acl_t)NULL
shall be returned, and
.Va errno
@@ -91,9 +95,11 @@ system-imposed memory management constraints.
.Xr acl_free 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set.3
index db1be7d01db2..a2d50b840dde 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set.3
@@ -126,9 +126,11 @@ read-only.
.Xr acl_valid 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_qualifier.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_qualifier.3
index 04dc2a2613f5..3442a823f9ec 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_qualifier.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_qualifier.3
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ function fails if:
.It Bq Er EINVAL
Argument
.Fa entry_d
-is not a valid descriptor for an ACL entry. The tag type of the
+is not a valid descriptor for an ACL entry.
+The tag type of the
ACL entry
.Fa entry_d
is not
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_tag_type.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_tag_type.3
index 460e92563af0..3830be7c1d7f 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_tag_type.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_set_tag_type.3
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ function fails if:
.It Bq Er EINVAL
Argument
.Fa entry_d
-is not a valid descriptor for an ACL entry. Argument
+is not a valid descriptor for an ACL entry.
+Argument
.Fa tag_type
is not a valid ACL tag type.
.El
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_to_text.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_to_text.3
index 1283a68c8983..833a6d2a575d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_to_text.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_to_text.3
@@ -45,7 +45,8 @@ The
.Fn acl_to_text
function translates the ACL pointed to by argument
.Va acl
-into a NULL terminated character string. If the pointer
+into a NULL terminated character string.
+If the pointer
.Va len_p
is not NULL, then the function shall return the length of the string (not
including the NULL terminator) in the location pointed to by
@@ -55,7 +56,8 @@ The format of the text string returned by
shall be the POSIX.1e long ACL form.
.Pp
This function allocates any memory necessary to contain the string and
-returns a pointer to the string. The caller should free any releasable
+returns a pointer to the string.
+The caller should free any releasable
memory, when the new string is no longer required, by calling
.Xr acl_free 3
with the
@@ -67,7 +69,8 @@ support for POSIX.1e interfaces and features is still under
development at this time.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, the function shall return a pointer to the
-long text form of an ACL. Otherwise, a value of
+long text form of an ACL.
+Otherwise, a value of
.Va (char*)NULL
shall be returned and
.Va errno
@@ -100,9 +103,11 @@ by the hardware or software-imposed memory management constraints.
.Xr acl_from_text 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
@@ -122,7 +127,8 @@ rely on the
.Xr getpwent 3
library calls to manage username and uid mapping, as well as the
.Xr getgrent 3
-library calls to manage groupname and gid mapping. These calls are not
+library calls to manage groupname and gid mapping.
+These calls are not
thread safe, and so transitively, neither are
.Fn acl_from_text
and
diff --git a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_valid.3 b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_valid.3
index 3d47da54f5f3..e525db6e59a8 100644
--- a/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_valid.3
+++ b/lib/libc/posix1e/acl_valid.3
@@ -52,10 +52,12 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
These functions check that the ACL referred to by the argument
.Va acl
-is valid. The POSIX.1e routine,
+is valid.
+The POSIX.1e routine,
.Fn acl_valid ,
checks this validity only with POSIX.1e ACL semantics, and irrespective
-of the context in which the ACL is to be used. The non-portable forms,
+of the context in which the ACL is to be used.
+The non-portable forms,
.Fn acl_valid_fd_np ,
.Fn acl_valid_file_np ,
and
@@ -140,9 +142,11 @@ The file system does not support ACL retrieval.
.Xr acl_set 3 ,
.Xr posix1e 3
.Sh STANDARDS
-POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17. Discussion
+POSIX.1e is described in IEEE POSIX.1e draft 17.
+Discussion
of the draft continues on the cross-platform POSIX.1e implementation
-mailing list. To join this list, see the
+mailing list.
+To join this list, see the
.Fx
POSIX.1e implementation
page for more information.
diff --git a/lib/libc/regex/re_format.7 b/lib/libc/regex/re_format.7
index 58e05e0bdc91..d4555a02d0a6 100644
--- a/lib/libc/regex/re_format.7
+++ b/lib/libc/regex/re_format.7
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@ sequence of characters of that collating element.
The sequence is a single element of the bracket expression's list.
A bracket expression containing a multi-character collating element
can thus match more than one character,
-e.g. if the collating sequence includes a
+e.g.\& if the collating sequence includes a
.Ql ch
collating element,
then the RE
diff --git a/lib/libc/regex/regex.3 b/lib/libc/regex/regex.3
index 68edd7f99513..a267dccde1d6 100644
--- a/lib/libc/regex/regex.3
+++ b/lib/libc/regex/regex.3
@@ -564,7 +564,7 @@ or
.Ql |\&
cannot appear first or last in a (sub)expression or after another
.Ql |\& ,
-i.e. an operand of
+i.e., an operand of
.Ql |\&
cannot be an empty subexpression.
An empty parenthesized subexpression,
@@ -651,7 +651,7 @@ empty (sub)expression
.It Dv REG_ASSERT
can't happen - you found a bug
.It Dv REG_INVARG
-invalid argument, e.g. negative-length string
+invalid argument, e.g.\& negative-length string
.El
.Sh HISTORY
Originally written by
diff --git a/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcent.3 b/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcent.3
index 862a89fb51cd..4d209b593c12 100644
--- a/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcent.3
+++ b/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcent.3
@@ -64,7 +64,8 @@ reads the next line of the file, opening the file if necessary.
The
.Fn setrpcent
function
-opens and rewinds the file. If the
+opens and rewinds the file.
+If the
.Fa stayopen
flag is non-zero,
the net data base will not be closed after each call to
diff --git a/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcport.3 b/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcport.3
index 13985b4218e1..6e1f199e7b3c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcport.3
+++ b/lib/libc/rpc/getrpcport.3
@@ -26,7 +26,8 @@ and using protocol
.Fa proto .
It returns 0 if it cannot contact the portmapper, or if
.Fa prognum
-is not registered. If
+is not registered.
+If
.Fa prognum
is registered but not with version
.Fa versnum ,
diff --git a/lib/libc/rpc/rpc_secure.3 b/lib/libc/rpc/rpc_secure.3
index 559cb6bd136e..07c6314c9402 100644
--- a/lib/libc/rpc/rpc_secure.3
+++ b/lib/libc/rpc/rpc_secure.3
@@ -39,9 +39,11 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
These routines are part of the
.Tn RPC
-library. They implement
+library.
+They implement
.Tn DES
-Authentication. See
+Authentication.
+See
.Xr rpc 3
for further details about
.Tn RPC .
@@ -81,14 +83,16 @@ derived from the utility routine
but could also represent a user name using
.Fn user2netname .
The second field is window on the validity of
-the client credential, given in seconds. A small
+the client credential, given in seconds.
+A small
window is more secure than a large one, but choosing
too small of a window will increase the frequency of
resynchronizations because of clock drift.
The third
argument
.Fa addr
-is optional. If it is
+is optional.
+If it is
.Dv NULL ,
then the authentication system will assume
that the local clock is always in sync with the server's
@@ -104,7 +108,8 @@ address of the
server itself.
The final argument
.Fa ckey
-is also optional. If it is
+is also optional.
+If it is
.Dv NULL ,
then the authentication system will
generate a random
@@ -184,7 +189,8 @@ takes a server netname and a
.Tn DES
key, and decrypts the key by
using the public key of the server and the secret key
-associated with the effective uid of the calling process. It
+associated with the effective uid of the calling process.
+It
is the inverse of
.Fn key_encryptsession .
.Pp
@@ -195,7 +201,8 @@ is a keyserver interface routine.
It
takes a server netname and a des key, and encrypts
it using the public key of the server and the secret key
-associated with the effective uid of the calling process. It
+associated with the effective uid of the calling process.
+It
is the inverse of
.Fn key_decryptsession .
.Pp
@@ -230,7 +237,8 @@ Returns
.Dv TRUE
if it succeeds and
.Dv FALSE
-if it fails. Inverse of
+if it fails.
+Inverse of
.Fn host2netname .
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdio/stdio.3 b/lib/libc/stdio/stdio.3
index d54ee33067a6..ab5d1fd16184 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdio/stdio.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdio/stdio.3
@@ -92,15 +92,19 @@ object is indeterminate (garbage) after a file is closed.
.Pp
A file may be subsequently reopened, by the same or another program
execution, and its contents reclaimed or modified (if it can be repositioned
-at the start). If the main function returns to its original caller, or
+at the start).
+If the main function returns to its original caller, or
the
.Xr exit 3
function is called, all open files are closed (hence all output
-streams are flushed) before program termination. Other methods
+streams are flushed) before program termination.
+Other methods
of program termination may not close files properly and hence
-buffered output may be lost. In particular,
+buffered output may be lost.
+In particular,
.Xr _exit 2
-does not flush stdio files. Neither does an exit due to a signal.
+does not flush stdio files.
+Neither does an exit due to a signal.
Buffers are flushed by
.Xr abort 3
as required by POSIX, although previous implementations did not.
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdlib/getenv.3 b/lib/libc/stdlib/getenv.3
index 269fecbc6060..11922a794c76 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdlib/getenv.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdlib/getenv.3
@@ -144,13 +144,15 @@ assigning a differently sized
.Fa value
to the same
.Fa name
-will result in a memory leak. The
+will result in a memory leak.
+The
.Fx
semantics for these functions
(namely, that the contents of
.Fa value
are copied and that old values remain accessible indefinitely) make this
-bug unavoidable. Future versions may eliminate one or both of these
+bug unavoidable.
+Future versions may eliminate one or both of these
semantic guarantees in order to fix the bug.
.Sh HISTORY
The functions
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdlib/qsort.3 b/lib/libc/stdlib/qsort.3
index 6dfffd6fa42a..07777db8efc3 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdlib/qsort.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdlib/qsort.3
@@ -149,11 +149,13 @@ The
.Fn qsort
and
.Fn qsort_r
-functions are an implementation of C.A.R. Hoare's
+functions are an implementation of C.A.R.
+Hoare's
.Dq quicksort
algorithm,
-a variant of partition-exchange sorting; in particular, see D.E. Knuth's
-Algorithm Q.
+a variant of partition-exchange sorting; in particular, see
+.An D.E. Knuth Ns 's
+.%T "Algorithm Q" .
.Sy Quicksort
takes O N lg N average time.
This implementation uses median selection to avoid its
@@ -161,10 +163,13 @@ O N**2 worst-case behavior.
.Pp
The
.Fn heapsort
-function is an implementation of J.W.J. William's
+function is an implementation of
+.An "J.W.J. William" Ns 's
.Dq heapsort
algorithm,
-a variant of selection sorting; in particular, see D.E. Knuth's Algorithm H.
+a variant of selection sorting; in particular, see
+.An "D.E. Knuth" Ns 's
+.%T "Algorithm H" .
.Sy Heapsort
takes O N lg N worst-case time.
Its
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdlib/radixsort.3 b/lib/libc/stdlib/radixsort.3
index 9558259be21f..da4ed165cfea 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdlib/radixsort.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdlib/radixsort.3
@@ -105,7 +105,10 @@ The
function is not stable, but uses no additional memory.
.Pp
These functions are variants of most-significant-byte radix sorting; in
-particular, see D.E. Knuth's Algorithm R and section 5.2.5, exercise 10.
+particular, see
+.An "D.E. Knuth" Ns 's
+.%T "Algorithm R"
+and section 5.2.5, exercise 10.
They take linear time relative to the number of bytes in the strings.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
.Rv -std radixsort
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdlib/random.3 b/lib/libc/stdlib/random.3
index 66ccd55f99f0..a1dbf8a92348 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdlib/random.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdlib/random.3
@@ -81,9 +81,11 @@ functions.
The difference is that
.Xr rand 3
produces a much less random sequence \(em in fact, the low dozen bits
-generated by rand go through a cyclic pattern. All the bits generated by
+generated by rand go through a cyclic pattern.
+All the bits generated by
.Fn random
-are usable. For example,
+are usable.
+For example,
.Sq Li random()&01
will produce a random binary
value.
@@ -115,13 +117,15 @@ a fixed seed.
The
.Fn initstate
routine allows a state array, passed in as an argument, to be initialized
-for future use. The size of the state array (in bytes) is used by
+for future use.
+The size of the state array (in bytes) is used by
.Fn initstate
to decide how sophisticated a random number generator it should use \(em the
more state, the better the random numbers will be.
(Current "optimal" values for the amount of state information are
8, 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to
-the nearest known amount. Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error.)
+the nearest known amount.
+Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error.)
The seed for the initialization (which specifies a starting point for
the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the same
point) is also an argument.
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdlib/tsearch.3 b/lib/libc/stdlib/tsearch.3
index 0c7f1bdba063..ea0a9dabc316 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdlib/tsearch.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdlib/tsearch.3
@@ -51,7 +51,8 @@ The
and
.Fn twalk
functions manage binary search trees based on algorithms T and D
-from Knuth (6.2.2). The comparison function passed in by
+from Knuth (6.2.2).
+The comparison function passed in by
the user has the same style of return values as
.Xr strcmp 3 .
.Pp
@@ -72,7 +73,8 @@ is identical to
.Fn tfind
except that if no match is found,
.Fa key
-is inserted into the tree and a pointer to it is returned. If
+is inserted into the tree and a pointer to it is returned.
+If
.Fa rootp
points to a NULL value a new binary search tree is created.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdtime/ctime.3 b/lib/libc/stdtime/ctime.3
index 68aa10b8bb55..7b9830452b0a 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdtime/ctime.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdtime/ctime.3
@@ -354,7 +354,8 @@ function will modify the same object.
The C Standard provides no mechanism for a program to modify its current
local timezone setting, and the
.Tn POSIX Ns No \&-standard
-method is not reentrant. (However, thread-safe implementations are provided
+method is not reentrant.
+(However, thread-safe implementations are provided
in the
.Tn POSIX
threaded environment.)
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdtime/strftime.3 b/lib/libc/stdtime/strftime.3
index a251fafe345c..e6c3807ae9b9 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdtime/strftime.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdtime/strftime.3
@@ -184,7 +184,8 @@ is replaced by the weekday (Monday as the first day of the week)
as a decimal number (1-7).
.It Cm \&%V
is replaced by the week number of the year (Monday as the first day of
-the week) as a decimal number (01-53). If the week containing January
+the week) as a decimal number (01-53).
+If the week containing January
1 has four or more days in the new year, then it is week 1; otherwise
it is the last week of the previous year, and the next week is week 1.
.It Cm %v
diff --git a/lib/libc/stdtime/strptime.3 b/lib/libc/stdtime/strptime.3
index 1d7eb7f7c00c..5f93b3452abc 100644
--- a/lib/libc/stdtime/strptime.3
+++ b/lib/libc/stdtime/strptime.3
@@ -161,7 +161,8 @@ The
format specifier only accepts time zone abbreviations of the local time zone,
or the value "GMT".
This limitation is because of ambiguity due to of the over loading of time
-zone abbreviations. One such example is
+zone abbreviations.
+One such example is
.Fa EST
which is both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Australia Summer Time.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/string/strlcpy.3 b/lib/libc/string/strlcpy.3
index 3cc5ae49e1a5..f674fe2ac49b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/string/strlcpy.3
+++ b/lib/libc/string/strlcpy.3
@@ -47,7 +47,8 @@ The
.Fn strlcpy
and
.Fn strlcat
-functions copy and concatenate strings respectively. They are designed
+functions copy and concatenate strings respectively.
+They are designed
to be safer, more consistent, and less error prone replacements for
.Xr strncpy 3
and
@@ -108,7 +109,8 @@ The
and
.Fn strlcat
functions return the total length of the string they tried to
-create. For
+create.
+For
.Fn strlcpy
that means the length of
.Fa src .
diff --git a/lib/libc/string/strsep.3 b/lib/libc/string/strsep.3
index 77c7b844ae16..7a2b0f88d320 100644
--- a/lib/libc/string/strsep.3
+++ b/lib/libc/string/strsep.3
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@ While the
.Fn strtok
function should be preferred for portability reasons (it conforms to
.St -isoC )
-it is unable to handle empty fields, i.e. detect fields delimited by
+it is unable to handle empty fields, i.e., detect fields delimited by
two adjacent delimiter characters, or to be used for more than a single
string at a time.
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/accept.2 b/lib/libc/sys/accept.2
index 387c7fc76aa1..5b844c653444 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/accept.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/accept.2
@@ -76,7 +76,8 @@ connections are present on the queue,
returns an error as described below.
The accepted socket
may not be used
-to accept more connections. The original socket
+to accept more connections.
+The original socket
.Fa s
remains open.
.Pp
@@ -130,7 +131,8 @@ For some applications, performance may be enhanced by using an
.Xr accept_filter 9
to pre-process incoming connections.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
-The call returns \-1 on error. If it succeeds, it returns a non-negative
+The call returns \-1 on error.
+If it succeeds, it returns a non-negative
integer that is a descriptor for the accepted socket.
.Sh ERRORS
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/aio_error.2 b/lib/libc/sys/aio_error.2
index 02b0caab5b40..91bb0974d01c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/aio_error.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/aio_error.2
@@ -45,9 +45,11 @@ associated with the structure pointed to by
.Sh RETURN VALUES
If the asynchronous I/O request has completed successfully,
.Fn aio_error
-returns 0. If the request has not yet completed,
+returns 0.
+If the request has not yet completed,
.Er EINPROGRESS
-is returned. If the request has completed unsuccessfully the error
+is returned.
+If the request has completed unsuccessfully the error
status is returned as described in
.Xr read 2 ,
.Xr write 2 ,
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/aio_read.2 b/lib/libc/sys/aio_read.2
index 0358b234b3ec..047661b4b6c4 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/aio_read.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/aio_read.2
@@ -85,7 +85,8 @@ The Asynchronous I/O Control Block structure pointed to by
and the buffer that the
.Fa iocb->aio_buf
member of that structure references must remain valid until the
-operation has completed. For this reason, use of auto (stack) variables
+operation has completed.
+For this reason, use of auto (stack) variables
for these objects is discouraged.
.Pp
The asynchronous I/O control buffer
@@ -122,7 +123,8 @@ system call is not supported.
.Pp
The following conditions may be synchronously detected when the
.Fn aio_read
-system call is made, or asynchronously, at any time thereafter. If they
+system call is made, or asynchronously, at any time thereafter.
+If they
are detected at call time,
.Fn aio_read
returns -1 and sets
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/aio_suspend.2 b/lib/libc/sys/aio_suspend.2
index ec5e5db11c58..06d278a99962 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/aio_suspend.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/aio_suspend.2
@@ -50,7 +50,8 @@ The
argument
is an array of
.Fa niocb
-pointers to asynchronous I/O requests. Array members containing
+pointers to asynchronous I/O requests.
+Array members containing
NULL will be silently ignored.
.Pp
If
@@ -58,7 +59,8 @@ If
is a non-nil pointer, it specifies a maximum interval to suspend.
If
.Fa timeout
-is a nil pointer, the suspend blocks indefinitely. To effect a
+is a nil pointer, the suspend blocks indefinitely.
+To effect a
poll, the
.Fa timeout
should point to a zero-value timespec structure.
@@ -66,7 +68,8 @@ should point to a zero-value timespec structure.
If one or more of the specified asynchronous I/O requests have
completed,
.Fn aio_suspend
-returns 0. Otherwise it returns -1 and sets
+returns 0.
+Otherwise it returns -1 and sets
.Va errno
to indicate the error, as enumerated below.
.Sh ERRORS
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/aio_write.2 b/lib/libc/sys/aio_write.2
index e417f828b3db..5fe8d9804616 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/aio_write.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/aio_write.2
@@ -47,7 +47,8 @@ to the descriptor
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes .
The call returns immediately after the write request has been enqueued
to the descriptor; the write may or may not have completed at the time
-the call returns. If the request could not be enqueued, generally due
+the call returns.
+If the request could not be enqueued, generally due
to invalid arguments, the call returns without having enqueued the
request.
.Pp
@@ -57,7 +58,8 @@ is set for
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes ,
.Fn aio_write
operations append to the file in the same order as the calls were
-made. If
+made.
+If
.Dv O_APPEND
is not set for the file descriptor, the write operation will occur at
the absolute position from the beginning of the file plus
@@ -89,7 +91,8 @@ The Asynchronous I/O Control Block structure pointed to by
and the buffer that the
.Fa iocb->aio_buf
member of that structure references must remain valid until the
-operation has completed. For this reason, use of auto (stack) variables
+operation has completed.
+For this reason, use of auto (stack) variables
for these objects is discouraged.
.Pp
The asynchronous I/O control buffer
@@ -124,7 +127,8 @@ system call is not supported.
.Pp
The following conditions may be synchronously detected when the
.Fn aio_write
-system call is made, or asynchronously, at any time thereafter. If they
+system call is made, or asynchronously, at any time thereafter.
+If they
are detected at call time,
.Fn aio_write
returns -1 and sets
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/chmod.2 b/lib/libc/sys/chmod.2
index 66b4d568303e..7da7092710a6 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/chmod.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/chmod.2
@@ -132,7 +132,8 @@ then the owner of any new files and sub-directories
created within this directory are set
to be the same as the owner of that directory.
If this function is enabled, new directories will inherit
-the bit from their parents. Execute bits are removed from
+the bit from their parents.
+Execute bits are removed from
the file, and it will not be given to root.
This behavior does not change the
requirements for the user to be allowed to write the file, but only the eventual
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/chroot.2 b/lib/libc/sys/chroot.2
index b2c3b4ea1636..7142e0d4ea90 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/chroot.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/chroot.2
@@ -97,7 +97,8 @@ Any other value for
.Ql kern.chroot_allow_open_directories
will bypass the check for open directories
.Pp
-Upon successful completion, a value of 0 is returned. Otherwise,
+Upon successful completion, a value of 0 is returned.
+Otherwise,
a value of -1 is returned and
.Va errno
is set to indicate an error.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/clock_gettime.2 b/lib/libc/sys/clock_gettime.2
index f519094f62d4..a60887011460 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/clock_gettime.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/clock_gettime.2
@@ -95,7 +95,8 @@ system call even when the system is secure.
.Pp
The resolution (granularity) of a clock is returned by the
.Fn clock_getres
-system call. This value is placed in a (non-NULL)
+system call.
+This value is placed in a (non-NULL)
.Fa *tp .
.Sh RETURN VALUES
.Rv -std
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/close.2 b/lib/libc/sys/close.2
index 26b4fbdfa065..04dbe3df1ab2 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/close.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/close.2
@@ -83,7 +83,8 @@ all descriptors for the new child process reference the same
objects as they did in the parent before the fork.
If a new process is then to be run using
.Xr execve 2 ,
-the process would normally inherit these descriptors. Most
+the process would normally inherit these descriptors.
+Most
of the descriptors can be rearranged with
.Xr dup2 2
or deleted with
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/dup.2 b/lib/libc/sys/dup.2
index f4da9f598231..ef903f946a48 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/dup.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/dup.2
@@ -59,7 +59,8 @@ the calling process
The argument
.Fa oldd
is a small non-negative integer index in
-the per-process descriptor table. The value must be less
+the per-process descriptor table.
+The value must be less
than the size of the table, which is returned by
.Xr getdtablesize 2 .
The new descriptor returned by the call
@@ -96,7 +97,8 @@ In
.Fn dup2 ,
the value of the new descriptor
.Fa newd
-is specified. If this descriptor is already in use and
+is specified.
+If this descriptor is already in use and
.Fa oldd
\*(Ne
.Fa newd ,
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/execve.2 b/lib/libc/sys/execve.2
index 9b0f22c6fac5..427f9ab8dbe0 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/execve.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/execve.2
@@ -58,7 +58,8 @@ This file is either an executable object file,
or a file of data for an interpreter.
An executable object file consists of an identifying header,
followed by pages of data representing the initial program (text)
-and initialized data pages. Additional pages may be specified
+and initialized data pages.
+Additional pages may be specified
by the header to be initialized with zero data; see
.Xr elf 5
and
@@ -87,7 +88,8 @@ and the name of the originally
file becomes the second argument;
otherwise, the name of the originally
.Sy execve Ap d
-file becomes the first argument. The original arguments are shifted over to
+file becomes the first argument.
+The original arguments are shifted over to
become the subsequent arguments.
The zeroth argument is set to the specified
.Em interpreter .
@@ -97,7 +99,8 @@ The argument
is a pointer to a null-terminated array of
character pointers to null-terminated character strings.
These strings construct the argument list to be made available to the new
-process. At least one argument must be present in
+process.
+At least one argument must be present in
the array; by custom, the first element should be
the name of the executed program (for example, the last component of
.Fa path ) .
@@ -159,7 +162,8 @@ These values may be used in changing the effective IDs later (see
.Pp
The set-ID bits are not honored if the respective file system has the
.Cm nosuid
-option enabled or if the new process file is an interpreter file. Syscall
+option enabled or if the new process file is an interpreter file.
+Syscall
tracing is disabled if effective IDs are changed.
.Pp
The new process also inherits the following attributes from
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/fcntl.2 b/lib/libc/sys/fcntl.2
index 92b744035791..804b4abda454 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/fcntl.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/fcntl.2
@@ -52,7 +52,8 @@ The argument
.Fa fd
is a descriptor to be operated on by
.Fa cmd
-as described below. Depending on the value of
+as described below.
+Depending on the value of
.Fa cmd ,
.Fn fcntl
can take an additional third argument
@@ -157,8 +158,10 @@ corresponds to the
flag of
.Xr open 2 .
.It Dv O_DIRECT
-Minimize or eliminate the cache effects of reading and writing. The system
-will attempt to avoid caching the data you read or write. If it cannot
+Minimize or eliminate the cache effects of reading and writing.
+The system
+will attempt to avoid caching the data you read or write.
+If it cannot
avoid caching the data, it will minimize the impact the data has on the cache.
Use of this flag can drastically reduce performance if not used with care.
.It Dv O_ASYNC
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/flock.2 b/lib/libc/sys/flock.2
index 1d095bdf3eba..acb9741e2092 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/flock.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/flock.2
@@ -93,7 +93,8 @@ after other processes have gained and released the lock).
.Pp
Requesting a lock on an object that is already locked
normally causes the caller to be blocked until the lock may be
-acquired. If
+acquired.
+If
.Dv LOCK_NB
is included in
.Fa operation ,
@@ -102,13 +103,15 @@ the error
.Er EWOULDBLOCK
will be returned.
.Sh NOTES
-Locks are on files, not file descriptors. That is, file descriptors
+Locks are on files, not file descriptors.
+That is, file descriptors
duplicated through
.Xr dup 2
or
.Xr fork 2
do not result in multiple instances of a lock, but rather multiple
-references to a single lock. If a process holding a lock on a file
+references to a single lock.
+If a process holding a lock on a file
forks and the child explicitly unlocks the file, the parent will
lose its lock.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/fork.2 b/lib/libc/sys/fork.2
index a1adafddab82..5dd641360dd0 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/fork.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/fork.2
@@ -84,7 +84,8 @@ Upon successful completion,
.Fn fork
returns a value
of 0 to the child process and returns the process ID of the child
-process to the parent process. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned
+process to the parent process.
+Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned
to the parent process, no child process is created, and the global
variable
.Va errno
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getdtablesize.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getdtablesize.2
index cda45fa19679..b53571e91ab8 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getdtablesize.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getdtablesize.2
@@ -46,7 +46,8 @@
.Fn getdtablesize void
.Sh DESCRIPTION
Each process has a fixed size descriptor table,
-which is guaranteed to have at least 20 slots. The entries in
+which is guaranteed to have at least 20 slots.
+The entries in
the descriptor table are numbered with small integers starting at 0.
The
.Fn getdtablesize
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getitimer.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getitimer.2
index 99499830e055..babcd3bc1db2 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getitimer.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getitimer.2
@@ -102,7 +102,8 @@ system clock are rounded up to this resolution
.Pp
The
.Dv ITIMER_REAL
-timer decrements in real time. A
+timer decrements in real time.
+A
.Dv SIGALRM
signal is
delivered when this timer expires.
@@ -110,7 +111,8 @@ delivered when this timer expires.
The
.Dv ITIMER_VIRTUAL
timer decrements in process virtual time.
-It runs only when the process is executing. A
+It runs only when the process is executing.
+A
.Dv SIGVTALRM
signal
is delivered when it expires.
@@ -118,7 +120,8 @@ is delivered when it expires.
The
.Dv ITIMER_PROF
timer decrements both in process virtual time and
-when the system is running on behalf of the process. It is designed
+when the system is running on behalf of the process.
+It is designed
to be used by interpreters in statistically profiling the execution
of interpreted programs.
Each time the
@@ -126,7 +129,8 @@ Each time the
timer expires, the
.Dv SIGPROF
signal is
-delivered. Because this signal may interrupt in-progress
+delivered.
+Because this signal may interrupt in-progress
system calls, programs using this timer must be prepared to
restart interrupted system calls.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getlogin.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getlogin.2
index c7d03c7e0993..9a254f3cef5b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getlogin.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getlogin.2
@@ -76,7 +76,8 @@ except the caller must provide the buffer
with length
.Fa len
bytes
-to hold the result. The buffer should be at least
+to hold the result.
+The buffer should be at least
.Dv MAXLOGNAME
bytes in length.
.Pp
@@ -103,7 +104,8 @@ Making a
.Fn setsid
system call is the
.Em ONLY
-way to do this. The
+way to do this.
+The
.Xr daemon 3
function calls
.Fn setsid
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getpriority.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getpriority.2
index 0b580dc014d0..6e7ab2ad3869 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getpriority.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getpriority.2
@@ -84,16 +84,19 @@ denotes the current process, process group, or user.
The
.Fa prio
argument
-is a value in the range -20 to 20. The default priority is 0;
+is a value in the range -20 to 20.
+The default priority is 0;
lower priorities cause more favorable scheduling.
.Pp
The
.Fn getpriority
system call returns the highest priority (lowest numerical value)
-enjoyed by any of the specified processes. The
+enjoyed by any of the specified processes.
+The
.Fn setpriority
system call sets the priorities of all of the specified processes
-to the specified value. Only the super-user may lower priorities.
+to the specified value.
+Only the super-user may lower priorities.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Since
.Fn getpriority
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getrlimit.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getrlimit.2
index 159989a8929a..1e670836dcf3 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getrlimit.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getrlimit.2
@@ -103,11 +103,13 @@ this defines how far a program's stack segment may be extended.
Stack extension is performed automatically by the system.
.El
.Pp
-A resource limit is specified as a soft limit and a hard limit. When a
+A resource limit is specified as a soft limit and a hard limit.
+When a
soft limit is exceeded a process may receive a signal (for example, if
the cpu time or file size is exceeded), but it will be allowed to
continue execution until it reaches the hard limit (or modifies
-its resource limit). The
+its resource limit).
+The
.Vt rlimit
structure is used to specify the hard and soft limits on a resource,
.Bd -literal -offset indent
@@ -117,7 +119,8 @@ struct rlimit {
};
.Ed
.Pp
-Only the super-user may raise the maximum limits. Other users
+Only the super-user may raise the maximum limits.
+Other users
may only alter
.Fa rlim_cur
within the range from 0 to
@@ -152,7 +155,8 @@ A file I/O operation that would create a file larger that the process'
soft limit will cause the write to fail and a signal
.Dv SIGXFSZ
to be
-generated; this normally terminates the process, but may be caught. When
+generated; this normally terminates the process, but may be caught.
+When
the soft cpu time limit is exceeded, a signal
.Dv SIGXCPU
is sent to the
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getrusage.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getrusage.2
index 6a529c1d043c..9bafce34a1a8 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getrusage.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getrusage.2
@@ -99,7 +99,8 @@ an
.Dq integral
value indicating the amount of memory used
by the text segment
-that was also shared among other processes. This value is expressed
+that was also shared among other processes.
+This value is expressed
in units of kilobytes * ticks-of-execution.
Ticks are statistics clock ticks.
The statistics clock has a frequency of
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getsockname.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getsockname.2
index 68c5bdb1a93f..0c285ad6a1d5 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getsockname.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getsockname.2
@@ -51,7 +51,8 @@ The
system call
returns the current
.Fa name
-for the specified socket. The
+for the specified socket.
+The
.Fa namelen
argument should be initialized to indicate
the amount of space pointed to by
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/getsockopt.2 b/lib/libc/sys/getsockopt.2
index b30eba968dbb..ccc71e3ae1e3 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/getsockopt.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/getsockopt.2
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ and
system calls
manipulate the
.Em options
-associated with a socket. Options may exist at multiple
+associated with a socket.
+Options may exist at multiple
protocol levels; they are always present at the uppermost
.Dq socket
level.
@@ -69,7 +70,8 @@ is specified as
.Dv SOL_SOCKET .
To manipulate options at any
other level the protocol number of the appropriate protocol
-controlling the option is supplied. For example,
+controlling the option is supplied.
+For example,
to indicate that an option is to be interpreted by the
.Tn TCP
protocol,
@@ -89,14 +91,16 @@ are used to access option values for
For
.Fn getsockopt
they identify a buffer in which the value for the
-requested option(s) are to be returned. For
+requested option(s) are to be returned.
+For
.Fn getsockopt ,
.Fa optlen
is a value-result argument, initially containing the
size of the buffer pointed to by
.Fa optval ,
and modified on return to indicate the actual size of
-the value returned. If no option value is
+the value returned.
+If no option value is
to be supplied or returned,
.Fa optval
may be NULL.
@@ -179,14 +183,16 @@ This option permits multiple instances of a program to each
receive UDP/IP multicast or broadcast datagrams destined for the bound port.
.Dv SO_KEEPALIVE
enables the
-periodic transmission of messages on a connected socket. Should the
+periodic transmission of messages on a connected socket.
+Should the
connected party fail to respond to these messages, the connection is
considered broken and processes using the socket are notified via a
.Dv SIGPIPE
signal when attempting to send data.
.Dv SO_DONTROUTE
indicates that outgoing messages should
-bypass the standard routing facilities. Instead, messages are directed
+bypass the standard routing facilities.
+Instead, messages are directed
to the appropriate network interface according to the network portion
of the destination address.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/gettimeofday.2 b/lib/libc/sys/gettimeofday.2
index 3812e54758a1..f10425340dce 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/gettimeofday.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/gettimeofday.2
@@ -58,8 +58,10 @@ zone is obtained with the
.Fn gettimeofday
system call, and set with the
.Fn settimeofday
-system call. The time is expressed in seconds and microseconds
-since midnight (0 hour), January 1, 1970. The resolution of the system
+system call.
+The time is expressed in seconds and microseconds
+since midnight (0 hour), January 1, 1970.
+The resolution of the system
clock is hardware dependent, and the time may be updated continuously or
in
.Dq ticks .
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/intro.2 b/lib/libc/sys/intro.2
index 6be0ac0c568a..b16c3eaba9de 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/intro.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/intro.2
@@ -322,7 +322,8 @@ The host you were connected to crashed and rebooted.
.It Er 53 ECONNABORTED Em "Software caused connection abort" .
A connection abort was caused internal to your host machine.
.It Er 54 ECONNRESET Em "Connection reset by peer" .
-A connection was forcibly closed by a peer. This normally
+A connection was forcibly closed by a peer.
+This normally
results from a loss of the connection on the remote socket
due to a timeout or a reboot.
.It Er 55 ENOBUFS Em "\&No buffer space available" .
@@ -353,11 +354,13 @@ A
or
.Xr send 2
request failed because the connected party did not
-properly respond after a period of time. (The timeout
+properly respond after a period of time.
+(The timeout
period is dependent on the communication protocol.)
.It Er 61 ECONNREFUSED Em "Connection refused" .
No connection could be made because the target machine actively
-refused it. This usually results from trying to connect
+refused it.
+This usually results from trying to connect
to a service that is inactive on the foreign host.
.It Er 62 ELOOP Em "Too many levels of symbolic links" .
A path name lookup involved more than 32
@@ -462,7 +465,8 @@ at run-time.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Process ID .
Each active process in the system is uniquely identified by a non-negative
-integer called a process ID. The range of this ID is from 0 to 99999.
+integer called a process ID.
+The range of this ID is from 0 to 99999.
.It Parent process ID
A new process is created by a currently active process; (see
.Xr fork 2 ) .
@@ -472,8 +476,10 @@ the parent process ID of each child is set to the ID of a system process,
.Xr init 8 .
.It Process Group
Each active process is a member of a process group that is identified by
-a non-negative integer called the process group ID. This is the process
-ID of the group leader. This grouping permits the signaling of related
+a non-negative integer called the process group ID.
+This is the process
+ID of the group leader.
+This grouping permits the signaling of related
processes (see
.Xr termios 4 )
and the job control mechanisms of
@@ -527,7 +533,8 @@ termed the real user ID.
.Pp
Each user is also a member of one or more groups.
One of these groups is distinguished from others and
-used in implementing accounting facilities. The positive
+used in implementing accounting facilities.
+The positive
integer corresponding to this distinguished group is termed
the real group ID.
.Pp
@@ -544,7 +551,8 @@ group IDs, and it is unspecified whether the effective group ID is
a member of the list.)
.Pp
The effective user ID and effective group ID are initially the
-process's real user ID and real group ID respectively. Either
+process's real user ID and real group ID respectively.
+Either
may be modified through execution of a set-user-ID or set-group-ID
file (possibly by one its ancestors) (see
.Xr execve 2 ) .
@@ -553,7 +561,8 @@ list) is duplicated, so that the execution of a set-group-ID program
does not result in the loss of the original (real) group ID.
.Pp
The group access list is a set of group IDs
-used only in determining resource accessibility. Access checks
+used only in determining resource accessibility.
+Access checks
are performed as described below in ``File Access Permissions''.
.It "Saved Set User ID and Saved Set Group ID"
When a process executes a new file, the effective user ID is set
@@ -625,12 +634,14 @@ If a path name begins with a slash, the path search begins at the
.Em root
directory.
Otherwise, the search begins from the current working directory.
-A slash by itself names the root directory. An empty
+A slash by itself names the root directory.
+An empty
pathname refers to the current directory.
.It Directory
A directory is a special type of file that contains entries
that are references to other files.
-Directory entries are called links. By convention, a directory
+Directory entries are called links.
+By convention, a directory
contains at least two links,
.Ql .\&
and
@@ -639,32 +650,38 @@ referred to as
.Em dot
and
.Em dot-dot
-respectively. Dot refers to the directory itself and
+respectively.
+Dot refers to the directory itself and
dot-dot refers to its parent directory.
.It "Root Directory and Current Working Directory"
Each process has associated with it a concept of a root directory
and a current working directory for the purpose of resolving path
-name searches. A process's root directory need not be the root
+name searches.
+A process's root directory need not be the root
directory of the root file system.
.It File Access Permissions
Every file in the file system has a set of access permissions.
These permissions are used in determining whether a process
may perform a requested operation on the file (such as opening
-a file for writing). Access permissions are established at the
-time a file is created. They may be changed at some later time
+a file for writing).
+Access permissions are established at the
+time a file is created.
+They may be changed at some later time
through the
.Xr chmod 2
call.
.Pp
File access is broken down according to whether a file may be: read,
-written, or executed. Directory files use the execute
+written, or executed.
+Directory files use the execute
permission to control if the directory may be searched.
.Pp
File access permissions are interpreted by the system as
they apply to three different classes of users: the owner
of the file, those users in the file's group, anyone else.
Every file has an independent set of access permissions for
-each of these classes. When an access check is made, the system
+each of these classes.
+When an access check is made, the system
decides if permission should be granted by checking the access
information applicable to the caller.
.Pp
@@ -707,9 +724,12 @@ for more information about the types available and
their properties.
.Pp
Each instance of the system supports some number of sets of
-communications protocols. Each protocol set supports addresses
-of a certain format. An Address Family is the set of addresses
-for a specific group of protocols. Each socket has an address
+communications protocols.
+Each protocol set supports addresses
+of a certain format.
+An Address Family is the set of addresses
+for a specific group of protocols.
+Each socket has an address
chosen from the address family in which the socket was created.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/ioctl.2 b/lib/libc/sys/ioctl.2
index b6de37ea77d0..e5a902f3831d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/ioctl.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/ioctl.2
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ The
.Fn ioctl
system call manipulates the underlying device parameters of special files.
In particular, many operating
-characteristics of character special files (e.g. terminals)
+characteristics of character special files (e.g.\& terminals)
may be controlled with
.Fn ioctl
requests.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/issetugid.2 b/lib/libc/sys/issetugid.2
index 5b0e6e71e868..a9b234bef2db 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/issetugid.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/issetugid.2
@@ -75,7 +75,8 @@ system call (or other library code that calls fork, such as
It is assumed that a program that clears all privileges as it prepares
to execute another will also reset the environment, hence the
.Dq tainted
-status will not be passed on. This is important for programs such as
+status will not be passed on.
+This is important for programs such as
.Xr su 1
which begin setuid but need to be able to create an untainted process.
.Sh ERRORS
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/kldnext.2 b/lib/libc/sys/kldnext.2
index 4cf443c94004..9588647cc24e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/kldnext.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/kldnext.2
@@ -51,7 +51,8 @@ is the last file loaded.
The
.Fn kldnext
system call
-returns the fileid of the next kld file (see DESCRIPTION) or 0. If an error
+returns the fileid of the next kld file (see DESCRIPTION) or 0.
+If an error
occurs,
.Va errno
is set to indicate the error.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/kldstat.2 b/lib/libc/sys/kldstat.2
index 5f915204ebe2..946417a1b46d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/kldstat.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/kldstat.2
@@ -92,7 +92,8 @@ The file was not found (probably not loaded).
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The version specified in the
.Fa version
-field of stat is not the proper version. You would need to rebuild world, the
+field of stat is not the proper version.
+You would need to rebuild world, the
kernel, or your application, if this error occurs, given that you did properly
fill in the
.Fa version
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/kqueue.2 b/lib/libc/sys/kqueue.2
index 4baaf69eac12..5e84e8a0d1be 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/kqueue.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/kqueue.2
@@ -124,15 +124,18 @@ specified unlike
If
.Fa timeout
is a non-NULL pointer, it specifies a maximum interval to wait
-for an event, which will be interpreted as a struct timespec. If
+for an event, which will be interpreted as a struct timespec.
+If
.Fa timeout
is a NULL pointer,
.Fn kevent
-waits indefinitely. To effect a poll, the
+waits indefinitely.
+To effect a poll, the
.Fa timeout
argument should be non-NULL, pointing to a zero-valued
.Va timespec
-structure. The same array may be used for the
+structure.
+The same array may be used for the
.Fa changelist
and
.Fa eventlist .
@@ -165,7 +168,8 @@ Value used to identify this event.
The exact interpretation is determined by the attached filter,
but often is a file descriptor.
.It filter
-Identifies the kernel filter used to process this event. The pre-defined
+Identifies the kernel filter used to process this event.
+The pre-defined
system filters are described below.
.It flags
Actions to perform on the event.
@@ -182,9 +186,11 @@ The
field can contain the following values:
.Bl -tag -width XXXEV_ONESHOT
.It EV_ADD
-Adds the event to the kqueue. Re-adding an existing event
+Adds the event to the kqueue.
+Re-adding an existing event
will modify the parameters of the original event, and not result
-in a duplicate entry. Adding an event automatically enables it,
+in a duplicate entry.
+Adding an event automatically enables it,
unless overridden by the EV_DISABLE flag.
.It EV_ENABLE
Permit
@@ -193,19 +199,23 @@ to return the event if it is triggered.
.It EV_DISABLE
Disable the event so
.Fn kevent
-will not return it. The filter itself is not disabled.
+will not return it.
+The filter itself is not disabled.
.It EV_DELETE
-Removes the event from the kqueue. Events which are attached to
+Removes the event from the kqueue.
+Events which are attached to
file descriptors are automatically deleted on the last close of
the descriptor.
.It EV_ONESHOT
Causes the event to return only the first occurrence of the filter
-being triggered. After the user retrieves the event from the kqueue,
+being triggered.
+After the user retrieves the event from the kqueue,
it is deleted.
.It EV_CLEAR
After the event is retrieved by the user, its state is reset.
This is useful for filters which report state transitions
-instead of the current state. Note that some filters may automatically
+instead of the current state.
+Note that some filters may automatically
set this flag internally.
.It EV_EOF
Filters may set this flag to indicate filter-specific EOF condition.
@@ -283,7 +293,8 @@ contains the number of bytes available.
.El
.It EVFILT_WRITE
Takes a descriptor as the identifier, and returns whenever
-it is possible to write to the descriptor. For sockets, pipes
+it is possible to write to the descriptor.
+For sockets, pipes
and fifos,
.Va data
will contain the amount of space remaining in the write buffer.
@@ -319,7 +330,8 @@ Alternatively, a kevent structure may be initialized, with
containing the descriptor of the kqueue, and the
address of the kevent structure placed in the
.Va aio_lio_opcode
-field of the AIO request. However, this approach will not work on
+field of the AIO request.
+However, this approach will not work on
architectures with 64-bit pointers, and should be considered deprecated.
.It EVFILT_VNODE
Takes a file descriptor as the identifier and the events to watch for in
@@ -371,7 +383,8 @@ or similar call.
.It NOTE_TRACK
Follow a process across
.Fn fork
-calls. The parent process will return with NOTE_TRACK set in the
+calls.
+The parent process will return with NOTE_TRACK set in the
.Va fflags
field, while the child process will return with NOTE_CHILD set in
.Va fflags
@@ -392,9 +405,11 @@ This coexists with the
.Fn signal
and
.Fn sigaction
-facilities, and has a lower precedence. The filter will record
+facilities, and has a lower precedence.
+The filter will record
all attempts to deliver a signal to a process, even if the signal has
-been marked as SIG_IGN. Event notification happens after normal
+been marked as SIG_IGN.
+Event notification happens after normal
signal delivery processing.
.Va data
returns the number of times the signal has occurred since the last call to
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/link.2 b/lib/libc/sys/link.2
index 9c064b4a9418..f39768a5d35d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/link.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/link.2
@@ -170,5 +170,6 @@ function appeared in
The
.Fn link
system call traditionally allows the super-user to link directories which
-corrupts the file system coherency. This implementation no longer permits
+corrupts the file system coherency.
+This implementation no longer permits
it.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/lseek.2 b/lib/libc/sys/lseek.2
index 30cf1e04d259..13bcf2177dba 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/lseek.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/lseek.2
@@ -101,7 +101,8 @@ If data is later written
at this point, subsequent reads of the data in the gap return
bytes of zeros (until data is actually written into the gap).
.Pp
-Some devices are incapable of seeking. The value of the pointer
+Some devices are incapable of seeking.
+The value of the pointer
associated with such a device is undefined.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion,
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/madvise.2 b/lib/libc/sys/madvise.2
index 25cb5c7b69ec..ea7e8efe7504 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/madvise.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/madvise.2
@@ -70,23 +70,28 @@ pages immediately preceding a given page when it is faulted in.
.It Dv MADV_WILLNEED
Causes pages that are in a given virtual address range
to temporarily have higher priority, and if they are in
-memory, decrease the likelihood of them being freed. Additionally,
+memory, decrease the likelihood of them being freed.
+Additionally,
the pages that are already in memory will be immediately mapped into
the process, thereby eliminating unnecessary overhead of going through
-the entire process of faulting the pages in. This WILL NOT fault
+the entire process of faulting the pages in.
+This WILL NOT fault
pages in from backing store, but quickly map the pages already in memory
into the calling process.
.It Dv MADV_DONTNEED
Allows the VM system to decrease the in-memory priority
-of pages in the specified range. Additionally future references to
+of pages in the specified range.
+Additionally future references to
this address range will incur a page fault.
.It Dv MADV_FREE
Gives the VM system the freedom to free pages,
and tells the system that information in the specified page range
-is no longer important. This is an efficient way of allowing
+is no longer important.
+This is an efficient way of allowing
.Xr malloc 3
to free pages anywhere in the address space, while keeping the address space
-valid. The next time that the page is referenced, the page might be demand
+valid.
+The next time that the page is referenced, the page might be demand
zeroed, or might contain the data that was there before the
.Dv MADV_FREE
call.
@@ -95,9 +100,11 @@ page the information back in from backing store until the page is
modified again.
.It Dv MADV_NOSYNC
Request that the system not flush the data associated with this map to
-physical backing store unless it needs to. Typically this prevents the
+physical backing store unless it needs to.
+Typically this prevents the
file system update daemon from gratuitously writing pages dirtied
-by the VM system to physical disk. Note that VM/file system coherency is
+by the VM system to physical disk.
+Note that VM/file system coherency is
always maintained, this feature simply ensures that the mapped data is
only flush when it needs to be, usually by the system pager.
.Pp
@@ -106,14 +113,17 @@ memory area to communicate between processes (IPC) and do not particularly
need the data being stored in that area to be physically written to disk.
With this feature you get the equivalent performance with mmap that you
would expect to get with SysV shared memory calls, but in a more controllable
-and less restrictive manner. However, note that this feature is not portable
+and less restrictive manner.
+However, note that this feature is not portable
across UNIX platforms (though some may do the right thing by default).
For more information see the MAP_NOSYNC section of
.Xr mmap 2
.It Dv MADV_AUTOSYNC
Undoes the effects of MADV_NOSYNC for any future pages dirtied within the
-address range. The effect on pages already dirtied is indeterminate - they
-may or may not be reverted. You can guarantee reversion by using the
+address range.
+The effect on pages already dirtied is indeterminate - they
+may or may not be reverted.
+You can guarantee reversion by using the
.Xr msync 2
or
.Xr fsync 2
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/mmap.2 b/lib/libc/sys/mmap.2
index 8d6cfd76dfe7..798396e50671 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/mmap.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/mmap.2
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@ it.
You can test file fragmentation by observing the KB/t (kilobytes per
transfer) results from an
.Dq Li iostat 1
-while reading a large file sequentially, e.g. using
+while reading a large file sequentially, e.g.\& using
.Dq Li dd if=filename of=/dev/null bs=32k .
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/modnext.2 b/lib/libc/sys/modnext.2
index b512b7bce374..3a6f69b70947 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/modnext.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/modnext.2
@@ -65,7 +65,8 @@ The
system call
returns the modid of the next module (see
.Sx DESCRIPTION )
-or 0. If an error
+or 0.
+If an error
occurs,
.Va errno
is set to indicate the error.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/modstat.2 b/lib/libc/sys/modstat.2
index 21673f5574d1..935623243c8c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/modstat.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/modstat.2
@@ -95,7 +95,8 @@ The module was not found (probably not loaded).
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The version specified in the
.Fa version
-field of stat is not the proper version. You would need to rebuild world, the
+field of stat is not the proper version.
+You would need to rebuild world, the
kernel, or your application, if this error occurs, given that you did properly
fill in the
.Fa version
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/nanosleep.2 b/lib/libc/sys/nanosleep.2
index 2d03ee5673d3..f086305d2e5b 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/nanosleep.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/nanosleep.2
@@ -51,7 +51,8 @@
The
.Fn nanosleep
system call
-causes the process to sleep for the specified time. An unmasked signal will
+causes the process to sleep for the specified time.
+An unmasked signal will
cause it to terminate the sleep early, regardless of the
.Dv SA_RESTART
value on the interrupting signal.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/open.2 b/lib/libc/sys/open.2
index 8048ee55c6df..14d8722a109d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/open.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/open.2
@@ -247,7 +247,7 @@ or
is specified but the underlying file system does not support locking.
.It Bq Er EOPNOTSUPP
The named file is a special file mounted through a file system that
-does not support access to it (e.g. NFS).
+does not support access to it (e.g.\& NFS).
.It Bq Er EWOULDBLOCK
.Dv O_NONBLOCK
and one of
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/poll.2 b/lib/libc/sys/poll.2
index 3456350bc3c7..28c426e6495c 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/poll.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/poll.2
@@ -50,7 +50,8 @@ The
.Fa fds
argument is a pointer to an array of pollfd structures as defined in
.In poll.h
-(shown below). The
+(shown below).
+The
.Fa nfds
argument determines the size of the
.Fa fds
@@ -68,13 +69,16 @@ The fields of
are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width XXXrevents
.It fd
-File descriptor to poll. If fd is equal to -1 then
+File descriptor to poll.
+If fd is equal to -1 then
.Fa revents
is cleared (set to zero), and that pollfd is not checked.
.It events
-Events to poll for. (See below.)
+Events to poll for.
+(See below.)
.It revents
-Events which may occur. (See below.)
+Events which may occur.
+(See below.)
.El
.Pp
The event bitmasks in
@@ -97,15 +101,18 @@ Normal data may be written without blocking.
.It POLLWRBAND
Data with a non-zero priority may be written without blocking.
.It POLLERR
-An exceptional condition has occurred on the device or socket. This
+An exceptional condition has occurred on the device or socket.
+This
flag is always checked, even if not present in the
.Fa events
bitmask.
.It POLLHUP
-The device or socket has been disconnected. This flag is always
+The device or socket has been disconnected.
+This flag is always
checked, even if not present in the
.Fa events
-bitmask. Note that
+bitmask.
+Note that
POLLHUP
and
POLLOUT
@@ -113,7 +120,8 @@ should never be present in the
.Fa revents
bitmask at the same time.
.It POLLNVAL
-The file descriptor is not open. This flag is always checked, even
+The file descriptor is not open.
+This flag is always checked, even
if not present in the
.Fa events
bitmask.
@@ -122,9 +130,11 @@ bitmask.
If
.Fa timeout
is neither zero nor INFTIM (-1), it specifies a maximum interval to
-wait for any file descriptor to become ready, in milliseconds. If
+wait for any file descriptor to become ready, in milliseconds.
+If
.Fa timeout
-is INFTIM (-1), the poll blocks indefinitely. If
+is INFTIM (-1), the poll blocks indefinitely.
+If
.Fa timeout
is zero, then
.Fn poll
@@ -134,7 +144,8 @@ The
.Fn poll
system call
returns the number of descriptors that are ready for I/O, or -1 if an
-error occurred. If the time limit expires,
+error occurred.
+If the time limit expires,
.Fn poll
returns 0.
If
@@ -148,15 +159,18 @@ array will be unmodified.
This implementation differs from the historical one in that a given
file descriptor may not cause
.Fn poll
-to return with an error. In cases where this would have happened in
-the historical implementation (e.g. trying to poll a
+to return with an error.
+In cases where this would have happened in
+the historical implementation (e.g.\& trying to poll a
.Xr revoke 2 Ns ed
descriptor), this implementation instead copies the
.Fa events
bitmask to the
.Fa revents
-bitmask. Attempting to perform I/O on this descriptor will then
-return an error. This behaviour is believed to be more useful.
+bitmask.
+Attempting to perform I/O on this descriptor will then
+return an error.
+This behaviour is believed to be more useful.
.Sh ERRORS
An error return from
.Fn poll
@@ -187,7 +201,8 @@ The distinction between some of the fields in the
.Fa events
and
.Fa revents
-bitmasks is really not useful without STREAMS. The fields are
+bitmasks is really not useful without STREAMS.
+The fields are
defined for compatibility with existing software.
.Sh HISTORY
The
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/read.2 b/lib/libc/sys/read.2
index 8e3865217a79..1e98f3a3bb6f 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/read.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/read.2
@@ -112,7 +112,8 @@ Upon return from
the pointer is incremented by the number of bytes actually read.
.Pp
Objects that are not capable of seeking always read from the current
-position. The value of the pointer associated with such an
+position.
+The value of the pointer associated with such an
object is undefined.
.Pp
Upon successful completion,
@@ -166,7 +167,7 @@ and no data were ready to be read.
.It Bq Er EISDIR
The file descriptor is associated with a directory residing
on a file system that does not allow regular read operations on
-directories (e.g. NFS).
+directories (e.g.\& NFS).
.It Bq Er EOPNOTSUPP
The file descriptor is associated with a file system and file type that
do not allow regular read operations on it.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/rename.2 b/lib/libc/sys/rename.2
index 6a9be42f94fb..0080f409f6dd 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/rename.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/rename.2
@@ -168,7 +168,8 @@ The link named by
.Fa to
and the file named by
.Fa from
-are on different logical devices (file systems). Note that this error
+are on different logical devices (file systems).
+Note that this error
code will not be returned if the implementation permits cross-device
links.
.It Bq Er ENOSPC
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/rfork.2 b/lib/libc/sys/rfork.2
index 7f160ec369ac..d6c69dcf4563 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/rfork.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/rfork.2
@@ -59,7 +59,8 @@ If set, the kernel will force sharing of the entire address space,
typically by sharing the hardware page table directly.
The child
will thus inherit and share all the segments the parent process owns,
-whether they are normally shareable or not. The stack segment is
+whether they are normally shareable or not.
+The stack segment is
not split (both the parent and child return on the same stack) and thus
.Fn rfork
with the RFMEM flag may not generally be called directly from high level
@@ -67,7 +68,8 @@ languages including C.
May be set only with
.Dv RFPROC .
A helper function is provided to assist with this problem and will cause
-the new process to run on the provided stack. See
+the new process to run on the provided stack.
+See
.Xr rfork_thread 3
for information.
.It Dv RFSIGSHARE
@@ -75,7 +77,8 @@ If set, the kernel will force sharing the sigacts structure between the
child and the parent.
.It Dv RFLINUXTHPN
If set, the kernel will return SIGUSR1 instead of SIGCHILD upon thread
-exit for the child. This is intended to mimic certain Linux clone behaviour.
+exit for the child.
+This is intended to mimic certain Linux clone behaviour.
.El
.Pp
File descriptors in a shared file descriptor table are kept
@@ -110,7 +113,8 @@ Upon successful completion,
.Fn rfork
returns a value
of 0 to the child process and returns the process ID of the child
-process to the parent process. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned
+process to the parent process.
+Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned
to the parent process, no child process is created, and the global
variable
.Va errno
@@ -166,7 +170,8 @@ does not yet implement a native
.Fn clone
library call, and the current pthreads implementation does not use
.Fn rfork
-with RFMEM. A native port of the linux threads library,
+with RFMEM.
+A native port of the linux threads library,
.Pa /usr/ports/devel/linuxthreads ,
contains a working
.Fn clone
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/sched_get_priority_max.2 b/lib/libc/sys/sched_get_priority_max.2
index 9f8104a07b61..88d1d6d1460d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/sched_get_priority_max.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/sched_get_priority_max.2
@@ -82,7 +82,8 @@ If successful, the
and
.Fn sched_get_priority_min
system calls shall return the appropriate maximum or minimum values,
-respectively. If unsuccessful, they shall return a value of -1 and set
+respectively.
+If unsuccessful, they shall return a value of -1 and set
.Fa errno
to indicate the error.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/sched_setparam.2 b/lib/libc/sys/sched_setparam.2
index bfd91154cecf..dfc2ac0c6ebd 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/sched_setparam.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/sched_setparam.2
@@ -85,12 +85,14 @@ argument is set higher than that of the lowest priority running process
and if the specified process is ready to run, the process specified by
the
.Fa pid
-argument will preempt a lowest priority running process. Similarly, if
+argument will preempt a lowest priority running process.
+Similarly, if
the process calling
.Fn sched_setparam
sets its own priority lower than that of one or more other nonempty
process lists, then the process that is the head of the highest priority
-list will also preempt the calling process. Thus, in either case, the
+list will also preempt the calling process.
+Thus, in either case, the
originating process might not receive notification of the completion of
the requested priority change until the higher priority process has
executed.
@@ -128,7 +130,8 @@ as a read-style operation.
If
.Fa pid
is zero, the scheduling parameters for the calling process will be
-returned. In this implementation, the
+returned.
+In this implementation, the
.Fa sched_getparam
system call will fail if
.Fa pid
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/sched_setscheduler.2 b/lib/libc/sys/sched_setscheduler.2
index 15a1ab780222..21b34e038190 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/sched_setscheduler.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/sched_setscheduler.2
@@ -123,7 +123,8 @@ as a read-style operation.
If
.Fa pid
is zero, the scheduling parameters for the calling process will be
-returned. In this implementation, the
+returned.
+In this implementation, the
.Fa sched_getscheduler
system call will fail if
.Fa pid
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/sched_yield.2 b/lib/libc/sys/sched_yield.2
index c8a60a0a855a..9db8942249e2 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/sched_yield.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/sched_yield.2
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@
The
.Fn sched_yield
system call forces the running process to relinquish the processor until it
-again becomes the head of its process list. It takes no arguments.
+again becomes the head of its process list.
+It takes no arguments.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
.Rv -std sched_yield
.Sh ERRORS
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/select.2 b/lib/libc/sys/select.2
index 823eeaac9c85..bacd76ee958e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/select.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/select.2
@@ -109,7 +109,8 @@ to the maximum number of descriptors supported by the system.
If
.Fa timeout
is a non-nil pointer, it specifies the maximum interval to wait for the
-selection to complete. System activity can lengthen the interval by
+selection to complete.
+System activity can lengthen the interval by
an indeterminate amount.
.Pp
If
@@ -158,7 +159,8 @@ points to an invalid address.
A signal was delivered before the time limit expired and
before any of the selected events occurred.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
-The specified time limit is invalid. One of its components is
+The specified time limit is invalid.
+One of its components is
negative or too large.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The
@@ -195,7 +197,8 @@ If
.Fa nfds
is greater than the number of open files,
.Fn select
-is not guaranteed to examine the unused file descriptors. For historical
+is not guaranteed to examine the unused file descriptors.
+For historical
reasons,
.Fn select
will always examine the first 256 descriptors.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/semctl.2 b/lib/libc/sys/semctl.2
index b69b8fb3caac..0971949ff0a4 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/semctl.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/semctl.2
@@ -95,7 +95,8 @@ or
.Fa sem_perm.cuid ,
or it must have superuser privileges.
.It IPC_RMID
-Immediately removes the semaphore set from the system. The calling
+Immediately removes the semaphore set from the system.
+The calling
process's effective uid must equal the semaphore set's
.Fa sem_perm.uid
or
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/semget.2 b/lib/libc/sys/semget.2
index f493281a5caa..18c083b56b14 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/semget.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/semget.2
@@ -53,13 +53,15 @@ set of semaphores.
.\"
The key
is analogous to a filename: it provides a handle that names an
-IPC object. There are three ways to specify a key:
+IPC object.
+There are three ways to specify a key:
.Bl -bullet
.It
IPC_PRIVATE may be specified, in which case a new IPC object
will be created.
.It
-An integer constant may be specified. If no IPC object corresponding
+An integer constant may be specified.
+If no IPC object corresponding
to
.Fa key
is specified and the IPC_CREAT bit is set in
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/send.2 b/lib/libc/sys/send.2
index 38c8f80c66a0..f5fae6f4fa38 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/send.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/send.2
@@ -183,7 +183,8 @@ but may be caused by transient congestion.
The remote host was unreachable.
.It Bq Er ECONNREFUSED
The socket received an ICMP destination unreachable message
-from the last message sent. This typically means that the
+from the last message sent.
+This typically means that the
receiver is not listening on the remote port.
.It Bq Er EHOSTDOWN
The remote host was down.
@@ -214,7 +215,8 @@ domain socket
then
.Fn close
it before it has actually been sent, the result being that the receiver
-gets a closed file descriptor. It is left to the application to
+gets a closed file descriptor.
+It is left to the application to
implement an acknowledgment mechanism to prevent this from happening.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr fcntl 2 ,
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/shm_open.2 b/lib/libc/sys/shm_open.2
index 061913311a3f..ac4c1109af27 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/shm_open.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/shm_open.2
@@ -150,7 +150,8 @@ functions can fail with any error defined for
.Fn open
and
.Fn unlink ,
-respectively. In addition, the following errors are defined for
+respectively.
+In addition, the following errors are defined for
.Fn shm_open :
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EINVAL
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/shmat.2 b/lib/libc/sys/shmat.2
index b992d41a67ad..8fe340c9ae4a 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/shmat.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/shmat.2
@@ -49,7 +49,8 @@ The
system call
attaches the shared memory segment identified by
.Fa shmid
-to the calling process's address space. The address where the segment
+to the calling process's address space.
+The address where the segment
is attached is determined as follows:
.\"
.\" These are cribbed almost exactly from Stevens, _Advanced Programming in
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/shmctl.2 b/lib/libc/sys/shmctl.2
index ea7eaa7e8c55..d73c516e2bde 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/shmctl.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/shmctl.2
@@ -71,10 +71,12 @@ or
.Fa shm_perm.cuid ,
or it must have superuser privileges.
.It Dv IPC_RMID
-Removes the segment from the system. The removal will not take
+Removes the segment from the system.
+The removal will not take
effect until all processes having attached the segment have exited;
however, once the IPC_RMID operation has taken place, no further
-processes will be allowed to attach the segment. For the operation
+processes will be allowed to attach the segment.
+For the operation
to succeed, the calling process's effective uid must match
.Fa shm_perm.uid
or
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/shmget.2 b/lib/libc/sys/shmget.2
index 5d8bc5a9a179..e7fd6d167217 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/shmget.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/shmget.2
@@ -54,13 +54,15 @@ memory segment.
.\"
The key
is analogous to a filename: it provides a handle that names an
-IPC object. There are three ways to specify a key:
+IPC object.
+There are three ways to specify a key:
.Bl -bullet
.It
IPC_PRIVATE may be specified, in which case a new IPC object
will be created.
.It
-An integer constant may be specified. If no IPC object corresponding
+An integer constant may be specified.
+If no IPC object corresponding
to
.Fa key
is specified and the IPC_CREAT bit is set in
@@ -100,7 +102,8 @@ Write access for other.
.Pp
When creating a new shared memory segment,
.Fa size
-indicates the desired size of the new segment in bytes. The size
+indicates the desired size of the new segment in bytes.
+The size
of the segment may be rounded up to a multiple convenient to the
kernel (i.e., the page size).
.Sh RETURN VALUES
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/sigaction.2 b/lib/libc/sys/sigaction.2
index 69f60e47a330..cd4eb8900da7 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/sigaction.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/sigaction.2
@@ -559,7 +559,7 @@ cause of the signal, usually one of the
.Dv SI_...
values from
.In sys/signal.h
-or codes specific to a signal, i.e. one of the
+or codes specific to a signal, i.e., one of the
.Dv FPE_...
values for
.Dv SIGFPE .
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/socket.2 b/lib/libc/sys/socket.2
index dab67b2fadf9..dadd6837360e 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/socket.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/socket.2
@@ -81,7 +81,8 @@ PF_NETGRAPH Netgraph sockets
.Pp
The socket has the indicated
.Fa type ,
-which specifies the semantics of communication. Currently
+which specifies the semantics of communication.
+Currently
defined types are:
.Pp
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
@@ -123,9 +124,11 @@ The
argument
specifies a particular protocol to be used with the socket.
Normally only a single protocol exists to support a particular
-socket type within a given protocol family. However, it is possible
+socket type within a given protocol family.
+However, it is possible
that many protocols may exist, in which case a particular protocol
-must be specified in this manner. The protocol number to use is
+must be specified in this manner.
+The protocol number to use is
particular to the
.Dq "communication domain"
in which communication
@@ -135,10 +138,12 @@ is to take place; see
Sockets of type
.Dv SOCK_STREAM
are full-duplex byte streams, similar
-to pipes. A stream socket must be in a
+to pipes.
+A stream socket must be in a
.Em connected
state before any data may be sent or received
-on it. A connection to another socket is created with a
+on it.
+A connection to another socket is created with a
.Xr connect 2
system call.
Once connected, data may be transferred using
@@ -168,7 +173,8 @@ and received as described in
The communications protocols used to implement a
.Dv SOCK_STREAM
insure that data
-is not lost or duplicated. If a piece of data for which the
+is not lost or duplicated.
+If a piece of data for which the
peer protocol has buffer space cannot be successfully transmitted
within a reasonable length of time, then
the connection is considered broken and calls
@@ -184,7 +190,7 @@ by forcing transmissions
roughly every minute in the absence of other activity.
An error is then indicated if no response can be
elicited on an otherwise
-idle connection for an extended period (e.g. 5 minutes).
+idle connection for an extended period (e.g.\& 5 minutes).
A
.Dv SIGPIPE
signal is raised if a process sends
@@ -195,7 +201,8 @@ which do not handle the signal, to exit.
sockets employ the same system calls
as
.Dv SOCK_STREAM
-sockets. The only difference
+sockets.
+The only difference
is that
.Xr read 2
calls will return only the amount of data requested,
@@ -207,7 +214,8 @@ and
sockets allow sending of datagrams to correspondents
named in
.Xr send 2
-calls. Datagrams are generally received with
+calls.
+Datagrams are generally received with
.Xr recvfrom 2 ,
which returns the next datagram with its return address.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/swapon.2 b/lib/libc/sys/swapon.2
index 6aaf4f29f94f..29e9da5a136d 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/swapon.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/swapon.2
@@ -53,9 +53,11 @@ system call
makes the block device
.Fa special
available to the system for
-allocation for paging and swapping. The names of potentially
+allocation for paging and swapping.
+The names of potentially
available devices are known to the system and defined at system
-configuration time. The size of the swap area on
+configuration time.
+The size of the swap area on
.Fa special
is calculated at the time the device is first made available
for swapping.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/sysarch.2 b/lib/libc/sys/sysarch.2
index 0b3e8ae9efdd..9d8f0509c635 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/sysarch.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/sysarch.2
@@ -69,7 +69,8 @@ functions can be found in the header file
The
.Fn sysarch
system call should never be called directly by
-user programs. Instead, they should access
+user programs.
+Instead, they should access
its functions using the architecture-dependent
library.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/truncate.2 b/lib/libc/sys/truncate.2
index 29892ac65593..5966f5f836c0 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/truncate.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/truncate.2
@@ -57,7 +57,8 @@ or referenced by
.Fa fd
to be truncated or extended to
.Fa length
-bytes in size. If the file
+bytes in size.
+If the file
was larger than this size, the extra data
is lost.
If the file was smaller than this size,
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/umask.2 b/lib/libc/sys/umask.2
index 9226071d4541..00ff4e728403 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/umask.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/umask.2
@@ -49,7 +49,8 @@ The
.Fn umask
routine sets the process's file mode creation mask to
.Fa numask
-and returns the previous value of the mask. The 9 low-order
+and returns the previous value of the mask.
+The 9 low-order
access permission
bits of
.Fa numask
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/unlink.2 b/lib/libc/sys/unlink.2
index 6050b39fd00e..332613448604 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/unlink.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/unlink.2
@@ -118,5 +118,6 @@ function appeared in
The
.Fn unlink
system call traditionally allows the super-user to unlink directories which
-can damage the file system integrity. This implementation no longer permits
+can damage the file system integrity.
+This implementation no longer permits
it.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/vfork.2 b/lib/libc/sys/vfork.2
index cf57134fb9d6..b299923ca576 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/vfork.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/vfork.2
@@ -50,7 +50,8 @@ The
system call
can be used to create new processes without fully copying the address
space of the old process, which is horrendously inefficient in a paged
-environment. It is useful when the purpose of
+environment.
+It is useful when the purpose of
.Xr fork 2
would have been to create a new system context for an
.Xr execve 2 .
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/wait.2 b/lib/libc/sys/wait.2
index 4f6df2d7b086..35a2818bc550 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/wait.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/wait.2
@@ -102,7 +102,8 @@ equals the absolute value of
.Pp
The
.Fa status
-argument is defined below. The
+argument is defined below.
+The
.Fa options
argument contains the bitwise OR of any of the following options.
The
@@ -237,7 +238,8 @@ If
.Fn wait
returns due to a stopped
or terminated child process, the process ID of the child
-is returned to the calling process. Otherwise, a value of -1
+is returned to the calling process.
+Otherwise, a value of -1
is returned and
.Va errno
is set to indicate the error.
diff --git a/lib/libc/sys/write.2 b/lib/libc/sys/write.2
index 206476931dc5..4687e3bab6a9 100644
--- a/lib/libc/sys/write.2
+++ b/lib/libc/sys/write.2
@@ -112,7 +112,8 @@ Upon return from
the pointer is incremented by the number of bytes which were written.
.Pp
Objects that are not capable of seeking always write from the current
-position. The value of the pointer associated with such an object
+position.
+The value of the pointer associated with such an object
is undefined.
.Pp
If the real user is not the super-user, then
@@ -134,7 +135,8 @@ the return value must be noted,
and the remainder of the operation should be retried when possible.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion the number of bytes which were written
-is returned. Otherwise a -1 is returned and the global variable
+is returned.
+Otherwise a -1 is returned and the global variable
.Va errno
is set to indicate the error.
.Sh ERRORS
diff --git a/lib/libcalendar/calendar.3 b/lib/libcalendar/calendar.3
index 4c4c4ec2fe1a..469f1c9e70c5 100644
--- a/lib/libcalendar/calendar.3
+++ b/lib/libcalendar/calendar.3
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@
.Fn weekday "int nd"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
These functions provide calendar arithmetic for a large range of years,
-starting at March 1st, year zero (i. e. 1 B.C.) and ending way beyond
+starting at March 1st, year zero (i.e., 1 B.C.) and ending way beyond
year 100000.
.Pp
Programs should be linked with
@@ -103,7 +103,8 @@ of a date and the "number of days" representation, which is better suited
for calculations.
The days are numbered from March 1st year 1 B.C., starting
with zero, so the number of a day gives the number of days since March 1st,
-year 1 B.C. The conversions work for nonnegative day numbers only.
+year 1 B.C.
+The conversions work for nonnegative day numbers only.
.Pp
The
.Fn gdate
@@ -151,7 +152,8 @@ Most catholic countries adopted the new
calendar by the end of the 16th century, whereas others stayed with
the Julian Calendar until the 20th century.
The United Kingdom and
-their colonies switched on September 2, 1752. They already had to
+their colonies switched on September 2, 1752.
+They already had to
delete 11 days.
.Pp
The function
@@ -168,7 +170,7 @@ This function is defined for Gregorian Calendar only.
.Pp
The function
.Fn weekday
-returns the weekday (Mo = 0 .. Su = 6) of the day numbered
+returns the weekday (Mo = 0 ..\& Su = 6) of the day numbered
.Fa nd .
.Pp
The structure
diff --git a/lib/libcam/cam.3 b/lib/libcam/cam.3
index 439fe788d842..abfd7c2b81a9 100644
--- a/lib/libcam/cam.3
+++ b/lib/libcam/cam.3
@@ -121,8 +121,10 @@
.Fc
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The CAM library consists of a number of functions designed to aid in
-programming with the CAM subsystem. This man page covers the basic set of
-library functions. More functions are documented in the man pages listed
+programming with the CAM subsystem.
+This man page covers the basic set of
+library functions.
+More functions are documented in the man pages listed
below.
.Pp
Many of the CAM library functions use the
@@ -181,29 +183,35 @@ takes as arguments a string describing the device it is to open, and
suitable for passing to
.Xr open 2 .
The "path" passed in may actually be most any type of string that contains
-a device name and unit number to be opened. The string will be parsed by
+a device name and unit number to be opened.
+The string will be parsed by
.Fn cam_get_device
-into a device name and unit number. Once the device name and unit number
+into a device name and unit number.
+Once the device name and unit number
are determined, a lookup is performed to determine the passthrough device
that corresponds to the given device.
.Fn cam_open_device
is rather simple to use, but it isn't really suitable for general use
-because its behavior isn't necessarily deterministic. Programmers writing
+because its behavior isn't necessarily deterministic.
+Programmers writing
new applications should make the extra effort to use one of the other open
routines documented below.
.Pp
.Fn cam_open_spec_device
opens the
.Xr pass 4
-device that corresponds to the device name and unit number passed in. The
+device that corresponds to the device name and unit number passed in.
+The
.Ar flags
should be flags suitable for passing to
.Xr open 2 .
The
.Ar device
-argument is optional. The user may supply pre-allocated space for the
+argument is optional.
+The user may supply pre-allocated space for the
.Va cam_device
-structure. If the
+structure.
+If the
.Ar device
argument is
.Va NULL ,
@@ -219,11 +227,14 @@ is similar to
except that it takes a
.Tn SCSI
bus, target and logical unit instead of a device name and unit number as
-arguments. The
+arguments.
+The
.Va path_id
argument is the CAM equivalent of a
.Tn SCSI
-bus number. It represents the logical bus number in the system. The
+bus number.
+It represents the logical bus number in the system.
+The
.Ar flags
should be flags suitable for passing to
.Xr open 2 .
@@ -238,10 +249,12 @@ takes as an argument the
.Fa path
of a
.Xr pass 4
-device to open. No translation or lookup is performed, so the path passed
+device to open.
+No translation or lookup is performed, so the path passed
in must be that of a CAM
.Xr pass 4
-device. The
+device.
+The
.Fa flags
should be flags suitable for passing to
.Xr open 2 .
@@ -258,15 +271,18 @@ structure.
frees the
.Va cam_device
structure allocated by one of the above open() calls, and closes the file
-descriptor to the passthrough device. This routine should not be called if
+descriptor to the passthrough device.
+This routine should not be called if
the user allocated space for the
.Va cam_device
-structure. Instead, the user should call
+structure.
+Instead, the user should call
.Fn cam_close_spec_device .
.Pp
.Fn cam_close_spec_device
merely closes the file descriptor opened in one of the open() routines
-described above. This function should be called when the
+described above.
+This function should be called when the
.Va cam_device
structure was allocated by the caller, rather than the CAM library.
.Pp
@@ -297,7 +313,8 @@ takes as arguments a
structure, and a string with length
.Fa len .
It creates a colon-terminated printing prefix string similar to the ones
-used by the kernel. e.g.: "(cd0:ahc1:0:4:0): ".
+used by the kernel.
+e.g.: "(cd0:ahc1:0:4:0): ".
.Fn cam_path_string
will place at most
.Fa len Ns \-1
@@ -370,7 +387,8 @@ returns a value of -1 if an error occured, and
is set to indicate the error.
.Pp
.Fn cam_path_string
-returns a filled printing prefix string as a convenience. This is the same
+returns a filled printing prefix string as a convenience.
+This is the same
.Fa str
that is passed into
.Fn cam_path_string .
@@ -403,11 +421,13 @@ The CAM library first appeared in
.Fn cam_open_device
doesn't check to see if the
.Fa path
-passed in is a symlink to something. It also doesn't check to see if the
+passed in is a symlink to something.
+It also doesn't check to see if the
.Fa path
passed in is an actual
.Xr pass 4
-device. The former would be rather easy to implement, but the latter would
+device.
+The former would be rather easy to implement, but the latter would
require a definitive way to identify a device node as a
.Xr pass 4
device.
diff --git a/lib/libcam/cam_cdbparse.3 b/lib/libcam/cam_cdbparse.3
index e31a0fb6ad5f..7d7d4deca796 100644
--- a/lib/libcam/cam_cdbparse.3
+++ b/lib/libcam/cam_cdbparse.3
@@ -170,7 +170,8 @@ layer.
These functions may be used in new applications, but users may find it
easier to use the various SCSI CCB building functions included with the
.Xr cam 3
-library. (e.g.\&
+library.
+(e.g.\&
.Fn cam_fill_csio ,
.Fn scsi_start_stop ,
and
@@ -194,10 +195,12 @@ argument.
.Fa data_ptr
is the data buffer used during the
.Tn SCSI
-data phase. If no data is to be
+data phase.
+If no data is to be
transferred for the
.Tn SCSI
-command in question, this should be set to NULL. If there is data to
+command in question, this should be set to NULL.
+If there is data to
transfer for the command, this buffer must be at least
.Fa dxfer_len
long.
@@ -252,17 +255,20 @@ typedef enum {
} ccb_flags;
.Ed
.Pp
-Multiple flags should be ORed together. Any of the CCB flags may be used,
+Multiple flags should be ORed together.
+Any of the CCB flags may be used,
although it is worth noting several important ones here:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width CAM_PASS_ERR_RECOVER
.It Dv CAM_DIR_IN
-This indicates that the operation in question is a read operation. i.e.,
+This indicates that the operation in question is a read operation.
+i.e.,
data is being read from the
.Tn SCSI
device to the user-supplied buffer.
.It Dv CAM_DIR_OUT
-This indicates that the operation is a write operation. i.e. data is being
+This indicates that the operation is a write operation.
+i.e., data is being
written from the user-supplied buffer to the device.
.It Dv CAM_DIR_NONE
This indicates that there is no data to be transferred for this command.
@@ -271,7 +277,8 @@ This flag disables device queue freezing as an error recovery mechanism.
.It Dv CAM_PASS_ERR_RECOVER
This flag tells the
.Xr pass 4
-driver to enable error recovery. The default is to not perform error
+driver to enable error recovery.
+The default is to not perform error
recovery, which means that the retry count won't be honored without this
flag, among other things.
.It Dv CAM_DATA_PHYS
@@ -282,7 +289,8 @@ is a physical address, not a virtual address.
.Pp
The
.Fa retry_count
-tells the kernel how many times to retry the command in question. The
+tells the kernel how many times to retry the command in question.
+The
retry count is ignored unless the
.Xr pass 4
driver is told to enable error recovery via the
@@ -291,22 +299,26 @@ flag.
.Pp
The
.Fa timeout
-tells the kernel how long to wait for the given command to complete. If
+tells the kernel how long to wait for the given command to complete.
+If
the timeout expires and the command hasn't completed, the CCB will be
returned from the kernel with an appropriate error status.
.Pp
.Fa cmd_spec
is a CDB format specifier used to build up the SCSI CDB.
-This text string is made up of a list of field specifiers. Field
+This text string is made up of a list of field specifiers.
+Field
specifiers specify the value for each CDB field (including indicating
that the value be taken from the next argument in the
variable argument list), the width
-of the field in bits or bytes, and an optional name. White space is
+of the field in bits or bytes, and an optional name.
+White space is
ignored, and the pound sign ('#') introduces a comment that ends at the
end of the current line.
.Pp
The optional name is the first part of a field specifier and
-is in curly braces. The text in curly braces in this example are
+is in curly braces.
+The text in curly braces in this example are
the names:
.Dl "{PS} v:b1 {Reserved} 0:b1 {Page Code} v:b6 # Mode select page"
.Pp
@@ -378,7 +390,8 @@ function takes two arguments:
.It Fa gethook
is passed into the
.Fn arg_get
-function at each invocation. This enables the
+function at each invocation.
+This enables the
.Fn arg_get
function to keep some state in between calls without using global or static
variables.
@@ -447,7 +460,8 @@ is a void pointer to the value being passed into the function.
.It Fa count
is the size of the value being passed into the
.Fn arg_put
-function. The argument format determines the unit of measure.
+function.
+The argument format determines the unit of measure.
.It Fa name
This is a text description of the field, if one was provided in the
.Fa fmt .
@@ -506,7 +520,8 @@ The CAM versions of these functions are based upon similar functions
implemented for the old
.Fx
.Tn SCSI
-layer. The encoding/decoding functions in the old
+layer.
+The encoding/decoding functions in the old
.Tn SCSI
code were written by Peter Dufault.
.Pp
@@ -516,7 +531,8 @@ SCSI command in user space.
The old
.Va scsireq
data structure was almost identical to the SGI /dev/scsi data
-structure. If anyone knows the name of the authors it should
+structure.
+If anyone knows the name of the authors it should
go here; Peter Dufault first read about it in a 1989 Sun Expert magazine.
.Pp
The new CCB data structures are derived from the CAM-2 and CAM-3
@@ -533,16 +549,20 @@ library and the related kernel ioctl.
If anyone needs that for compatibility contact dufault@hda.com.
.Sh AUTHORS
Kenneth Merry implemented the CAM versions of these encoding and decoding
-functions. This current work is based upon earlier work by Peter Dufault.
+functions.
+This current work is based upon earlier work by Peter Dufault.
.Sh BUGS
There should probably be a function that encodes both the CDB and the data
buffer portions of a
.Tn SCSI
-CCB. I discovered this while implementing the arbitrary command execution
+CCB.
+I discovered this while implementing the arbitrary command execution
code in
.Xr camcontrol 8 ,
but I haven't yet had time to implement such a function.
.Pp
-Some of the CCB flag descriptions really don't belong here. Rather they
-belong in a generic CCB man page. Since that man page hasn't yet been
+Some of the CCB flag descriptions really don't belong here.
+Rather they
+belong in a generic CCB man page.
+Since that man page hasn't yet been
written, the shorter descriptions here will have to suffice.
diff --git a/lib/libcompat/4.3/rexec.3 b/lib/libcompat/4.3/rexec.3
index 4f25ca850dbf..5faf8eae5a04 100644
--- a/lib/libcompat/4.3/rexec.3
+++ b/lib/libcompat/4.3/rexec.3
@@ -101,7 +101,8 @@ output from the command (unit 2) on this channel, and will also
accept bytes on this channel as being
.Ux
signal numbers, to be
-forwarded to the process group of the command. The diagnostic
+forwarded to the process group of the command.
+The diagnostic
information returned does not include remote authorization failure,
as the secondary connection is set up after authorization has been
verified.
diff --git a/lib/libcompat/4.4/cuserid.3 b/lib/libcompat/4.4/cuserid.3
index 4b823b25bbed..72811d5196d6 100644
--- a/lib/libcompat/4.4/cuserid.3
+++ b/lib/libcompat/4.4/cuserid.3
@@ -54,10 +54,12 @@ function is made obsolete by
The function
.Fn cuserid
gets the user name associated with the effective UID of the current
-process. If the argument
+process.
+If the argument
.Fa s
is non-NULL, the name is copied to the buffer it points to,
-and that address is being returned. This buffer must provide space
+and that address is being returned.
+This buffer must provide space
for at least
.Em L_cuserid
characters.
diff --git a/lib/libcompat/regexp/regexp.3 b/lib/libcompat/regexp/regexp.3
index d4db21a57156..f6dad1050a51 100644
--- a/lib/libcompat/regexp/regexp.3
+++ b/lib/libcompat/regexp/regexp.3
@@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ If two characters in the sequence are separated by `\-', this is shorthand
for the full list of
.Tn ASCII
characters between them
-(e.g. `[0-9]' matches any decimal digit).
+(e.g.\& `[0-9]' matches any decimal digit).
To include a literal `]' in the sequence, make it the first character
(following a possible `^').
To include a literal `\-', make it the first or last character.
diff --git a/lib/libcrypt/crypt.3 b/lib/libcrypt/crypt.3
index 85cee0db92a6..1f97dae37b1f 100644
--- a/lib/libcrypt/crypt.3
+++ b/lib/libcrypt/crypt.3
@@ -51,7 +51,8 @@
The
.Fn crypt
function performs password hashing with additional code added to
-deter key search attempts. Different algorithms can be used to
+deter key search attempts.
+Different algorithms can be used to
in the hash.
.\"
.\" NOTICE:
@@ -100,7 +101,8 @@ If neither of the above is true, it assumes the Traditional Format,
using the entire string as the salt (or the first portion).
.El
.Pp
-All routines are designed to be time-consuming. A brief test on a
+All routines are designed to be time-consuming.
+A brief test on a
.Tn Pentium
166/MMX shows the
.Tn DES
@@ -139,7 +141,7 @@ The
introduces disorder in the
.Tn DES
algorithm in one of 16777216 or 4096 possible ways
-(ie. with 24 or 12 bits: if bit
+(i.e., with 24 or 12 bits: if bit
.Em i
of the
.Ar salt
@@ -166,13 +168,18 @@ followed by the encoded 64-bit encryption.
.Pp
If the salt begins with the string
.Fa $digit$
-then the Modular Crypt Format is used. The
+then the Modular Crypt Format is used.
+The
.Fa digit
-represents which algorithm is used in encryption. Following the token is
-the actual salt to use in the encryption. The length of the salt is limited
+represents which algorithm is used in encryption.
+Following the token is
+the actual salt to use in the encryption.
+The length of the salt is limited
to 8 characters--because the length of the returned output is also limited
-(_PASSWORD_LEN). The salt must be terminated with the end of the string
-(NULL) or a dollar sign. Any characters after the dollar sign are ignored.
+(_PASSWORD_LEN).
+The salt must be terminated with the end of the string
+(NULL) or a dollar sign.
+Any characters after the dollar sign are ignored.
.Pp
Currently supported algorithms are:
.Pp
@@ -185,7 +192,8 @@ Blowfish
NT-Hash
.El
.Pp
-Other crypt formats may be easily added. An example salt would be:
+Other crypt formats may be easily added.
+An example salt would be:
.Bl -tag -offset indent
.It Cm "$4$thesalt$rest"
.El
@@ -206,7 +214,8 @@ This is currently
DES
if it is available, or MD5 if not.
.Pp
-How the salt is used will depend upon the algorithm for the hash. For
+How the salt is used will depend upon the algorithm for the hash.
+For
best results, specify at least two characters of salt.
.Pp
The
@@ -259,7 +268,8 @@ The
.Fn crypt
function returns a pointer to static data, and subsequent calls to
.Fn crypt
-will modify the same data. Likewise,
+will modify the same data.
+Likewise,
.Fn crypt_set_format
modifies static data.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libdevstat/devstat.3 b/lib/libdevstat/devstat.3
index bbd860c57b67..fc6c76955125 100644
--- a/lib/libdevstat/devstat.3
+++ b/lib/libdevstat/devstat.3
@@ -241,7 +241,7 @@ selects devices to display based upon a number of criteria:
.Bl -tag -width flag
.It specified devices
Specified devices are the first selection priority.
-These are generally devices specified by name by the user e.g. da0, da1, cd0.
+These are generally devices specified by name by the user e.g.\& da0, da1, cd0.
.It match patterns
These are pattern matching expressions generated by
.Fn devstat_buildmatch
@@ -491,7 +491,7 @@ The total number of blocks transferred between the acquisition of
and
.Va current .
This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device.
-If no blocksize has been reported (i.e. the block size is 0), a default
+If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default
blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.
.It DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_READ
.It DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_WRITE
@@ -503,7 +503,7 @@ The total number of blocks of the specified type between the acquisition of
and
.Va current .
This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device.
-If no blocksize has been reported (i.e. the block size is 0), a default
+If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default
blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.
.It DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER
type: long double *
@@ -566,7 +566,7 @@ The average number of blocks transferred per second between the acquisition of
and
.Va current .
This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device.
-If no blocksize has been reported (i.e. the block size is 0), a default
+If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default
blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.
.It DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_READ
.It DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_WRITE
@@ -579,7 +579,7 @@ between the acquisition of
and
.Va current .
This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device.
-If no blocksize has been reported (i.e. the block size is 0), a default
+If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default
blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.
.It DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION
type: long double *
diff --git a/lib/libdisk/libdisk.3 b/lib/libdisk/libdisk.3
index 341bb4f51a27..1f4cef070e86 100644
--- a/lib/libdisk/libdisk.3
+++ b/lib/libdisk/libdisk.3
@@ -201,7 +201,8 @@ The
and
.Ql private_clone
fields are for data private to the application, and the management
-thereof. If the functions are not provided, no storage management is
+thereof.
+If the functions are not provided, no storage management is
done, cloning will just copy the pointer and freeing will just forget
it.
.Pp
@@ -247,16 +248,19 @@ to warnings about broken design rules in this disklayout.
.Fn Disk_Names
returns
.Ql char**
-with all disk's names (wd0, wd1 ...). You must free each pointer, as
+with all disk's names (wd0, wd1 ...).
+You must free each pointer, as
well as the array by hand.
.Pp
.Fn Set_Boot_Mgr
-sets this boot-manager for use on this disk. Gets written when
+sets this boot-manager for use on this disk.
+Gets written when
.Fn Write_Disk
is called.
.Pp
.Fn Set_Boot_Blocks
-sets the boot-blocks for use on this disk. Gets written when
+sets the boot-blocks for use on this disk.
+Gets written when
.Fn Write_Disk
is called.
.Pp
@@ -295,7 +299,8 @@ is aligned on a track according to the BIOS geometry.
.Pp
.Fn Create_Chunk_DWIM
creates a partition inside the given parent of the given size, and
-returns a pointer to it. The first unused chunk big enough is used.
+returns a pointer to it.
+The first unused chunk big enough is used.
.Pp
.Fn MakeDev
makes the device nodes for this chunk.
diff --git a/lib/libfetch/fetch.3 b/lib/libfetch/fetch.3
index 118d7547f83f..da965a88bdbf 100644
--- a/lib/libfetch/fetch.3
+++ b/lib/libfetch/fetch.3
@@ -442,7 +442,7 @@ Invalid URL
.El
.Pp
The accompanying error message includes a protocol-specific error code
-and message, e.g. "File is not available (404 Not Found)"
+and message, e.g.\& "File is not available (404 Not Found)"
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Bl -tag -width ".Ev FETCH_BIND_ADDRESS"
.It Ev FETCH_BIND_ADDRESS
diff --git a/lib/libftpio/ftpio.3 b/lib/libftpio/ftpio.3
index 5f3fd0158b2f..3d2b57736b0f 100644
--- a/lib/libftpio/ftpio.3
+++ b/lib/libftpio/ftpio.3
@@ -93,7 +93,8 @@ function attempts to log in using the supplied
.Fa ftp_port
defaults to the standard ftp port of 21) and
.Fa verbose
-fields. If it is successful, a
+fields.
+If it is successful, a
standard stream descriptor is returned which should be passed to
subsequent FTP operations.
On failure, NULL is returned and
@@ -104,7 +105,8 @@ The
.Fn ftpChdir
function attempts to issue a server CD command to the directory named in
.Fa dir .
-On success, zero is returned. On failure, the error code from the server.
+On success, zero is returned.
+On failure, the error code from the server.
.Pp
The
.Fn ftpErrno
@@ -121,14 +123,16 @@ function attempts to retrieve the file named by the
argument (which is assumed to be relative to the FTP server's current directory,
see
.Fn ftpChdir )
-and returns a new FILE* pointer for the file or NULL on failure. If
+and returns a new FILE* pointer for the file or NULL on failure.
+If
.Fa seekto
is non-NULL, the contents of the integer it points to will be used
as a restart point for the file, that is to say that the stream
returned will point
.Fa *seekto
bytes into the file gotten (this is handy for restarting failed
-transfers efficiently). If the seek operation fails, the value
+transfers efficiently).
+If the seek operation fails, the value
of
.Fa *seekto
will be zero'd.
@@ -137,13 +141,15 @@ The
.Fn ftpGetModtime
function returns the last modification time of the file named by the
.Fa file
-argument. If the file could not be opened or stat'd, 0 is returned.
+argument.
+If the file could not be opened or stat'd, 0 is returned.
.Pp
The
.Fn ftpGetSize
function returns the size in bytes of the file named by the
.Fa file
-argument. If the file could not be opened or stat'd, -1 is returned.
+argument.
+If the file could not be opened or stat'd, -1 is returned.
.Pp
The
.Fn ftpPut
@@ -195,7 +201,8 @@ and
operations except that no server
.Fa stream
is ever returned - the connection to the server closes when
-the file has been completely read. Use the lower-level routines
+the file has been completely read.
+Use the lower-level routines
if multiple gets are required as it will be far more efficient.
.Pp
The
@@ -208,7 +215,8 @@ and can be considered equivalent to the combined
and
.Fn ftpPut
operations except that no server stream is ever returned - the connection
-to the server closes when the file has been completely written. Use the
+to the server closes when the file has been completely written.
+Use the
lower-level routines if multiple puts are required as it will be far more
efficient.
.Pp
@@ -242,7 +250,8 @@ all my tests.
.Sh HISTORY
Started life as Poul-Henning Kamp's ftp driver for the system installation
utility, later significantly mutated into a more general form as an
-extension of stdio by Jordan Hubbard. Also incorporates some ideas and
+extension of stdio by Jordan Hubbard.
+Also incorporates some ideas and
extensions from Jean-Marc Zucconi.
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Jordan Hubbard ,
diff --git a/lib/libipx/ipx.3 b/lib/libipx/ipx.3
index e349f6c5f3ed..e23289286951 100644
--- a/lib/libipx/ipx.3
+++ b/lib/libipx/ipx.3
@@ -105,7 +105,8 @@ It is interpreted as octal if there is a leading
and there are no super-octal digits.
Otherwise, it is converted as a decimal number.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
-None. (See
+None.
+(See
.Sx BUGS . )
.Sh SEE ALSO
.\" .Xr ns 4 ,
diff --git a/lib/libkiconv/kiconv.3 b/lib/libkiconv/kiconv.3
index 3f1c7cb29e85..093abfbac1d8 100644
--- a/lib/libkiconv/kiconv.3
+++ b/lib/libkiconv/kiconv.3
@@ -68,7 +68,8 @@ between
.Ar fromcode
charset and
.Ar tocode
-charset. You can specify
+charset.
+You can specify
.Ar flag
to determine if
.Xr tolower 3
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm.3
index e06fd2a388f3..1d3c5eb61016 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm.3
@@ -64,7 +64,8 @@ The
.Fn kvm_open
function is first called to obtain a descriptor for all subsequent calls.
.Sh COMPATIBILITY
-The kvm interface was first introduced in SunOS. A considerable
+The kvm interface was first introduced in SunOS.
+A considerable
number of programs have been developed that use this interface,
making backward compatibility highly desirable.
In most respects, the Sun kvm interface is consistent and clean.
@@ -77,11 +78,13 @@ and
.Fn kvm_nlist )
has been incorporated into the
.Bx
-interface. Indeed, many kvm
+interface.
+Indeed, many kvm
applications (i.e., debuggers and statistical monitors) use only
this subset of the interface.
.Pp
-The process interface was not kept. This is not a portability
+The process interface was not kept.
+This is not a portability
issue since any code that manipulates processes is inherently
machine dependent.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm_getfiles.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm_getfiles.3
index c89a35cd8c5e..d803c9795f33 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm_getfiles.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm_getfiles.3
@@ -63,14 +63,16 @@ The
and
.Fa arg
arguments constitute a predicate which limits the set of files
-returned. No predicates are currently defined.
+returned.
+No predicates are currently defined.
.Pp
The number of files found is returned in the reference parameter
.Fa cnt .
The files are returned as a contiguous array of file structures,
preceded by the address of the first file entry in the kernel.
This memory is owned by kvm and is not guaranteed to be persistent across
-subsequent kvm library calls. Data should be copied out if it needs to be
+subsequent kvm library calls.
+Data should be copied out if it needs to be
saved.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
The
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm_getprocs.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm_getprocs.3
index b2703a1a33ec..bacaed62f6cc 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm_getprocs.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm_getprocs.3
@@ -68,7 +68,8 @@ The
and
.Fa arg
arguments constitute a predicate which limits the set of processes
-returned. The value of
+returned.
+The value of
.Fa op
describes the filtering predicate as follows:
.Pp
@@ -116,7 +117,8 @@ command line arguments passed to process indicated by
.Fa p .
Most likely, these arguments correspond to the values passed to
.Xr exec 3
-on process creation. This information is, however,
+on process creation.
+This information is, however,
deliberately under control of the process itself.
Note that the original command name can be found, unaltered,
in the p_comm field of the process structure returned by
@@ -125,7 +127,8 @@ in the p_comm field of the process structure returned by
The
.Fa nchr
argument indicates the maximum number of characters, including null bytes,
-to use in building the strings. If this amount is exceeded, the string
+to use in building the strings.
+If this amount is exceeded, the string
causing the overflow is truncated and the partial result is returned.
This is handy for programs like
.Xr ps 1
@@ -139,7 +142,8 @@ is zero, no limit is imposed and all argument strings are returned in
their entirety.
.Pp
The memory allocated to the argv pointers and string storage
-is owned by the kvm library. Subsequent
+is owned by the kvm library.
+Subsequent
.Fn kvm_getprocs
and
.Xr kvm_close 3
@@ -149,7 +153,8 @@ The
.Fn kvm_getenvv
function is similar to
.Fn kvm_getargv
-but returns the vector of environment strings. This data is
+but returns the vector of environment strings.
+This data is
also alterable by the process.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
The
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm_getswapinfo.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm_getswapinfo.3
index d28fc053a384..1927a9e5a37e 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm_getswapinfo.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm_getswapinfo.3
@@ -29,10 +29,12 @@ information for each swap device, for up to
\- 1 devices.
The number of devices, up to
.Fa maxswap
-\- 1, is returned. A grand
+\- 1, is returned.
+A grand
total of all swap devices (including any devices that go beyond
.Fa maxswap
-\- 1) is returned in one additional array entry. This
+\- 1) is returned in one additional array entry.
+This
entry is not counted in the return value.
Thus, if you specify a
.Fa maxswap
@@ -40,7 +42,8 @@ value of 1, the function will typically return the
value 0 and the single
.Vt kvm_swap
structure will be filled with
-the grand total over all swap devices. The grand total is calculated
+the grand total over all swap devices.
+The grand total is calculated
from all available swap devices whether or not you made room
for them all in the array.
The grand total is returned.
@@ -51,7 +54,8 @@ If an error occurs, -1 is returned.
.Pp
Each swap partition and the grand total is summarized in the
.Vt kvm_swap
-structure. This structure contains the following fields:
+structure.
+This structure contains the following fields:
.Pp
.Bl -item -offset indent -compact
.It
@@ -84,6 +88,7 @@ If the load average was unobtainable, \-1 is returned; otherwise,
the number of swap devices actually retrieved is returned.
.Pp
If the name of the swap device does not fit in the static char buffer
-in the structure, it is truncated. The buffer is always zero terminated.
+in the structure, it is truncated.
+The buffer is always zero terminated.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr kvm 3
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm_nlist.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm_nlist.3
index c49bd3a0f1f4..c1dd8b7212f3 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm_nlist.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm_nlist.3
@@ -60,12 +60,14 @@ an entry whose n_name field is
(see
.Xr nlist 3 ) .
Each symbol is looked up using the n_name field, and if found, the
-corresponding n_type and n_value fields are filled in. These fields are set
+corresponding n_type and n_value fields are filled in.
+These fields are set
to 0 if the symbol is not found.
.Pp
The
.Xr kldsym 2
-system call is used to locate the symbol. This is a less than perfect
+system call is used to locate the symbol.
+This is a less than perfect
emulation of the nlist values but has the advantage of being aware of kernel
modules and is reasonably fast.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm_open.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm_open.3
index 2e2794fa5b00..a289a7e5435b 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm_open.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm_open.3
@@ -63,7 +63,8 @@ and
return a descriptor used to access kernel virtual memory
via the
.Xr kvm 3
-library routines. Both active kernels and crash dumps are accessible
+library routines.
+Both active kernels and crash dumps are accessible
through this interface.
.Pp
The
@@ -121,9 +122,11 @@ other provides an improved error reporting framework.
.Pp
The
.Fn kvm_open
-function is the Sun kvm compatible open call. Here, the
+function is the Sun kvm compatible open call.
+Here, the
.Fa errstr
-argument indicates how errors should be handled. If it is
+argument indicates how errors should be handled.
+If it is
.Dv NULL ,
no errors are reported and the application cannot know the
specific nature of the failed kvm call.
@@ -164,7 +167,8 @@ Thus,
.Fn kvm_openfiles
will place any error message in the
.Fa errbuf
-argument. This buffer should be _POSIX2_LINE_MAX characters large (from
+argument.
+This buffer should be _POSIX2_LINE_MAX characters large (from
<limits.h>).
.Sh RETURN VALUES
The
@@ -185,7 +189,8 @@ The
.Fn kvm_close
function returns 0 on success and -1 on failure.
.Sh BUGS
-There should not be two open calls. The ill-defined error semantics
+There should not be two open calls.
+The ill-defined error semantics
of the Sun library and the desire to have a backward-compatible library
for
.Bx
diff --git a/lib/libkvm/kvm_read.3 b/lib/libkvm/kvm_read.3
index 2e5a3fb1eeed..a2a24850d57a 100644
--- a/lib/libkvm/kvm_read.3
+++ b/lib/libkvm/kvm_read.3
@@ -57,7 +57,8 @@ The
and
.Fn kvm_write
functions are used to read and write kernel virtual memory (or a crash
-dump file). See
+dump file).
+See
.Fn kvm_open 3
or
.Fn kvm_openfiles 3
diff --git a/lib/libnetgraph/netgraph.3 b/lib/libnetgraph/netgraph.3
index 108775e62754..0b832cc39218 100644
--- a/lib/libnetgraph/netgraph.3
+++ b/lib/libnetgraph/netgraph.3
@@ -390,7 +390,7 @@ ASCII control message array or fixed width string buffer overflow.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm netgraph
-system was designed and first implemented at Whistle Communications, Inc. in
+system was designed and first implemented at Whistle Communications, Inc.\& in
a version of
.Fx 2.2
customized for the Whistle InterJet.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_chroot/pam_chroot.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_chroot/pam_chroot.8
index e55c908e89e8..1bb48008d781 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_chroot/pam_chroot.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_chroot/pam_chroot.8
@@ -89,6 +89,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_echo/pam_echo.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_echo/pam_echo.8
index 137bd554b3a5..b162b5b1e4b5 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_echo/pam_echo.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_echo/pam_echo.8
@@ -88,6 +88,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_exec/pam_exec.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_exec/pam_exec.8
index df752eef5bad..c07ff26ecd6d 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_exec/pam_exec.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_exec/pam_exec.8
@@ -61,6 +61,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ftpusers/pam_ftpusers.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ftpusers/pam_ftpusers.8
index 0489d93e5047..380e3b026c70 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ftpusers/pam_ftpusers.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ftpusers/pam_ftpusers.8
@@ -94,6 +94,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_group/pam_group.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_group/pam_group.8
index ce7ef7a53580..832841b4c699 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_group/pam_group.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_group/pam_group.8
@@ -78,6 +78,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_guest/pam_guest.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_guest/pam_guest.8
index fd777f0f41f3..90fe3bd137c7 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_guest/pam_guest.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_guest/pam_guest.8
@@ -93,6 +93,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_lastlog/pam_lastlog.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_lastlog/pam_lastlog.8
index b54fe630b3f3..274de2fbe99c 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_lastlog/pam_lastlog.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_lastlog/pam_lastlog.8
@@ -101,6 +101,6 @@ The
.Nm
module and this manual page were developed for the FreeBSD Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/login.access.5 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/login.access.5
index 2f83d4b15aed..78be90683ad7 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/login.access.5
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/login.access.5
@@ -18,7 +18,8 @@ When someone logs in, the
.Nm
is scanned for the first entry that
matches the (user, host) combination, or, in case of non-networked
-logins, the first entry that matches the (user, tty) combination. The
+logins, the first entry that matches the (user, tty) combination.
+The
permissions field of that table entry determines whether the login will
be accepted or refused.
.Pp
@@ -30,11 +31,13 @@ character:
The first field should be a "+" (access granted) or "-" (access denied)
character.
The second field should be a list of one or more login names,
-group names, or ALL (always matches). The third field should be a list
+group names, or ALL (always matches).
+The third field should be a list
of one or more tty names (for non-networked logins), host names, domain
names (begin with "."), host addresses, internet network numbers (end
with "."), ALL (always matches) or LOCAL (matches any string that does
-not contain a "." character). If you run NIS you can use @netgroupname
+not contain a "." character).
+If you run NIS you can use @netgroupname
in host or user patterns.
.Pp
The EXCEPT operator makes it possible to write very compact rules.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/pam_login_access.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/pam_login_access.8
index 9e808ae5d2b5..6995227487d6 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/pam_login_access.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_login_access/pam_login_access.8
@@ -84,6 +84,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_opieaccess/pam_opieaccess.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_opieaccess/pam_opieaccess.8
index 862c6ec7ae4d..07a66a4e84fd 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_opieaccess/pam_opieaccess.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_opieaccess/pam_opieaccess.8
@@ -135,6 +135,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_passwdqc/pam_passwdqc.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_passwdqc/pam_passwdqc.8
index 926b93c07ee9..408f77d2707d 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_passwdqc/pam_passwdqc.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_passwdqc/pam_passwdqc.8
@@ -263,6 +263,6 @@ for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_radius/pam_radius.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_radius/pam_radius.8
index 27ec9f6f2155..2ff55757071f 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_radius/pam_radius.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_radius/pam_radius.8
@@ -69,7 +69,8 @@ If no password has been entered then authentication fails.
.It Cm try_first_pass
causes
.Nm
-to use a previously entered password, if one is available. If no
+to use a previously entered password, if one is available.
+If no
password has been entered,
.Nm
prompts for one as usual.
@@ -92,7 +93,7 @@ The user
will be authenticated with the supplied username and password, but his
credentials to the system will be presented as the ones for
.Ar username ,
-i.e., his login class, home directory, resource limits, etc. will be set to ones
+i.e., his login class, home directory, resource limits, etc.\& will be set to ones
defined for
.Ar username .
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_rhosts/pam_rhosts.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_rhosts/pam_rhosts.8
index dea034900420..8adfcc6ed5ae 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_rhosts/pam_rhosts.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_rhosts/pam_rhosts.8
@@ -90,6 +90,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_self/pam_self.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_self/pam_self.8
index 2c0bab0b8145..d021434770c6 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_self/pam_self.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_self/pam_self.8
@@ -91,6 +91,6 @@ module and this manual page were developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ssh/pam_ssh.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ssh/pam_ssh.8
index b6efc6ea3793..468e99c452b8 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ssh/pam_ssh.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_ssh/pam_ssh.8
@@ -145,7 +145,7 @@ The current implementation was developed for the
.Fx
Project by
ThinkSec AS and NAI Labs, the Security Research Division of Network
-Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Associates, Inc.\& under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
This manual page was written by
diff --git a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_tacplus/pam_tacplus.8 b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_tacplus/pam_tacplus.8
index 5ad7f07851a5..03faf0cee7de 100644
--- a/lib/libpam/modules/pam_tacplus/pam_tacplus.8
+++ b/lib/libpam/modules/pam_tacplus/pam_tacplus.8
@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@ The user
will be authenticated with the supplied username and password, but his
credentials to the system will be presented as the ones for
.Ar username ,
-i.e., his login class, home directory, resource limits, etc. will be set to ones
+i.e., his login class, home directory, resource limits, etc.\& will be set to ones
defined for
.Ar username .
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libradius/radius.conf.5 b/lib/libradius/radius.conf.5
index d5ef42de752d..6fa5cd78a587 100644
--- a/lib/libradius/radius.conf.5
+++ b/lib/libradius/radius.conf.5
@@ -35,10 +35,12 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
contains the information necessary to configure the RADIUS client
-library. It is parsed by
+library.
+It is parsed by
.Xr rad_config 3 .
The file contains one or more lines of text, each describing a
-single RADIUS server which will be used by the library. Leading
+single RADIUS server which will be used by the library.
+Leading
white space is ignored, as are empty lines and lines containing
only comments.
.Pp
@@ -57,13 +59,16 @@ Timeout
Retries
.El
.Pp
-The fields are separated by white space. The
+The fields are separated by white space.
+The
.Ql #
character at the beginning of a field begins a comment, which extends
-to the end of the line. A field may be enclosed in double quotes,
+to the end of the line.
+A field may be enclosed in double quotes,
in which case it may contain white space and/or begin with the
.Ql #
-character. Within a quoted string, the double quote character can
+character.
+Within a quoted string, the double quote character can
be represented by
.Ql \e\&" ,
and the backslash can be represented by
@@ -75,9 +80,12 @@ The first field gives the service type, either
.Ql auth
for RADIUS authentication or
.Ql acct
-for RADIUS accounting. If a single server provides both services, two
-lines are required in the file. Earlier versions of this file did
-not include a service type. For backward compatibility, if the first
+for RADIUS accounting.
+If a single server provides both services, two
+lines are required in the file.
+Earlier versions of this file did
+not include a service type.
+For backward compatibility, if the first
field is not
.Ql auth
or
@@ -89,9 +97,11 @@ were fields two through five.
.Pp
The second field specifies
the server host, either as a fully qualified domain name or as a
-dotted-quad IP address. The host may optionally be followed by a
+dotted-quad IP address.
+The host may optionally be followed by a
.Ql \&:
-and a numeric port number, without intervening white space. If the
+and a numeric port number, without intervening white space.
+If the
port specification is omitted, it defaults to the
.Ql radius
or
@@ -107,21 +117,27 @@ If no such entry is present, the standard ports 1812 and 1813 are
used.
.Pp
The third field contains the shared secret, which should be known
-only to the client and server hosts. It is an arbitrary string of
+only to the client and server hosts.
+It is an arbitrary string of
characters, though it must be enclosed in double quotes if it
-contains white space. The shared secret may be
+contains white space.
+The shared secret may be
any length, but the RADIUS protocol uses only the first 128
-characters. N.B., some popular RADIUS servers have bugs which
+characters.
+N.B., some popular RADIUS servers have bugs which
prevent them from working properly with secrets longer than 16
characters.
.Pp
The fourth field contains a decimal integer specifying the timeout in
-seconds for receiving a valid reply from the server. If this field
+seconds for receiving a valid reply from the server.
+If this field
is omitted, it defaults to 3 seconds.
.Pp
The fifth field contains a decimal integer specifying the maximum
number of attempts that will be made to authenticate with the server
-before giving up. If omitted, it defaults to 3 attempts. Note,
+before giving up.
+If omitted, it defaults to 3 attempts.
+Note,
this is the total number of attempts and not the number of retries.
.Pp
Up to 10 RADIUS servers may be specified for each service type.
diff --git a/lib/libsdp/sdp.3 b/lib/libsdp/sdp.3
index 24b0779717cf..89547926182a 100644
--- a/lib/libsdp/sdp.3
+++ b/lib/libsdp/sdp.3
@@ -101,7 +101,8 @@ and
macros are used to get byte, short, long, long long and 128-bit integer
from the buffer pointed by
.Vt cp
-pointer. The pointer is automatically advanced.
+pointer.
+The pointer is automatically advanced.
.Pp
The
.Fn SDP_PUT8 ,
@@ -113,7 +114,8 @@ and
macros are used to put byte, short, long, long long and 128-bit integer
into the buffer pointed by
.Vt cp
-pointer. The pointer is automatically advanced.
+pointer.
+The pointer is automatically advanced.
.Pp
.Fn sdp_open
and
@@ -192,7 +194,8 @@ parameter is the length of the Service Search pattern.
The
.Vt ap
parameter is a Attribute ID Range List - an array of one or more SDP Attribute
-ID Range. Each attribute ID Range is encoded as a 32-bit unsigned integer data
+ID Range.
+Each attribute ID Range is encoded as a 32-bit unsigned integer data
element, where the high order 16 bits are interpreted as the beginning
attribute ID of the range and the low order 16 bits are interpreted as the
ending attribute ID of the range.
@@ -241,7 +244,7 @@ The
.Fn sdp_search
function will fill each
.Vt sdp_attr_t
-structure with attribute and value, i.e. it will set
+structure with attribute and value, i.e., it will set
.Vt flags ,
.Vt attr
and
diff --git a/lib/libstand/libstand.3 b/lib/libstand/libstand.3
index 634cc9fb1d39..0e964f46eb5f 100644
--- a/lib/libstand/libstand.3
+++ b/lib/libstand/libstand.3
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@ library provides a set of supporting functions for standalone
applications, mimicking where possible the standard
.Bx
programming
-environment. The following sections group these functions by kind.
+environment.
+The following sections group these functions by kind.
Unless specifically described here, see the corresponding section 3
manpages for the given functions.
.Sh STRING FUNCTIONS
@@ -69,9 +70,11 @@ Free the allocated object at
.Fn setheap "void *start" "void *limit"
.Xc
.Pp
-Initialise the heap. This function must be called before calling
+Initialise the heap.
+This function must be called before calling
.Fn alloc
-for the first time. The region between
+for the first time.
+The region between
.Fa start
and
.Fa limit
@@ -84,14 +87,17 @@ in a panic.
.Pp
Provides the behaviour of
.Fn sbrk 0 ,
-ie. returns the highest point that the heap has reached. This value can
-be used during testing to determine the actual heap usage. The
+i.e., returns the highest point that the heap has reached.
+This value can
+be used during testing to determine the actual heap usage.
+The
.Fa junk
argument is ignored.
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
A set of functions are provided for manipulating a flat variable space similar
-to the traditional shell-supported environment. Major enhancements are support
+to the traditional shell-supported environment.
+Major enhancements are support
for set/unset hook functions.
.Bl -hang -width 10n
.It Xo
@@ -133,18 +139,21 @@ and
arguments may be specified.
.Pp
The set hook is invoked whenever an attempt
-is made to set the variable, unless the EV_NOHOOK flag is set. Typically
+is made to set the variable, unless the EV_NOHOOK flag is set.
+Typically
a set hook will validate the
.Fa value
argument, and then call
.Fn env_setenv
-again with EV_NOHOOK set to actually save the value. The predefined function
+again with EV_NOHOOK set to actually save the value.
+The predefined function
.Fn env_noset
may be specified to refuse all attempts to set a variable.
.Pp
The unset hook is invoked when an attempt is made to unset a variable.
If it
-returns zero, the variable will be unset. The predefined function
+returns zero, the variable will be unset.
+The predefined function
.Fa env_nounset
may be used to prevent a variable being unset.
.El
@@ -190,7 +199,8 @@ Defined as
.Fn _setjmp
and
.Fn _longjmp
-respectively as there is no signal state to manipulate. Requires
+respectively as there is no signal state to manipulate.
+Requires
.In setjmp.h .
.El
.Sh CHARACTER I/O
@@ -227,7 +237,8 @@ characters into
.Fa buf .
Line terminating characters are stripped, and the buffer is always
.Dv NUL
-terminated. Returns the number of characters in
+terminated.
+Returns the number of characters in
.Fa buf
if successful, or -1 if a read error occurs.
.It Xo
@@ -249,13 +260,16 @@ if successful, or -1 if a read error occurs.
.Pp
The *printf functions implement a subset of the standard
.Fn printf
-family functionality and some extensions. The following standard conversions
-are supported: c,d,n,o,p,s,u,x. The following modifiers are supported:
+family functionality and some extensions.
+The following standard conversions
+are supported: c,d,n,o,p,s,u,x.
+The following modifiers are supported:
+,-,#,*,0,field width,precision,l.
.Pp
The
.Li b
-conversion is provided to decode error registers. Its usage is:
+conversion is provided to decode error registers.
+Its usage is:
.Pp
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
printf(
@@ -265,8 +279,9 @@ regval,
);
.Ed
.Pp
-where <base> is the output expressed as a control character, eg. \e10 gives
-octal, \e20 gives hex. Each <arg> is a sequence of characters, the first of
+where <base> is the output expressed as a control character, e.g.\& \e10 gives
+octal, \e20 gives hex.
+Each <arg> is a sequence of characters, the first of
which gives the bit number to be inspected (origin 1) and the next characters
(up to a character less than 32) give the text to be displayed if the bit is set.
Thus
@@ -287,7 +302,7 @@ reg=3<BITTWO,BITONE>
.Pp
The
.Li D
-conversion provides a hexdump facility, eg.
+conversion provides a hexdump facility, e.g.
.Pp
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
printf(
@@ -356,7 +371,8 @@ ptr,
Similar to the behaviour as specified in
.Xr open 2 ,
except that file creation is not supported, so the mode parameter is not
-required. The
+required.
+The
.Fa flags
argument may be one of O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY and O_RDWR (although no file systems
currently support writing).
@@ -402,7 +418,8 @@ and
.Fn fstat
functions only fill out the following fields in the
.Fa sb
-structure: st_mode,st_nlink,st_uid,st_gid,st_size. The
+structure: st_mode,st_nlink,st_uid,st_gid,st_size.
+The
.Nm tftp
file system cannot provide meaningful values for this call, and the
.Nm cd9660
@@ -420,7 +437,8 @@ commands.
.Xc
.Pp
Initialises the pager and tells it that the next line output will be the top of the
-display. The environment variable LINES is consulted to determine the number of
+display.
+The environment variable LINES is consulted to determine the number of
lines to be displayed before pausing.
.It Xo
.Ft void
@@ -437,7 +455,8 @@ Sends the lines in the
.Dv NUL Ns
-terminated buffer at
.Fa lines
-to the pager. Newline characters are counted in order to determine the number
+to the pager.
+Newline characters are counted in order to determine the number
of lines being output (wrapped lines are not accounted for).
The
.Fn pager_output
@@ -469,7 +488,8 @@ The following resources are consumed by
.Pp
The stack must be established before
.Nm
-functions can be invoked. Stack requirements vary depending on the functions
+functions can be invoked.
+Stack requirements vary depending on the functions
and file systems used by the consumer and the support layer functions detailed
below.
.Pp
@@ -480,7 +500,8 @@ or
by calling
.Fn setheap .
Heap usage will vary depending on the number of simultaneously open files,
-as well as client behaviour. Automatic decompression will allocate more
+as well as client behaviour.
+Automatic decompression will allocate more
than 64K of data per open file.
.Pp
Console access is performed via the
@@ -542,13 +563,15 @@ returning in
.Fa file
a pointer to the remaining body of
.Fa name
-which does not refer to the device. The
+which does not refer to the device.
+The
.Va f_dev
field in
.Fa of
will be set to point to the
.Vt devsw
-structure for the opened device if successful. Device identifiers must
+structure for the opened device if successful.
+Device identifiers must
always precede the path component, but may otherwise be arbitrarily formatted.
Used by
.Fn open
@@ -566,7 +589,8 @@ should clean up any allocation made by devopen only.
.Fn panic "const char *msg" "..."
.Xc
.Pp
-Signal a fatal and unrecoverable error condition. The
+Signal a fatal and unrecoverable error condition.
+The
.Fa msg ...
arguments are as for
.Fn printf .
@@ -577,7 +601,8 @@ Internal file systems are enabled by the consumer exporting the array
which should be initialised with pointers
to
.Vt struct fs_ops
-structures. The following file system handlers are supplied by
+structures.
+The following file system handlers are supplied by
.Nm ,
the consumer may supply other file systems of their own:
.Bl -hang -width ".Va cd9660_fsops"
@@ -600,10 +625,12 @@ When trying the gzipfs file system,
appends
.Li .gz
to the end of the filename, and then tries to locate the file using the other
-file systems. Placement of this file system in the
+file systems.
+Placement of this file system in the
.Va file_system[]
array determines whether gzipped files will be opened in preference to non-gzipped
-files. It is only possible to seek a gzipped file forwards, and
+files.
+It is only possible to seek a gzipped file forwards, and
.Fn stat
and
.Fn fstat
diff --git a/lib/libtacplus/libtacplus.3 b/lib/libtacplus/libtacplus.3
index 954760759232..94c96943a460 100644
--- a/lib/libtacplus/libtacplus.3
+++ b/lib/libtacplus/libtacplus.3
@@ -78,9 +78,11 @@
The
.Nm
library implements the client side of the TACACS+ network access
-control protocol. TACACS+ allows clients to perform authentication,
+control protocol.
+TACACS+ allows clients to perform authentication,
authorization, and accounting by means of network requests to remote
-servers. This library currently supports only the authentication
+servers.
+This library currently supports only the authentication
and authorization portion of the protocol.
.Sh INITIALIZATION
To use the library, an application must first call
@@ -90,14 +92,16 @@ to obtain a
which provides context for subsequent operations.
Calls to
.Fn tac_open
-always succeed unless insufficient virtual memory is available. If
+always succeed unless insufficient virtual memory is available.
+If
the necessary memory cannot be allocated,
.Fn tac_open
returns
.Dv NULL .
.Pp
Before issuing any TACACS+ requests, the library must be made aware
-of the servers it can contact. The easiest way to configure the
+of the servers it can contact.
+The easiest way to configure the
library is to call
.Fn tac_config .
.Fn tac_config
@@ -124,24 +128,28 @@ parameter specifies the server host, either as a fully qualified
domain name or as a dotted-quad IP address in text form.
The
.Va port
-parameter specifies the TCP port to contact on the server. If
+parameter specifies the TCP port to contact on the server.
+If
.Va port
is given as 0, the library uses port 49, the standard TACACS+ port.
The shared secret for the server host is passed to the
.Va secret
-parameter. It may be any null-terminated string of bytes.
+parameter.
+It may be any null-terminated string of bytes.
The timeout for receiving replies from the server is passed to the
.Va timeout
parameter, in units of seconds.
The
.Va flags
parameter is a bit mask of flags to specify various characteristics of
-the server. It may contain:
+the server.
+It may contain:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width Fl
.It Dv TAC_SRVR_SINGLE_CONNECT
Causes the library to attempt to negotiate single connection mode
-when communicating with the server. In single connection mode, the
+when communicating with the server.
+In single connection mode, the
original TCP connection is held open for multiple TACACS+ sessions.
Older servers do not support this mode, and some of them become
confused if the client attempts to negotiate it.
@@ -155,7 +163,8 @@ may be called multiple times, and it may be used together with
.Fn tac_config .
At most 10 servers may be specified.
When multiple servers are given, they are tried in round-robin
-fashion until a working, accessible server is found. Once the
+fashion until a working, accessible server is found.
+Once the
library finds such a server, it continues to use it as long as it
works.
.Sh CREATING A TACACS+ AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
@@ -167,7 +176,8 @@ The
and
.Va service
arguments must be set to appropriate values as defined in the
-TACACS+ protocol specification. The
+TACACS+ protocol specification.
+The
.In taclib.h
header file contains symbolic constants for these values.
.Sh CREATING A TACACS+ AUTHORIZATION REQUEST
@@ -179,7 +189,8 @@ The
and
.Va service
arguments must be set to appropriate values as defined in the
-TACACS+ protocol specification. The
+TACACS+ protocol specification.
+The
.In taclib.h
header file contains symbolic constants for these values.
.Sh SETTING OPTIONAL PARAMETERS ON A REQUEST
@@ -194,17 +205,21 @@ and
.Fn tac_set_user .
The library creates its own copies of any strings provided to these
functions, so that it is not necessary for the caller to preserve
-them. By default, each of these parameters is empty except for the
+them.
+By default, each of these parameters is empty except for the
privilege level, which defaults to
.Ql USER
privilege.
.Pp
.Fn tac_set_av
-only applies to the context of an authorization request. The format
+only applies to the context of an authorization request.
+The format
for an attribute value pair is defined in the TACACS+ protocol
-specification. The index specified can be any value between 0 and
+specification.
+The index specified can be any value between 0 and
255 inclusive and indicates the position in the list to place the
-attribute value pair. Calling
+attribute value pair.
+Calling
.Fn tac_set_av
with same index twice effectively replaces the value at that position.
Use
@@ -215,10 +230,13 @@ After the TACACS+ authentication request has been constructed, it is
sent by means of
.Fn tac_send_authen .
This function connects to a server if not already connected, sends
-the request, and waits for a reply. On failure,
+the request, and waits for a reply.
+On failure,
.Fn tac_send_authen
-returns \-1. Otherwise, it returns the TACACS+ status code and flags,
-packed into an integer value. The status can be extracted using the
+returns \-1.
+Otherwise, it returns the TACACS+ status code and flags,
+packed into an integer value.
+The status can be extracted using the
macro
.Fn TAC_AUTHEN_STATUS .
Possible status codes, defined in
@@ -249,15 +267,18 @@ macro
.Fn TAC_AUTHEN_NOECHO .
.Sh EXTRACTING INFORMATION FROM THE SERVER'S AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
An authentication response packet from the server may contain a
-server message, a data string, or both. After a successful call to
+server message, a data string, or both.
+After a successful call to
.Fn tac_send_authen ,
this information may be retrieved from the response by calling
.Fn tac_get_msg
and
.Fn tac_get_data .
These functions return dynamically-allocated copies of the
-information from the packet. The caller is responsible for freeing
-the copies when it no longer needs them. The data returned from
+information from the packet.
+The caller is responsible for freeing
+the copies when it no longer needs them.
+The data returned from
these functions is guaranteed to be terminated by a null byte.
.Pp
In the case of
@@ -266,7 +287,8 @@ the
.Va len
argument points to a location into which the library will store the
actual length of the received data, not including the null
-terminator. This argument may be given as
+terminator.
+This argument may be given as
.Dv NULL
if the caller is not interested in the length.
.Sh SENDING AUTHENTICATION CONTINUE PACKETS
@@ -278,7 +300,8 @@ returns a value containing one of the status codes
or
.Dv TAC_AUTHEN_STATUS_GETPASS ,
then the client must provide additional information to the server by
-means of a TACACS+ CONTINUE packet. To do so, the application must
+means of a TACACS+ CONTINUE packet.
+To do so, the application must
first set the packet's user message and/or data fields using
.Fn tac_set_msg
and
@@ -305,11 +328,14 @@ After the TACACS+ authorization request has been constructed, it
is sent by means of
.Fn tac_send_author .
This function connects to a server if not already connected, sends
-the request, and waits for a reply. On failure,
+the request, and waits for a reply.
+On failure,
.Fn tac_send_author
-returns \-1. Otherwise, it returns the TACACS+ status code and
+returns \-1.
+Otherwise, it returns the TACACS+ status code and
number of attribute value (AV) pairs received packed into an
-integer value. The status can be extracted using the macro
+integer value.
+The status can be extracted using the macro
.Fn TAC_AUTHOR_STATUS .
Possible status codes, defined in
.In taclib.h ,
@@ -331,12 +357,14 @@ The number of AV pairs received is obtained using
.Sh EXTRACTING INFORMATION FROM THE SERVER'S AUTHORIZATION RESPONSE
Like an authentication response packet, an authorization
response packet from the
-server may contain a server message, a data string, or both. Refer
+server may contain a server message, a data string, or both.
+Refer
to EXTRACTING INFORMATION FROM THE SERVER'S AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
for instruction on extraction of those values.
.Pp
An authorization response packet from the server may also contain
-attribute value (AV) pairs. To extract these, use
+attribute value (AV) pairs.
+To extract these, use
.Fn tac_get_av
or
.Fn tac_get_av_value .
@@ -352,15 +380,18 @@ Alternatively,
can be used.
.Fn tac_get_av_value
takes the attribute name and returns the
-corresponding value only, not the AV pair. These functions return
+corresponding value only, not the AV pair.
+These functions return
dynamically-allocated copies of the information from the packet.
The caller is responsible for freeing the copies when it no longer
-needs them. The data returned from these functions is guaranteed
+needs them.
+The data returned from these functions is guaranteed
to be terminated by a null byte.
.Sh OBTAINING ERROR MESSAGES
Those functions which accept a
.Va struct tac_handle *
-argument record an error message if they fail. The error message
+argument record an error message if they fail.
+The error message
can be retrieved by calling
.Fn tac_strerror .
The message text is overwritten on each new error for the given
@@ -371,7 +402,8 @@ subsequent library calls using the same handle.
To free the resources used by the TACACS+ library, call
.Fn tac_close .
.Sh RETURN VALUES
-The following functions return a non-negative value on success. If
+The following functions return a non-negative value on success.
+If
they detect an error, they return \-1 and record an error message
which can be retrieved using
.Fn tac_strerror .
@@ -407,7 +439,8 @@ which can be retrieved using
.Pp
The following functions return a
.No non- Ns Dv NULL
-pointer on success. If they are unable to allocate sufficient
+pointer on success.
+If they are unable to allocate sufficient
virtual memory, they return
.Dv NULL
and record an error message which can be retrieved using
@@ -426,7 +459,8 @@ and record an error message which can be retrieved using
.Pp
The following functions return a
.No non- Ns Dv NULL
-pointer on success. If they are unable to allocate sufficient
+pointer on success.
+If they are unable to allocate sufficient
virtual memory, they return
.Dv NULL ,
without recording an error message.
diff --git a/lib/libtacplus/tacplus.conf.5 b/lib/libtacplus/tacplus.conf.5
index 6f7130f85a2c..e68982d3d627 100644
--- a/lib/libtacplus/tacplus.conf.5
+++ b/lib/libtacplus/tacplus.conf.5
@@ -35,23 +35,29 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
contains the information necessary to configure the TACACS+ client
-library. It is parsed by
+library.
+It is parsed by
.Fn tac_config
(see
.Xr libtacplus 3 ) .
The file contains one or more lines of text, each describing a
-single TACACS+ server which is to be used by the library. Leading
+single TACACS+ server which is to be used by the library.
+Leading
white space is ignored, as are empty lines and lines containing
only comments.
.Pp
-A TACACS+ server is described by two to four fields on a line. The
-fields are separated by white space. The
+A TACACS+ server is described by two to four fields on a line.
+The
+fields are separated by white space.
+The
.Ql #
character at the beginning of a field begins a comment, which extends
-to the end of the line. A field may be enclosed in double quotes,
+to the end of the line.
+A field may be enclosed in double quotes,
in which case it may contain white space and/or begin with the
.Ql #
-character. Within a quoted string, the double quote character can
+character.
+Within a quoted string, the double quote character can
be represented by
.Ql \e\&" ,
and the backslash can be represented by
@@ -60,32 +66,40 @@ No other escape sequences are supported.
.Pp
The first field specifies
the server host, either as a fully qualified domain name or as a
-dotted-quad IP address. The host may optionally be followed by a
+dotted-quad IP address.
+The host may optionally be followed by a
.Ql \&:
-and a numeric port number, without intervening white space. If the
+and a numeric port number, without intervening white space.
+If the
port specification is omitted, it defaults to 49, the standard TACACS+
port.
.Pp
The second field contains the shared secret, which should be known
-only to the client and server hosts. It is an arbitrary string
+only to the client and server hosts.
+It is an arbitrary string
of characters, though it must be enclosed in double quotes if it
-contains white space or is empty. An empty secret disables the
+contains white space or is empty.
+An empty secret disables the
normal encryption mechanism, causing all data to cross the network in
cleartext.
.Pp
The third field contains a decimal integer specifying the timeout
-in seconds for communicating with the server. The timeout applies
-separately to each connect, write, and read operation. If this field
+in seconds for communicating with the server.
+The timeout applies
+separately to each connect, write, and read operation.
+If this field
is omitted, it defaults to 3 seconds.
.Pp
The optional fourth field may contain the string
.Ql single-connection .
If this option is included, the library will attempt to negotiate
with the server to keep the TCP connection open for multiple
-sessions. Some older TACACS+ servers become confused if this option
+sessions.
+Some older TACACS+ servers become confused if this option
is specified.
.Pp
-Up to 10 TACACS+ servers may be specified. The servers are tried in
+Up to 10 TACACS+ servers may be specified.
+The servers are tried in
order, until a valid response is received or the list is exhausted.
.Pp
The standard location for this file is
diff --git a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule.3 b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule.3
index 6998753b514b..a3b6691eaa9a 100644
--- a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule.3
+++ b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule.3
@@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ This software was contributed to the
.Fx
Project by Network Associates Labs,
the Security Research Division of Network Associates
-Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Inc.
+under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule_count.3 b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule_count.3
index 3453311dde19..bf441e150d9c 100644
--- a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule_count.3
+++ b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_get_rule_count.3
@@ -87,6 +87,7 @@ This software was contributed to the
.Fx
Project by Network Associates Labs,
the Security Research Division of Network Associates
-Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Inc.
+under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_parse_rule.3 b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_parse_rule.3
index 5a11abc42a76..d510cab26a2e 100644
--- a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_parse_rule.3
+++ b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_parse_rule.3
@@ -99,6 +99,7 @@ This software was contributed to the
.Fx
Project by Network Associates Labs,
the Security Research Division of Network Associates
-Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Inc.
+under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_rule_to_string.3 b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_rule_to_string.3
index 89a14aacc31d..44144069a524 100644
--- a/lib/libugidfw/bsde_rule_to_string.3
+++ b/lib/libugidfw/bsde_rule_to_string.3
@@ -76,6 +76,7 @@ This software was contributed to the
.Fx
Project by Network Associates Labs,
the Security Research Division of Network Associates
-Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Inc.
+under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libugidfw/libugidfw.3 b/lib/libugidfw/libugidfw.3
index 9b04a3e4449e..ea7ce89ebb5b 100644
--- a/lib/libugidfw/libugidfw.3
+++ b/lib/libugidfw/libugidfw.3
@@ -117,6 +117,7 @@ This software was contributed to the
.Fx
Project by Network Associates Labs,
the Security Research Division of Network Associates
-Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
+Inc.
+under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
.Pq Dq CBOSS ,
as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
diff --git a/lib/libutil/auth.conf.5 b/lib/libutil/auth.conf.5
index c80d067ab567..0d1c0b9bfc9d 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/auth.conf.5
+++ b/lib/libutil/auth.conf.5
@@ -26,7 +26,8 @@
contains various attributes important to the authentication
code, most notably
.Xr kerberos 5
-for the time being. This documentation will be updated as the
+for the time being.
+This documentation will be updated as the
.Pa /etc/auth.conf
file, which is very new, evolves.
.Sh SEE ALSO
diff --git a/lib/libutil/login.3 b/lib/libutil/login.3
index de1313909e49..d88f719485d2 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/login.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/login.3
@@ -49,7 +49,8 @@ entry being passed into the appropriate slot of the
file,
and appends it to the
.Xr wtmp 5
-file. The calling process must have permission to write to both files.
+file.
+The calling process must have permission to write to both files.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
None.
.Sh SEE ALSO
@@ -60,6 +61,7 @@ None.
.Sh BUGS
The interface provided by
.Fn login
-is rather crude. The caller must know about the details of a
+is rather crude.
+The caller must know about the details of a
.Va struct utmp .
Some better abstraction needs to be worked out.
diff --git a/lib/libutil/login.conf.5 b/lib/libutil/login.conf.5
index c3b91cf0a564..e5e0d68de89a 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/login.conf.5
+++ b/lib/libutil/login.conf.5
@@ -105,7 +105,7 @@ home directories etc.)
A numeric value, either decimal (default), hexadecimal (with leading 0x),
or octal (with a leading 0).
With a numeric type, only one numeric value is allowed.
-Numeric types may also be specified in string format (ie. the capability
+Numeric types may also be specified in string format (i.e., the capability
tag being delimited from the value by '=' instead of '#').
Whichever method is used, then all records in the database must use the
same method to allow values to be correctly overridden in interpolated
diff --git a/lib/libutil/login_cap.3 b/lib/libutil/login_cap.3
index b3a2d6660059..07fda659162d 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/login_cap.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/login_cap.3
@@ -369,7 +369,7 @@ kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and on systems that support the
.Ar long long
type, terabytes.
The suffix used determines the units, and multiple values and
-units may be used in combination (e.g. 1m500k = 1.5 megabytes).
+units may be used in combination (e.g.\& 1m500k = 1.5 megabytes).
A value with no suffix is interpreted as bytes, B as 512-byte
blocks, K as kilobytes, M as megabytes, G as gigabytes and T as
terabytes.
diff --git a/lib/libutil/login_ok.3 b/lib/libutil/login_ok.3
index c005e5d02e1f..8a6f291c97c1 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/login_ok.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/login_ok.3
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ tty group (see
.Xr ttys 5 )
is not in the list.
Access to ttys may be allowed or restricted specifically by tty device
-name, a device name which includes a wildcard (e.g. ttyD* or cuaD*),
+name, a device name which includes a wildcard (e.g.\& ttyD* or cuaD*),
or may name a ttygroup, when group=<name> tags have been assigned in
.Pa /etc/ttys .
Matching of ttys and ttygroups is case sensitive.
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@ The
function is used for matching, and the matching on hostnames is case
insensitive.
Note that this function expects that the hostname is fully expanded
-(i.e. the local domain name added if necessary) and the IP address
+(i.e., the local domain name added if necessary) and the IP address
is in its canonical form.
No hostname or address lookups are attempted.
.Pp
diff --git a/lib/libutil/login_times.3 b/lib/libutil/login_times.3
index 9419c7f60a09..e1f57cea173c 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/login_times.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/login_times.3
@@ -96,7 +96,7 @@ and one bit unused.
A series
.Em LTM_*
macros may be used for testing bits individually and in combination.
-If no bits are set in this field - ie. it contains the value
+If no bits are set in this field - i.e., it contains the value
.Em LTM_NONE
- then the entire period is assumed invalid.
This is used as a convention to mark the termination of an array
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ function returns a filled in structure of type login_time_t containing the
parsed time period.
If a parsing error occurs, the lt_dow field is set to
.Em LTM_NONE
-(i.e. 0).
+(i.e., 0).
.Pp
The
.Fn in_ltm
diff --git a/lib/libutil/login_tty.3 b/lib/libutil/login_tty.3
index b7111e75af61..6303d685e034 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/login_tty.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/login_tty.3
@@ -40,11 +40,13 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The function
.Fn login_tty
-prepares a terminal for a new login session. The file descriptor
+prepares a terminal for a new login session.
+The file descriptor
.Ar fd
passed to
.Fn login_tty
-must be opened for reading and writing on a terminal device. It will be
+must be opened for reading and writing on a terminal device.
+It will be
made the controlling terminal for the calling process, after allocating
a new session with
.Xr setsid 2 .
diff --git a/lib/libutil/logout.3 b/lib/libutil/logout.3
index 2fe2d4f4a54e..426fe087040a 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/logout.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/logout.3
@@ -45,7 +45,8 @@ searches the
.Xr utmp 5
file for the slot described by
.Ar line
-(usually a tty name). If such a slot could be found, it will be updated
+(usually a tty name).
+If such a slot could be found, it will be updated
with a record where the
.Em name
and
diff --git a/lib/libutil/property.3 b/lib/libutil/property.3
index d9b5d1279d03..e5acef3c898f 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/property.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/property.3
@@ -67,7 +67,8 @@ The
.Fn property_find
function returns the associated value string for the property named
.Fa name
-if found, otherwise NULL. The value returned may be up to
+if found, otherwise NULL.
+The value returned may be up to
.Dv PROPERTY_MAX_VALUE
bytes in length.
.Pp
@@ -84,9 +85,11 @@ where
is an alphanumeric string (and any punctuation not including the `=' character)
and
.Fa value
-is an arbitary string of text terminated by a newline character. If newlines
+is an arbitary string of text terminated by a newline character.
+If newlines
are desired, the entire value should be enclosed in { } (curly-bracket)
-characters. Any line beginning with a # or ; character is assumed to
+characters.
+Any line beginning with a # or ; character is assumed to
be a comment and will be ignored.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr auth_getval 3
diff --git a/lib/libutil/pty.3 b/lib/libutil/pty.3
index 19cf9f7d3564..35f0b828ce2f 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/pty.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/pty.3
@@ -62,7 +62,8 @@ If the argument
is not
.Dv NULL ,
.Fn openpty
-copies the pathname of the slave pty to this area. The caller is
+copies the pathname of the slave pty to this area.
+The caller is
responsible for allocating the required space in this array.
.Pp
If the arguments
@@ -86,12 +87,16 @@ The
.Fn forkpty
function first calls
.Fn openpty
-to obtain the next available pseudo-terminal from the system. Upon success,
-it forks off a new process. In the child process, it closes the descriptor
+to obtain the next available pseudo-terminal from the system.
+Upon success,
+it forks off a new process.
+In the child process, it closes the descriptor
for the master side of the pty, and calls
.Xr login_tty 3
-for the slave pty. In the parent process, it closes the descriptor for the
-slave side of the pty. The arguments
+for the slave pty.
+In the parent process, it closes the descriptor for the
+slave side of the pty.
+The arguments
.Fa amaster ,
.Fa name ,
.Fa termp ,
@@ -133,7 +138,8 @@ may set it to any value as described for
.Xr group 5
.Sh BUGS
The calling process must have an effective UID of super-user in order
-to perform all the intended actions. No notification will occur if
+to perform all the intended actions.
+No notification will occur if
.Fn openpty
or
.Fn forkpty
diff --git a/lib/libutil/realhostname.3 b/lib/libutil/realhostname.3
index 37b166a6852b..e5cdbf118b04 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/realhostname.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/realhostname.3
@@ -43,7 +43,8 @@ The function
.Fn realhostname
converts
.Ar ip
-to the corresponding host name. This is done by resolving
+to the corresponding host name.
+This is done by resolving
.Ar ip
to a host name and then ensuring that the host name resolves
back to
diff --git a/lib/libutil/realhostname_sa.3 b/lib/libutil/realhostname_sa.3
index 72340aa92d32..773c4afa8dc1 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/realhostname_sa.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/realhostname_sa.3
@@ -72,7 +72,8 @@ The function
.Fn realhostname_sa
converts
.Ar addr
-to the corresponding host name. This is done by resolving
+to the corresponding host name.
+This is done by resolving
.Ar addr
to a host name and then ensuring that the host name resolves
back to
diff --git a/lib/libutil/trimdomain.3 b/lib/libutil/trimdomain.3
index 66b8369ae1fb..f01e884e7870 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/trimdomain.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/trimdomain.3
@@ -44,10 +44,12 @@ removes the current domain name from the passed
.Ar fullhost
name by writing a
.Dv NUL
-character over the first period of the passed name. The current domain
+character over the first period of the passed name.
+The current domain
name is determined by calling
.Xr gethostname 3
-and removing everything up to the first period. The name is determined
+and removing everything up to the first period.
+The name is determined
the first time this function is called and is cached for future use.
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/libutil/uucplock.3 b/lib/libutil/uucplock.3
index a69af955d062..d901831de3c6 100644
--- a/lib/libutil/uucplock.3
+++ b/lib/libutil/uucplock.3
@@ -127,7 +127,8 @@ the reason for failure is returned.
.Fn uu_lockerr
uses the current value of
.Va errno
-to determine the exact error. Care should be made not to allow
+to determine the exact error.
+Care should be made not to allow
.Va errno
to be changed between calls to
.Fn uu_lock
@@ -138,7 +139,8 @@ and
may return any of the following values:
.Pp
.Dv UU_LOCK_OK :
-The transfer was successful. The specified process now holds the device
+The transfer was successful.
+The specified process now holds the device
lock.
.Pp
.Dv UU_LOCK_OWNER_ERR :
@@ -152,7 +154,8 @@ If
.Fn uu_lock
returns one of the error values above, the global value
.Va errno
-can be used to determine the cause. Refer to the respective manual pages
+can be used to determine the cause.
+Refer to the respective manual pages
for further details.
.Pp
.Fn uu_unlock
@@ -174,6 +177,7 @@ the stale lock.
.Pp
The calling process must have write permissions to the
.Pa /var/spool/lock
-directory. There is no mechanism in place to ensure that the
+directory.
+There is no mechanism in place to ensure that the
permissions of this directory are the same as those of the
serial devices that might be locked.
diff --git a/lib/libvgl/vgl.3 b/lib/libvgl/vgl.3
index 93b564030284..fb155f7e15c0 100644
--- a/lib/libvgl/vgl.3
+++ b/lib/libvgl/vgl.3
@@ -136,7 +136,8 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm Libvgl
is a library that enables the programmer access to the graphics
-modes supported by the console driver (syscons). The library takes care of
+modes supported by the console driver (syscons).
+The library takes care of
programming the actual video hardware, and provides a number of simple
functions to do various graphic operations.
There is also support for a
@@ -199,7 +200,8 @@ more than one raw scan code may be generated when a key is pressed.
when you have finished using the keyboard, call this function.
.Pp
.Fn VGLKeyboardGetCh
-read one byte from the keyboard. As the keyboard I/O is in the
+read one byte from the keyboard.
+As the keyboard I/O is in the
.Dq raw
input mode, the function will not block even if there is no input data,
and returns 0.
@@ -371,7 +373,8 @@ set the border color to color
.Va color .
.Pp
.Fn VGLSetVScreenSize
-change the virtual screen size of the display. Note that this
+change the virtual screen size of the display.
+Note that this
function must be called when our vty is in the foreground.
And
.Va object
@@ -380,7 +383,8 @@ must be
Passing an in-memory bitmap to this function results in error.
.Pp
The desired virtual screen width may not be achievable because
-of the video card hardware. In such case the video driver (and
+of the video card hardware.
+In such case the video driver (and
underlaying video BIOS) may choose the next largest values.
Always examine
.Va object->VXsize
diff --git a/lib/msun/man/atan2.3 b/lib/msun/man/atan2.3
index 174be747553a..f951812bab0c 100644
--- a/lib/msun/man/atan2.3
+++ b/lib/msun/man/atan2.3
@@ -145,7 +145,8 @@ is mapped to
(r=0,theta=0)
.if t \
(r=0,\(*h=0)
-on a VAX. In general, conversions to polar coordinates
+on a VAX.
+In general, conversions to polar coordinates
should be computed thus:
.Bd -unfilled -offset indent
.if n \{\
diff --git a/lib/msun/man/erf.3 b/lib/msun/man/erf.3
index 07cea0b42310..0ebb6a721ae6 100644
--- a/lib/msun/man/erf.3
+++ b/lib/msun/man/erf.3
@@ -64,10 +64,12 @@ and the
functions calculate the error function of x; where
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.if n \{\
-erf(x) = 2/sqrt(pi)\(**\|integral from 0 to x of exp(\-t\(**t) dt. \}
+erf(x) = 2/sqrt(pi)\(**\|integral from 0 to x of exp(\-t\(**t) dt.
+\}
.if t \{\
erf\|(x) :=
-(2/\(sr\(*p)\|\(is\d\s8\z0\s10\u\u\s8x\s10\d\|exp(\-t\u\s82\s10\d)\|dt. \}
+(2/\(sr\(*p)\|\(is\d\s8\z0\s10\u\u\s8x\s10\d\|exp(\-t\u\s82\s10\d)\|dt.
+\}
.Ed
.Pp
The
diff --git a/lib/msun/man/exp.3 b/lib/msun/man/exp.3
index f035f071e8bd..62e9e3e1b301 100644
--- a/lib/msun/man/exp.3
+++ b/lib/msun/man/exp.3
@@ -261,7 +261,8 @@ operand on a
.Tn VAX ) .
Previous implementations of pow may
have defined x**0 to be undefined in some or all of these
-cases. Here are reasons for returning x**0 = 1 always:
+cases.
+Here are reasons for returning x**0 = 1 always:
.Bl -enum -width indent
.It
Any program that already tests whether x is zero (or
@@ -272,7 +273,7 @@ upon 0**0 to be invalid is dubious anyway since that
expression's meaning and, if invalid, its consequences
vary from one computer system to another.
.It
-Some Algebra texts (e.g. Sigler's) define x**0 = 1 for
+Some Algebra texts (e.g.\& Sigler's) define x**0 = 1 for
all x, including x = 0.
This is compatible with the convention that accepts a[0]
as the value of polynomial
diff --git a/lib/msun/man/ieee.3 b/lib/msun/man/ieee.3
index 7b9f0ac75167..73a39f689465 100644
--- a/lib/msun/man/ieee.3
+++ b/lib/msun/man/ieee.3
@@ -166,7 +166,8 @@ moreover if
1/2
then
.Fa n
-is even. Consequently
+is even.
+Consequently
the remainder is computed exactly and
.Sm off
.Pf \\*(Ba Fa r No \\*(Ba