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authorEdwin Groothuis <edwin@FreeBSD.org>2008-09-28 10:13:11 +0000
committerEdwin Groothuis <edwin@FreeBSD.org>2008-09-28 10:13:11 +0000
commitc1dc0a1745ca8959fc4ce61ce026e2a83984c13e (patch)
tree786fa1fbb17c69aa06408624ed3ee94be63be396 /top.X
parent3e0c556084482bdb8cc32d03a1b57ecd45eb8947 (diff)
downloadsrc-c1dc0a1745ca8959fc4ce61ce026e2a83984c13e.tar.gz
src-c1dc0a1745ca8959fc4ce61ce026e2a83984c13e.zip
Flatten the dist tree.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/top/dist/; revision=183432
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+.\" NOTE: changes to the manual page for "top" should be made in the
+.\" file "top.X" and NOT in the file "top.1".
+.nr N %topn%
+.nr D %delay%
+.TH TOP 1 Local
+.UC 4
+.SH NAME
+top \- display and update information about the top cpu processes
+.SH SYNOPSIS
+.B top
+[
+.B \-SbiInquv
+] [
+.BI \-d count
+] [
+.BI \-s time
+] [
+.BI \-o field
+] [
+.BI \-U username
+] [
+.I number
+]
+.SH DESCRIPTION
+.\" This defines appropriate quote strings for nroff and troff
+.ds lq \&"
+.ds rq \&"
+.if t .ds lq ``
+.if t .ds rq ''
+.\" Just in case these number registers aren't set yet...
+.if \nN==0 .nr N 10
+.if \nD==0 .nr D 5
+.I Top
+displays the top
+.if !\nN==-1 \nN
+processes on the system and periodically updates this information.
+.if \nN==-1 \
+\{\
+If standard output is an intelligent terminal (see below) then
+as many processes as will fit on the terminal screen are displayed
+by default. Otherwise, a good number of them are shown (around 20).
+.\}
+Raw cpu percentage is used to rank the processes. If
+.I number
+is given, then the top
+.I number
+processes will be displayed instead of the default.
+.PP
+.I Top
+makes a distinction between terminals that support advanced capabilities
+and those that do not. This
+distinction affects the choice of defaults for certain options. In the
+remainder of this document, an \*(lqintelligent\*(rq terminal is one that
+supports cursor addressing, clear screen, and clear to end of line.
+Conversely, a \*(lqdumb\*(rq terminal is one that does not support such
+features. If the output of
+.I top
+is redirected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a dumb
+terminal.
+.SH OPTIONS
+.TP
+.B \-S
+Show system processes in the display. Normally, system processes such as
+the pager and the swapper are not shown. This option makes them visible.
+.TP
+.B \-b
+Use \*(lqbatch\*(rq mode. In this mode, all input from the terminal is
+ignored. Interrupt characters (such as ^C and ^\e) still have an effect.
+This is the default on a dumb terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.
+.TP
+.B \-i
+Use \*(lqinteractive\*(rq mode. In this mode, any input is immediately
+read for processing. See the section on \*(lqInteractive Mode\*(rq
+for an explanation of
+which keys perform what functions. After the command is processed, the
+screen will immediately be updated, even if the command was not
+understood. This mode is the default when standard output is an
+intelligent terminal.
+.TP
+.B \-I
+Do not display idle processes.
+By default, top displays both active and idle processes.
+.TP
+.B \-n
+Use \*(lqnon-interactive\*(rq mode. This is indentical to \*(lqbatch\*(rq
+mode.
+.TP
+.B \-q
+Renice
+.I top
+to -20 so that it will run faster. This can be used when the system is
+being very sluggish to improve the possibility of discovering the problem.
+This option can only be used by root.
+.TP
+.B \-u
+Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames. Normally,
+.I top
+will read as much of the file \*(lq/etc/passwd\*(rq as is necessary to map
+all the user id numbers it encounters into login names. This option
+disables all that, while possibly decreasing execution time. The uid
+numbers are displayed instead of the names.
+.TP
+.B \-v
+Write version number information to stderr then exit immediately.
+No other processing takes place when this option is used. To see current
+revision information while top is running, use the help command \*(lq?\*(rq.
+.TP
+.BI \-d count
+Show only
+.I count
+displays, then exit. A display is considered to be one update of the
+screen. This option allows the user to select the number of displays he
+wants to see before
+.I top
+automatically exits. For intelligent terminals, no upper limit
+is set. The default is 1 for dumb terminals.
+.TP
+.BI \-s time
+Set the delay between screen updates to
+.I time
+seconds. The default delay between updates is \nD seconds.
+.TP
+.BI \-o field
+Sort the process display area on the specified field. The field name is
+the name of the column as seen in the output, but in lower case. Likely
+values are \*(lqcpu\*(rq, \*(lqsize\*(rq, \*(lqres\*(rq, and \*(lqtime\*(rq,
+but may vary on different operating systems. Note that
+not all operating systems support this option.
+.TP
+.BI \-U username
+Show only those processes owned by
+.IR username .
+This option currently only accepts usernames and will not understand
+uid numbers.
+.PP
+Both
+.I count
+and
+.I number
+fields can be specified as \*(lqinfinite\*(rq, indicating that they can
+stretch as far as possible. This is accomplished by using any proper
+prefix of the keywords
+\*(lqinfinity\*(rq,
+\*(lqmaximum\*(rq,
+or
+\*(lqall\*(rq.
+The default for
+.I count
+on an intelligent terminal is, in fact,
+.BI infinity .
+.PP
+The environment variable
+.B TOP
+is examined for options before the command line is scanned. This enables
+a user to set his or her own defaults. The number of processes to display
+can also be specified in the environment variable
+.BR TOP .
+The options
+.BR \-I ,
+.BR \-S ,
+and
+.B \-u
+are actually toggles. A second specification of any of these options
+will negate the first. Thus a user who has the environment variable
+.B TOP
+set to \*(lq\-I\*(rq may use the command \*(lqtop \-I\*(rq to see idle processes.
+.SH "INTERACTIVE MODE"
+When
+.I top
+is running in \*(lqinteractive mode\*(rq, it reads commands from the
+terminal and acts upon them accordingly. In this mode, the terminal is
+put in \*(lqCBREAK\*(rq, so that a character will be
+processed as soon as it is typed. Almost always, a key will be
+pressed when
+.I top
+is between displays; that is, while it is waiting for
+.I time
+seconds to elapse. If this is the case, the command will be
+processed and the display will be updated immediately thereafter
+(reflecting any changes that the command may have specified). This
+happens even if the command was incorrect. If a key is pressed while
+.I top
+is in the middle of updating the display, it will finish the update and
+then process the command. Some commands require additional information,
+and the user will be prompted accordingly. While typing this information
+in, the user's erase and kill keys (as set up by the command
+.IR stty )
+are recognized, and a newline terminates the input.
+.PP
+These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to control-L):
+.TP
+.B ^L
+Redraw the screen.
+.IP "\fBh\fP\ or\ \fB?\fP"
+Display a summary of the commands (help screen). Version information
+is included in this display.
+.TP
+.B q
+Quit
+.IR top.
+.TP
+.B d
+Change the number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
+Remember that the next display counts as one, so typing
+.B d1
+will make
+.I top
+show one final display and then immediately exit.
+.TP
+.B n or #
+Change the number of processes to display (prompt for new number).
+.TP
+.B s
+Change the number of seconds to delay between displays
+(prompt for new number).
+.TP
+.B k
+Send a signal (\*(lqkill\*(rq by default) to a list of processes. This
+acts similarly to the command
+.IR kill (1)).
+.TP
+.B r
+Change the priority (the \*(lqnice\*(rq) of a list of processes.
+This acts similarly to the command
+.IR renice (8)).
+.TP
+.B u
+Display only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for username).
+If the username specified is simply \*(lq+\*(rq, then processes belonging
+to all users will be displayed.
+.TP
+.B o
+Change the order in which the display is sorted. This command is not
+available on all systems. The sort key names vary fron system to system
+but usually include: \*(lqcpu\*(rq, \*(lqres\*(rq, \*(lqsize\*(rq,
+\*(lqtime\*(rq. The default is cpu.
+.TP
+.B e
+Display a list of system errors (if any) generated by the last
+.BR k ill
+or
+.BR r enice
+command.
+.TP
+.B i
+(or
+.BR I)
+Toggle the display of idle processes.
+.SH "THE DISPLAY"
+The actual display varies depending on the specific variant of Unix
+that the machine is running. This description may not exactly match
+what is seen by top running on this particular machine. Differences
+are listed at the end of this manual entry.
+.PP
+The top few lines of the display show general information
+about the state of the system, including
+the last process id assigned to a process (on most systems),
+the three load averages,
+the current time,
+the number of existing processes,
+the number of processes in each state
+(sleeping, running, starting, zombies, and stopped),
+and a percentage of time spent in each of the processor states
+(user, nice, system, and idle).
+It also includes information about physial and virtual memory allocation.
+.PP
+The remainder of the screen displays information about individual
+processes. This display is similar in spirit to
+.IR ps (1)
+but it is not exactly the same. PID is the process id, USERNAME is the name
+of the process's owner (if
+.B \-u
+is specified, a UID column will be substituted for USERNAME),
+PRI is the current priority of the process,
+NICE is the nice amount (in the range \-20 to 20),
+SIZE is the total size of the process (text, data, and stack),
+RES is the current amount of resident memory (both SIZE and RES are
+given in kilobytes),
+STATE is the current state (one of \*(lqsleep\*(rq, \*(lqWAIT\*(rq,
+\*(lqrun\*(rq, \*(lqidl\*(rq, \*(lqzomb\*(rq, or \*(lqstop\*(rq),
+TIME is the number of system and user cpu seconds that the process has used,
+WCPU, when displayed, is the weighted cpu percentage (this is the same
+value that
+.IR ps (1)
+displays as CPU),
+CPU is the raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to determine
+the order of the processes, and
+COMMAND is the name of the command that the process is currently running
+(if the process is swapped out, this column is marked \*(lq<swapped>\*(rq).
+.SH NOTES
+The \*(lqABANDONED\*(rq state (known in the kernel as \*(lqSWAIT\*(rq) was
+abandoned, thus the name. A process should never end up in this state.
+.SH AUTHOR
+William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University
+.SH ENVIRONMENT
+.DT
+TOP user-configurable defaults for options.
+.SH FILES
+.DT
+/dev/kmem kernel memory
+.br
+/dev/mem physical memory
+.br
+/etc/passwd used to map uid numbers to user names
+.br
+/vmunix system image
+.SH BUGS
+Don't shoot me, but the default for
+.B \-I
+has changed once again. So many people were confused by the fact that
+.I top
+wasn't showing them all the processes that I have decided to make the
+default behavior show idle processes, just like it did in version 2.
+But to appease folks who can't stand that behavior, I have added the
+ability to set \*(lqdefault\*(rq options in the environment variable
+.B TOP
+(see the OPTIONS section). Those who want the behavior that version
+3.0 had need only set the environment variable
+.B TOP
+to \*(lq\-I\*(rq.
+.PP
+The command name for swapped processes should be tracked down, but this
+would make the program run slower.
+.PP
+As with
+.IR ps (1),
+things can change while
+.I top
+is collecting information for an update. The picture it gives is only a
+close approximation to reality.
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+kill(1),
+ps(1),
+stty(1),
+mem(4),
+renice(8)