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authorMark Murray <markm@FreeBSD.org>2003-01-28 22:58:14 +0000
committerMark Murray <markm@FreeBSD.org>2003-01-28 22:58:14 +0000
commitab643b4d66501e8d5358a7a45a0da24a03191dbd (patch)
treeb81a83b72c76fb8541cf06d3e99d92f1c0fc0888 /secure/usr.bin/openssl/man/pkcs12.1
parent143008a1fe08646d374848b68df50dca57546fad (diff)
downloadsrc-ab643b4d66501e8d5358a7a45a0da24a03191dbd.tar.gz
src-ab643b4d66501e8d5358a7a45a0da24a03191dbd.zip
Update for OpenSSL 0.9.7. No assembler code at the moment. This
will follow.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=110010
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+.\" Automatically generated by Pod::Man version 1.15
+.\" Sun Jan 12 18:05:17 2003
+.\"
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+.\" ======================================================================
+.\"
+.IX Title "pkcs12 3"
+.TH pkcs12 3 "0.9.7" "2003-01-12" "OpenSSL"
+.UC
+.SH "NAME"
+pkcs12 \- PKCS#12 file utility
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
+\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBpkcs12\fR
+[\fB\-export\fR]
+[\fB\-chain\fR]
+[\fB\-inkey filename\fR]
+[\fB\-certfile filename\fR]
+[\fB\-name name\fR]
+[\fB\-caname name\fR]
+[\fB\-in filename\fR]
+[\fB\-out filename\fR]
+[\fB\-noout\fR]
+[\fB\-nomacver\fR]
+[\fB\-nocerts\fR]
+[\fB\-clcerts\fR]
+[\fB\-cacerts\fR]
+[\fB\-nokeys\fR]
+[\fB\-info\fR]
+[\fB\-des\fR]
+[\fB\-des3\fR]
+[\fB\-idea\fR]
+[\fB\-nodes\fR]
+[\fB\-noiter\fR]
+[\fB\-maciter\fR]
+[\fB\-twopass\fR]
+[\fB\-descert\fR]
+[\fB\-certpbe\fR]
+[\fB\-keypbe\fR]
+[\fB\-keyex\fR]
+[\fB\-keysig\fR]
+[\fB\-password arg\fR]
+[\fB\-passin arg\fR]
+[\fB\-passout arg\fR]
+[\fB\-rand \f(BIfile\fB\|(s)\fR]
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
+.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
+The \fBpkcs12\fR command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as
+\&\s-1PFX\s0 files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several
+programs including Netscape, \s-1MSIE\s0 and \s-1MS\s0 Outlook.
+.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
+.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
+There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a PKCS#12 file
+is being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is parsed a PKCS#12
+file can be created by using the \fB\-export\fR option (see below).
+.SH "PARSING OPTIONS"
+.IX Header "PARSING OPTIONS"
+.Ip "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-in filename"
+This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard input is used
+by default.
+.Ip "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-out filename"
+The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard output by default.
+They are all written in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
+.Ip "\fB\-pass arg\fR, \fB\-passin arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-pass arg, -passin arg"
+the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more information about the
+format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+openssl(1).
+.Ip "\fB\-passout arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-passout arg"
+pass phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For more information
+about the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+openssl(1).
+.Ip "\fB\-noout\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-noout"
+this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the output file version
+of the PKCS#12 file.
+.Ip "\fB\-clcerts\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-clcerts"
+only output client certificates (not \s-1CA\s0 certificates).
+.Ip "\fB\-cacerts\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-cacerts"
+only output \s-1CA\s0 certificates (not client certificates).
+.Ip "\fB\-nocerts\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nocerts"
+no certificates at all will be output.
+.Ip "\fB\-nokeys\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nokeys"
+no private keys will be output.
+.Ip "\fB\-info\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-info"
+output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure, algorithms used and
+iteration counts.
+.Ip "\fB\-des\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-des"
+use \s-1DES\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting.
+.Ip "\fB\-des3\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-des3"
+use triple \s-1DES\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is the default.
+.Ip "\fB\-idea\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-idea"
+use \s-1IDEA\s0 to encrypt private keys before outputting.
+.Ip "\fB\-nodes\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nodes"
+don't encrypt the private keys at all.
+.Ip "\fB\-nomacver\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nomacver"
+don't attempt to verify the integrity \s-1MAC\s0 before reading the file.
+.Ip "\fB\-twopass\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-twopass"
+prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most software
+always assumes these are the same so this option will render such
+PKCS#12 files unreadable.
+.SH "FILE CREATION OPTIONS"
+.IX Header "FILE CREATION OPTIONS"
+.Ip "\fB\-export\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-export"
+This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather than
+parsed.
+.Ip "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-out filename"
+This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard output is used
+by default.
+.Ip "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-in filename"
+The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard input by default.
+They must all be in \s-1PEM\s0 format. The order doesn't matter but one private key and
+its corresponding certificate should be present. If additional certificates are
+present they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.
+.Ip "\fB\-inkey filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-inkey filename"
+file to read private key from. If not present then a private key must be present
+in the input file.
+.Ip "\fB\-name friendlyname\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-name friendlyname"
+This specifies the \*(L"friendly name\*(R" for the certificate and private key. This name
+is typically displayed in list boxes by software importing the file.
+.Ip "\fB\-certfile filename\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-certfile filename"
+A filename to read additional certificates from.
+.Ip "\fB\-caname friendlyname\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-caname friendlyname"
+This specifies the \*(L"friendly name\*(R" for other certificates. This option may be
+used multiple times to specify names for all certificates in the order they
+appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on other certificates whereas \s-1MSIE\s0
+displays them.
+.Ip "\fB\-pass arg\fR, \fB\-passout arg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-pass arg, -passout arg"
+the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For more information about
+the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+openssl(1).
+.Ip "\fB\-passin password\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-passin password"
+pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more information
+about the format of \fBarg\fR see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in
+openssl(1).
+.Ip "\fB\-chain\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-chain"
+if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the entire
+certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard \s-1CA\s0 store is used
+for this search. If the search fails it is considered a fatal error.
+.Ip "\fB\-descert\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-descert"
+encrypt the certificate using triple \s-1DES\s0, this may render the PKCS#12
+file unreadable by some \*(L"export grade\*(R" software. By default the private
+key is encrypted using triple \s-1DES\s0 and the certificate using 40 bit \s-1RC2\s0.
+.Ip "\fB\-keypbe alg\fR, \fB\-certpbe alg\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-keypbe alg, -certpbe alg"
+these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and
+certificates to be selected. Although any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithms
+can be selected it is advisable only to use PKCS#12 algorithms. See the list
+in the \fB\s-1NOTES\s0\fR section for more information.
+.Ip "\fB\-keyex|\-keysig\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-keyex|-keysig"
+specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or just signing.
+This option is only interpreted by \s-1MSIE\s0 and similar \s-1MS\s0 software. Normally
+\&\*(L"export grade\*(R" software will only allow 512 bit \s-1RSA\s0 keys to be used for
+encryption purposes but arbitrary length keys for signing. The \fB\-keysig\fR
+option marks the key for signing only. Signing only keys can be used for
+S/MIME signing, authenticode (ActiveX control signing) and \s-1SSL\s0 client
+authentication, however due to a bug only \s-1MSIE\s0 5.0 and later support
+the use of signing only keys for \s-1SSL\s0 client authentication.
+.Ip "\fB\-nomaciter\fR, \fB\-noiter\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-nomaciter, -noiter"
+these options affect the iteration counts on the \s-1MAC\s0 and key algorithms.
+Unless you wish to produce files compatible with \s-1MSIE\s0 4.0 you should leave
+these options alone.
+.Sp
+To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common passwords the
+algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have an iteration count applied
+to it: this causes a certain part of the algorithm to be repeated and slows it
+down. The \s-1MAC\s0 is used to check the file integrity but since it will normally
+have the same password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.
+By default both \s-1MAC\s0 and encryption iteration counts are set to 2048, using
+these options the \s-1MAC\s0 and encryption iteration counts can be set to 1, since
+this reduces the file security you should not use these options unless you
+really have to. Most software supports both \s-1MAC\s0 and key iteration counts.
+\&\s-1MSIE\s0 4.0 doesn't support \s-1MAC\s0 iteration counts so it needs the \fB\-nomaciter\fR
+option.
+.Ip "\fB\-maciter\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-maciter"
+This option is included for compatibility with previous versions, it used
+to be needed to use \s-1MAC\s0 iterations counts but they are now used by default.
+.Ip "\fB\-rand \f(BIfile\fB\|(s)\fR" 4
+.IX Item "-rand file"
+a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
+generator, or an \s-1EGD\s0 socket (see RAND_egd(3)).
+Multiple files can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character.
+The separator is \fB;\fR for MS-Windows, \fB,\fR for OpenVMS, and \fB:\fR for
+all others.
+.SH "NOTES"
+.IX Header "NOTES"
+Although there are a large number of options most of them are very rarely
+used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only \fB\-in\fR and \fB\-out\fR need to be used
+for PKCS#12 file creation \fB\-export\fR and \fB\-name\fR are also used.
+.PP
+If none of the \fB\-clcerts\fR, \fB\-cacerts\fR or \fB\-nocerts\fR options are present
+then all certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input
+PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present is
+the one corresponding to the private key. Certain software which requires
+a private key and certificate and assumes the first certificate in the
+file is the one corresponding to the private key: this may not always
+be the case. Using the \fB\-clcerts\fR option will solve this problem by only
+outputting the certificate corresponding to the private key. If the \s-1CA\s0
+certificates are required then they can be output to a separate file using
+the \fB\-nokeys \-cacerts\fR options to just output \s-1CA\s0 certificates.
+.PP
+The \fB\-keypbe\fR and \fB\-certpbe\fR algorithms allow the precise encryption
+algorithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally
+the defaults are fine but occasionally software can't handle triple \s-1DES\s0
+encrypted private keys, then the option \fB\-keypbe \s-1PBE-SHA1\-RC2\-40\s0\fR can
+be used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit \s-1RC2\s0. A complete
+description of all algorithms is contained in the \fBpkcs8\fR manual page.
+.SH "EXAMPLES"
+.IX Header "EXAMPLES"
+Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem
+.Ve
+Output only client certificates to a file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem
+.Ve
+Don't encrypt the private key:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes
+.Ve
+Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout
+.Ve
+Create a PKCS#12 file:
+.PP
+.Vb 1
+\& openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"
+.Ve
+Include some extra certificates:
+.PP
+.Vb 2
+\& openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \e
+\& -certfile othercerts.pem
+.Ve
+.SH "BUGS"
+.IX Header "BUGS"
+Some would argue that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :\-)
+.PP
+Versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key generation
+routines. Under rare circumstances this could produce a PKCS#12 file encrypted
+with an invalid key. As a result some PKCS#12 files which triggered this bug
+from other implementations (\s-1MSIE\s0 or Netscape) could not be decrypted
+by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could produce PKCS#12 files which could
+not be decrypted by other implementations. The chances of producing such
+a file are relatively small: less than 1 in 256.
+.PP
+A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly encrypted PKCS#12
+files cannot no longer be parsed by the fixed version. Under such circumstances
+the \fBpkcs12\fR utility will report that the \s-1MAC\s0 is \s-1OK\s0 but fail with a decryption
+error when extracting private keys.
+.PP
+This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys and certificates
+from the PKCS#12 file using an older version of OpenSSL and recreating the PKCS#12
+file from the keys and certificates using a newer version of OpenSSL. For example:
+.PP
+.Vb 2
+\& old-openssl -in bad.p12 -out keycerts.pem
+\& openssl -in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12
+.Ve
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
+pkcs8(1)