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authorAndriy Gapon <avg@FreeBSD.org>2017-05-26 11:54:42 +0000
committerAndriy Gapon <avg@FreeBSD.org>2017-05-26 11:54:42 +0000
commita1a27d6fd4f290ccd88e4c3a5a9d23d59013a36b (patch)
tree2e571db8871f7acb3eb87e996f9c4a9a84a56e0c /man
parent2053e2d0d0d11c7fa4aecf26a254df4c52b70622 (diff)
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4465 zpool(1M) is able to offline cache vdevs despite what man page says
5659 in the manual page for zpool(1M), one misuse of the word 'zpool' to describe a pool illumos/illumos-gate@c8323d4323a565676ba44883bfeb289d9ed8813e https://github.com/illumos/illumos-gate/commit/c8323d4323a565676ba44883bfeb289d9ed8813e https://www.illumos.org/issues/4465 zpool(1M) is able to offline cache vdevs despite man page saying that it isn't: zpool offline [-t] pool device ... Takes the specified physical device offline. While the device is offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device. This command is not applicable to spares or cache devices. altair:root:~# zpool create testoff c9t67d0 cache c9t71d0 altair:root:~# zpool status testoff pool: testoff state: ONLINE scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM testoff ONLINE 0 0 0 c9t67d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 cache c9t71d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors altair:root:~# zpool offline testoff c9t71d0 altair:root:~# zpool status testoff pool: testoff state: ONLINE status: One or more devices has been taken offline by the administrator. Sufficient replicas exist for the pool to continue functioning in a degraded state. action: Online the device using 'zpool online' or replace the device with 'zpool replace'. scan: none requested https://www.illumos.org/issues/5659 At https://github.com/illumos/illumos-gate/blob/master/usr/src/man/man1m/ zpool.1m#L931 Do not add a disk that is currently configured as a quorum device to a zpool. – should be: Do not add a disk that is currently configured as a quorum device to a pool. Reviewed by: Matthew Ahrens <mahrens@delphix.com> Approved by: Hans Rosenfeld <rosenfeld@grumpf.hope-2000.org> Author: Yuri Pankov <yuri.pankov@nexenta.com>
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/illumos/dist/; revision=318936
Diffstat (limited to 'man')
-rw-r--r--man/man1m/zpool.1m3437
1 files changed, 1349 insertions, 2088 deletions
diff --git a/man/man1m/zpool.1m b/man/man1m/zpool.1m
index fbfd39357930..0b1085814630 100644
--- a/man/man1m/zpool.1m
+++ b/man/man1m/zpool.1m
@@ -1,747 +1,535 @@
-'\" te
+.\"
+.\" CDDL HEADER START
+.\"
+.\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the
+.\" Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").
+.\" You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+.\"
+.\" You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE
+.\" or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
+.\" See the License for the specific language governing permissions
+.\" and limitations under the License.
+.\"
+.\" When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each
+.\" file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.
+.\" If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the
+.\" fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying
+.\" information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
+.\"
+.\" CDDL HEADER END
+.\"
+.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2007, Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
-.\" Copyright 2011, Nexenta Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
.\" Copyright (c) 2013 by Delphix. All rights reserved.
-.\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the Common Development
-.\" and Distribution License (the "License"). You may not use this file except
-.\" in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy of the license at
-.\" usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
+.\" Copyright 2016 Nexenta Systems, Inc.
.\"
-.\" See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
-.\" limitations under the License. When distributing Covered Code, include this
-.\" CDDL HEADER in each file and include the License file at
-.\" usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE. If applicable, add the following below this
-.\" CDDL HEADER, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your
-.\" own identifying information:
-.\" Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
-.TH ZPOOL 1M "Mar 6, 2014"
-.SH NAME
-zpool \- configures ZFS storage pools
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool\fR [\fB-?\fR]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool add\fR [\fB-fn\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIvdev\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool attach\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR \fInew_device\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool clear\fR \fIpool\fR [\fIdevice\fR]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool create\fR [\fB-fnd\fR] [\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR] ... [\fB-O\fR \fIfile-system-property=value\fR]
- ... [\fB-m\fR \fImountpoint\fR] [\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIvdev\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool destroy\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool detach\fR \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool export\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool get\fR [\fB-Hp\fR] [\fB-o \fR\fIfield\fR[,...]] "\fIall\fR" | \fIproperty\fR[,...] \fIpool\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool history\fR [\fB-il\fR] [\fIpool\fR] ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool import\fR [\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR] [\fB-D\fR]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool import\fR [\fB-o \fImntopts\fR\fR] [\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR] ... [\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR | \fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR]
- [\fB-D\fR] [\fB-f\fR] [\fB-m\fR] [\fB-N\fR] [\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR] [\fB-F\fR [\fB-n\fR]] \fB-a\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool import\fR [\fB-o \fImntopts\fR\fR] [\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR] ... [\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR | \fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR]
- [\fB-D\fR] [\fB-f\fR] [\fB-m\fR] [\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR] [\fB-F\fR [\fB-n\fR]] \fIpool\fR |\fIid\fR [\fInewpool\fR]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool iostat\fR [\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR ] [\fB-v\fR] [\fIpool\fR] ... [\fIinterval\fR[\fIcount\fR]]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool list\fR [\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR ] [\fB-Hpv\fR] [\fB-o\fR \fIproperty\fR[,...]] [\fIpool\fR] ... [\fIinterval\fR[\fIcount\fR]]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool offline\fR [\fB-t\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool online\fR \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool reguid\fR \fIpool\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool reopen\fR \fIpool\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool remove\fR \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool replace\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR [\fInew_device\fR]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool scrub\fR [\fB-s\fR] \fIpool\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool set\fR \fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR \fIpool\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool status\fR [\fB-xvD\fR] [\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR ] [\fIpool\fR] ... [\fIinterval\fR [\fIcount\fR]]
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool upgrade\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool upgrade\fR \fB-v\fR
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.nf
-\fBzpool upgrade\fR [\fB-V\fR \fIversion\fR] \fB-a\fR | \fIpool\fR ...
-.fi
-
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-.sp
-.LP
-The \fBzpool\fR command configures \fBZFS\fR storage pools. A storage pool is a
-collection of devices that provides physical storage and data replication for
-\fBZFS\fR datasets.
-.sp
-.LP
-All datasets within a storage pool share the same space. See \fBzfs\fR(1M) for
-information on managing datasets.
-.SS "Virtual Devices (\fBvdev\fRs)"
-.sp
-.LP
+.Dd February 15, 2016
+.Dt ZPOOL 1M
+.Os
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm zpool
+.Nd configure ZFS storage pools
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm
+.Fl \?
+.Nm
+.Cm add
+.Op Fl fn
+.Ar pool vdev Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm attach
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool device new_device
+.Nm
+.Cm clear
+.Ar pool
+.Op Ar device
+.Nm
+.Cm create
+.Op Fl dfn
+.Op Fl m Ar mountpoint
+.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Oo Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl R Ar root
+.Ar pool vdev Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm destroy
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool
+.Nm
+.Cm detach
+.Ar pool device
+.Nm
+.Cm export
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm get
+.Op Fl Hp
+.Op Fl o Ar field Ns Oo , Ns Ar field Oc Ns ...
+.Sy all Ns | Ns Ar property Ns Oo , Ns Ar property Oc Ns ...
+.Ar pool Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm history
+.Op Fl il
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm import
+.Op Fl D
+.Op Fl d Ar dir
+.Nm
+.Cm import
+.Fl a
+.Op Fl DfmN
+.Op Fl F Op Fl n
+.Op Fl c Ar cachefile Ns | Ns Fl d Ar dir
+.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
+.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl R Ar root
+.Nm
+.Cm import
+.Op Fl Dfm
+.Op Fl F Op Fl n
+.Op Fl c Ar cachefile Ns | Ns Fl d Ar dir
+.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
+.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl R Ar root
+.Ar pool Ns | Ns Ar id
+.Op Ar newpool
+.Nm
+.Cm iostat
+.Op Fl v
+.Op Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
+.Nm
+.Cm list
+.Op Fl Hpv
+.Op Fl o Ar property Ns Oo , Ns Ar property Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
+.Nm
+.Cm offline
+.Op Fl t
+.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm online
+.Op Fl e
+.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm reguid
+.Ar pool
+.Nm
+.Cm reopen
+.Ar pool
+.Nm
+.Cm remove
+.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm replace
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool Ar device Op Ar new_device
+.Nm
+.Cm scrub
+.Op Fl s
+.Ar pool Ns ...
+.Nm
+.Cm set
+.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
+.Ar pool
+.Nm
+.Cm status
+.Op Fl Dvx
+.Op Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
+.Nm
+.Cm upgrade
+.Nm
+.Cm upgrade
+.Fl v
+.Nm
+.Cm upgrade
+.Op Fl V Ar version
+.Fl a Ns | Ns Ar pool Ns ...
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
+.Nm
+command configures ZFS storage pools. A storage pool is a collection of devices
+that provides physical storage and data replication for ZFS datasets. All
+datasets within a storage pool share the same space. See
+.Xr zfs 1M
+for information on managing datasets.
+.Ss Virtual Devices (vdevs)
A "virtual device" describes a single device or a collection of devices
organized according to certain performance and fault characteristics. The
following virtual devices are supported:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBdisk\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
-A block device, typically located under \fB/dev/dsk\fR. \fBZFS\fR can use
-individual slices or partitions, though the recommended mode of operation is to
-use whole disks. A disk can be specified by a full path, or it can be a
-shorthand name (the relative portion of the path under "/dev/dsk"). A whole
-disk can be specified by omitting the slice or partition designation. For
-example, "c0t0d0" is equivalent to "/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2". When given a whole
-disk, \fBZFS\fR automatically labels the disk, if necessary.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBfile\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy disk
+A block device, typically located under
+.Pa /dev/dsk .
+ZFS can use individual slices or partitions, though the recommended mode of
+operation is to use whole disks. A disk can be specified by a full path, or it
+can be a shorthand name
+.Po the relative portion of the path under
+.Pa /dev/dsk
+.Pc .
+A whole disk can be specified by omitting the slice or partition designation.
+For example,
+.Pa c0t0d0
+is equivalent to
+.Pa /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2 .
+When given a whole disk, ZFS automatically labels the disk, if necessary.
+.It Sy file
A regular file. The use of files as a backing store is strongly discouraged. It
is designed primarily for experimental purposes, as the fault tolerance of a
file is only as good as the file system of which it is a part. A file must be
specified by a full path.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBmirror\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
+.It Sy mirror
A mirror of two or more devices. Data is replicated in an identical fashion
-across all components of a mirror. A mirror with \fIN\fR disks of size \fIX\fR
-can hold \fIX\fR bytes and can withstand (\fIN-1\fR) devices failing before
-data integrity is compromised.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBraidz\fR\fR
-.ad
-.br
-.na
-\fB\fBraidz1\fR\fR
-.ad
-.br
-.na
-\fB\fBraidz2\fR\fR
-.ad
-.br
-.na
-\fB\fBraidz3\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
-A variation on \fBRAID-5\fR that allows for better distribution of parity and
-eliminates the "\fBRAID-5\fR write hole" (in which data and parity become
-inconsistent after a power loss). Data and parity is striped across all disks
-within a \fBraidz\fR group.
-.sp
-A \fBraidz\fR group can have single-, double- , or triple parity, meaning that
-the \fBraidz\fR group can sustain one, two, or three failures, respectively,
-without losing any data. The \fBraidz1\fR \fBvdev\fR type specifies a
-single-parity \fBraidz\fR group; the \fBraidz2\fR \fBvdev\fR type specifies a
-double-parity \fBraidz\fR group; and the \fBraidz3\fR \fBvdev\fR type specifies
-a triple-parity \fBraidz\fR group. The \fBraidz\fR \fBvdev\fR type is an alias
-for \fBraidz1\fR.
-.sp
-A \fBraidz\fR group with \fIN\fR disks of size \fIX\fR with \fIP\fR parity
-disks can hold approximately (\fIN-P\fR)*\fIX\fR bytes and can withstand
-\fIP\fR device(s) failing before data integrity is compromised. The minimum
-number of devices in a \fBraidz\fR group is one more than the number of parity
-disks. The recommended number is between 3 and 9 to help increase performance.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBspare\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
-A special pseudo-\fBvdev\fR which keeps track of available hot spares for a
-pool. For more information, see the "Hot Spares" section.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBlog\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
-A separate-intent log device. If more than one log device is specified, then
+across all components of a mirror. A mirror with N disks of size X can hold X
+bytes and can withstand (N-1) devices failing before data integrity is
+compromised.
+.It Sy raidz , raidz1 , raidz2 , raidz3
+A variation on RAID-5 that allows for better distribution of parity and
+eliminates the RAID-5
+.Qq write hole
+.Pq in which data and parity become inconsistent after a power loss .
+Data and parity is striped across all disks within a raidz group.
+.Pp
+A raidz group can have single-, double-, or triple-parity, meaning that the
+raidz group can sustain one, two, or three failures, respectively, without
+losing any data. The
+.Sy raidz1
+vdev type specifies a single-parity raidz group; the
+.Sy raidz2
+vdev type specifies a double-parity raidz group; and the
+.Sy raidz3
+vdev type specifies a triple-parity raidz group. The
+.Sy raidz
+vdev type is an alias for
+.Sy raidz1 .
+.Pp
+A raidz group with N disks of size X with P parity disks can hold approximately
+(N-P)*X bytes and can withstand P device(s) failing before data integrity is
+compromised. The minimum number of devices in a raidz group is one more than
+the number of parity disks. The recommended number is between 3 and 9 to help
+increase performance.
+.It Sy spare
+A special pseudo-vdev which keeps track of available hot spares for a pool. For
+more information, see the
+.Sx Hot Spares
+section.
+.It Sy log
+A separate intent log device. If more than one log device is specified, then
writes are load-balanced between devices. Log devices can be mirrored. However,
-\fBraidz\fR \fBvdev\fR types are not supported for the intent log. For more
-information, see the "Intent Log" section.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBcache\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 10n
+raidz vdev types are not supported for the intent log. For more information,
+see the
+.Sx Intent Log
+section.
+.It Sy cache
A device used to cache storage pool data. A cache device cannot be cannot be
-configured as a mirror or \fBraidz\fR group. For more information, see the
-"Cache Devices" section.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.LP
-Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or \fBraidz\fR virtual device can
-only contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors (or other combinations) are not
-allowed.
-.sp
-.LP
+configured as a mirror or raidz group. For more information, see the
+.Sx Cache Devices
+section.
+.El
+.Pp
+Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or raidz virtual device can only
+contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors
+.Pq or other combinations
+are not allowed.
+.Pp
A pool can have any number of virtual devices at the top of the configuration
-(known as "root vdevs"). Data is dynamically distributed across all top-level
-devices to balance data among devices. As new virtual devices are added,
-\fBZFS\fR automatically places data on the newly available devices.
-.sp
-.LP
+.Po known as
+.Qq root vdevs
+.Pc .
+Data is dynamically distributed across all top-level devices to balance data
+among devices. As new virtual devices are added, ZFS automatically places data
+on the newly available devices.
+.Pp
Virtual devices are specified one at a time on the command line, separated by
-whitespace. The keywords "mirror" and "raidz" are used to distinguish where a
-group ends and another begins. For example, the following creates two root
-vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create mypool mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.SS "Device Failure and Recovery"
-.sp
-.LP
-\fBZFS\fR supports a rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and
-data corruption. All metadata and data is checksummed, and \fBZFS\fR
-automatically repairs bad data from a good copy when corruption is detected.
-.sp
-.LP
+whitespace. The keywords
+.Sy mirror
+and
+.Sy raidz
+are used to distinguish where a group ends and another begins. For example,
+the following creates two root vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create mypool mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0
+.Ed
+.Ss Device Failure and Recovery
+ZFS supports a rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and data
+corruption. All metadata and data is checksummed, and ZFS automatically repairs
+bad data from a good copy when corruption is detected.
+.Pp
In order to take advantage of these features, a pool must make use of some form
-of redundancy, using either mirrored or \fBraidz\fR groups. While \fBZFS\fR
-supports running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root vdev is
-simply a disk or file, this is strongly discouraged. A single case of bit
-corruption can render some or all of your data unavailable.
-.sp
-.LP
+of redundancy, using either mirrored or raidz groups. While ZFS supports
+running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root vdev is simply a disk
+or file, this is strongly discouraged. A single case of bit corruption can
+render some or all of your data unavailable.
+.Pp
A pool's health status is described by one of three states: online, degraded,
or faulted. An online pool has all devices operating normally. A degraded pool
is one in which one or more devices have failed, but the data is still
available due to a redundant configuration. A faulted pool has corrupted
metadata, or one or more faulted devices, and insufficient replicas to continue
functioning.
-.sp
-.LP
-The health of the top-level vdev, such as mirror or \fBraidz\fR device, is
+.Pp
+The health of the top-level vdev, such as mirror or raidz device, is
potentially impacted by the state of its associated vdevs, or component
devices. A top-level vdev or component device is in one of the following
states:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBDEGRADED\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.Bl -tag -width "DEGRADED"
+.It Sy DEGRADED
One or more top-level vdevs is in the degraded state because one or more
component devices are offline. Sufficient replicas exist to continue
functioning.
-.sp
+.Pp
One or more component devices is in the degraded or faulted state, but
sufficient replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions
are as follows:
-.RS +4
-.TP
-.ie t \(bu
-.el o
+.Bl -bullet
+.It
The number of checksum errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is
-degraded as an indication that something may be wrong. \fBZFS\fR continues to
-use the device as necessary.
-.RE
-.RS +4
-.TP
-.ie t \(bu
-.el o
+degraded as an indication that something may be wrong. ZFS continues to use the
+device as necessary.
+.It
The number of I/O errors exceeds acceptable levels. The device could not be
marked as faulted because there are insufficient replicas to continue
functioning.
-.RE
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBFAULTED\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.El
+.It Sy FAULTED
One or more top-level vdevs is in the faulted state because one or more
component devices are offline. Insufficient replicas exist to continue
functioning.
-.sp
+.Pp
One or more component devices is in the faulted state, and insufficient
replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions are as
follows:
-.RS +4
-.TP
-.ie t \(bu
-.el o
+.Bl -bullet
+.It
The device could be opened, but the contents did not match expected values.
-.RE
-.RS +4
-.TP
-.ie t \(bu
-.el o
+.It
The number of I/O errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is faulted to
prevent further use of the device.
-.RE
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBOFFLINE\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-The device was explicitly taken offline by the "\fBzpool offline\fR" command.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBONLINE\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.El
+.It Sy OFFLINE
+The device was explicitly taken offline by the
+.Nm zpool Cm offline
+command.
+.It Sy ONLINE
The device is online and functioning.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBREMOVED\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.It Sy REMOVED
The device was physically removed while the system was running. Device removal
detection is hardware-dependent and may not be supported on all platforms.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBUNAVAIL\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.It Sy UNAVAIL
The device could not be opened. If a pool is imported when a device was
unavailable, then the device will be identified by a unique identifier instead
of its path since the path was never correct in the first place.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.LP
-If a device is removed and later re-attached to the system, \fBZFS\fR attempts
+.El
+.Pp
+If a device is removed and later re-attached to the system, ZFS attempts
to put the device online automatically. Device attach detection is
hardware-dependent and might not be supported on all platforms.
-.SS "Hot Spares"
-.sp
-.LP
-\fBZFS\fR allows devices to be associated with pools as "hot spares". These
-devices are not actively used in the pool, but when an active device fails, it
-is automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create a pool with hot spares,
-specify a "spare" \fBvdev\fR with any number of devices. For example,
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
+.Ss Hot Spares
+ZFS allows devices to be associated with pools as
+.Qq hot spares .
+These devices are not actively used in the pool, but when an active device
+fails, it is automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create a pool with hot
+spares, specify a
+.Sy spare
+vdev with any number of devices. For example,
+.Bd -literal
# zpool create pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 spare c2d0 c3d0
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
-Spares can be shared across multiple pools, and can be added with the "\fBzpool
-add\fR" command and removed with the "\fBzpool remove\fR" command. Once a spare
-replacement is initiated, a new "spare" \fBvdev\fR is created within the
-configuration that will remain there until the original device is replaced. At
-this point, the hot spare becomes available again if another device fails.
-.sp
-.LP
+.Ed
+.Pp
+Spares can be shared across multiple pools, and can be added with the
+.Nm zpool Cm add
+command and removed with the
+.Nm zpool Cm remove
+command. Once a spare replacement is initiated, a new
+.Sy spare
+vdev is created within the configuration that will remain there until the
+original device is replaced. At this point, the hot spare becomes available
+again if another device fails.
+.Pp
If a pool has a shared spare that is currently being used, the pool can not be
exported since other pools may use this shared spare, which may lead to
potential data corruption.
-.sp
-.LP
+.Pp
An in-progress spare replacement can be cancelled by detaching the hot spare.
If the original faulted device is detached, then the hot spare assumes its
place in the configuration, and is removed from the spare list of all active
pools.
-.sp
-.LP
+.Pp
Spares cannot replace log devices.
-.SS "Intent Log"
-.sp
-.LP
-The \fBZFS\fR Intent Log (\fBZIL\fR) satisfies \fBPOSIX\fR requirements for
-synchronous transactions. For instance, databases often require their
-transactions to be on stable storage devices when returning from a system call.
-\fBNFS\fR and other applications can also use \fBfsync\fR() to ensure data
-stability. By default, the intent log is allocated from blocks within the main
-pool. However, it might be possible to get better performance using separate
-intent log devices such as \fBNVRAM\fR or a dedicated disk. For example:
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-\fB# zpool create pool c0d0 c1d0 log c2d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
+.Ss Intent Log
+The ZFS Intent Log (ZIL) satisfies POSIX requirements for synchronous
+transactions. For instance, databases often require their transactions to be on
+stable storage devices when returning from a system call. NFS and other
+applications can also use
+.Xr fsync 3C
+to ensure data stability. By default, the intent log is allocated from blocks
+within the main pool. However, it might be possible to get better performance
+using separate intent log devices such as NVRAM or a dedicated disk. For
+example:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create pool c0d0 c1d0 log c2d0
+.Ed
+.Pp
Multiple log devices can also be specified, and they can be mirrored. See the
-EXAMPLES section for an example of mirroring multiple log devices.
-.sp
-.LP
+.Sx EXAMPLES
+section for an example of mirroring multiple log devices.
+.Pp
Log devices can be added, replaced, attached, detached, and imported and
exported as part of the larger pool. Mirrored log devices can be removed by
specifying the top-level mirror for the log.
-.SS "Cache Devices"
-.sp
-.LP
-Devices can be added to a storage pool as "cache devices." These devices
-provide an additional layer of caching between main memory and disk. For
-read-heavy workloads, where the working set size is much larger than what can
-be cached in main memory, using cache devices allow much more of this working
-set to be served from low latency media. Using cache devices provides the
-greatest performance improvement for random read-workloads of mostly static
+.Ss Cache Devices
+Devices can be added to a storage pool as
+.Qq cache devices .
+These devices provide an additional layer of caching between main memory and
+disk. For read-heavy workloads, where the working set size is much larger than
+what can be cached in main memory, using cache devices allow much more of this
+working set to be served from low latency media. Using cache devices provides
+the greatest performance improvement for random read-workloads of mostly static
content.
-.sp
-.LP
-To create a pool with cache devices, specify a "cache" \fBvdev\fR with any
-number of devices. For example:
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-\fB# zpool create pool c0d0 c1d0 cache c2d0 c3d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
-Cache devices cannot be mirrored or part of a \fBraidz\fR configuration. If a
-read error is encountered on a cache device, that read \fBI/O\fR is reissued to
-the original storage pool device, which might be part of a mirrored or
-\fBraidz\fR configuration.
-.sp
-.LP
+.Pp
+To create a pool with cache devices, specify a
+.Sy cache
+vdev with any number of devices. For example:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create pool c0d0 c1d0 cache c2d0 c3d0
+.Ed
+.Pp
+Cache devices cannot be mirrored or part of a raidz configuration. If a read
+error is encountered on a cache device, that read I/O is reissued to the
+original storage pool device, which might be part of a mirrored or raidz
+configuration.
+.Pp
The content of the cache devices is considered volatile, as is the case with
other system caches.
-.SS "Properties"
-.sp
-.LP
+.Ss Properties
Each pool has several properties associated with it. Some properties are
read-only statistics while others are configurable and change the behavior of
-the pool. The following are read-only properties:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBavailable\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+the pool.
+.Pp
+The following are read-only properties:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy available
Amount of storage available within the pool. This property can also be referred
-to by its shortened column name, "avail".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBcapacity\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+to by its shortened column name,
+.Sy avail .
+.It Sy capacity
Percentage of pool space used. This property can also be referred to by its
-shortened column name, "cap".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBexpandsize\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+shortened column name,
+.Sy cap .
+.It Sy expandsize
Amount of uninitialized space within the pool or device that can be used to
increase the total capacity of the pool. Uninitialized space consists of
any space on an EFI labeled vdev which has not been brought online
-(i.e. zpool online -e). This space occurs when a LUN is dynamically expanded.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBfragmentation\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+.Po e.g, using
+.Nm zpool Cm online Fl e
+.Pc .
+This space occurs when a LUN is dynamically expanded.
+.It Sy fragmentation
The amount of fragmentation in the pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBfree\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+.It Sy free
The amount of free space available in the pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBfreeing\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+.It Sy freeing
After a file system or snapshot is destroyed, the space it was using is
-returned to the pool asynchronously. \fB\fBfreeing\fR\fR is the amount of
-space remaining to be reclaimed. Over time \fB\fBfreeing\fR\fR will decrease
-while \fB\fBfree\fR\fR increases.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBhealth\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
-The current health of the pool. Health can be "\fBONLINE\fR", "\fBDEGRADED\fR",
-"\fBFAULTED\fR", " \fBOFFLINE\fR", "\fBREMOVED\fR", or "\fBUNAVAIL\fR".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBguid\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+returned to the pool asynchronously.
+.Sy freeing
+is the amount of space remaining to be reclaimed. Over time
+.Sy freeing
+will decrease while
+.Sy free
+increases.
+.It Sy health
+The current health of the pool. Health can be one of
+.Sy ONLINE , DEGRADED , FAULTED , OFFLINE, REMOVED , UNAVAIL .
+.It Sy guid
A unique identifier for the pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBsize\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+.It Sy size
Total size of the storage pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBunsupported@\fR\fIfeature_guid\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+.It Sy unsupported@ Ns Em feature_guid
Information about unsupported features that are enabled on the pool. See
-\fBzpool-features\fR(5) for details.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBused\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 20n
+.Xr zpool-features 5
+for details.
+.It Sy used
Amount of storage space used within the pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.LP
+.El
+.Pp
The space usage properties report actual physical space available to the
storage pool. The physical space can be different from the total amount of
space that any contained datasets can actually use. The amount of space used in
-a \fBraidz\fR configuration depends on the characteristics of the data being
-written. In addition, \fBZFS\fR reserves some space for internal accounting
-that the \fBzfs\fR(1M) command takes into account, but the \fBzpool\fR command
-does not. For non-full pools of a reasonable size, these effects should be
-invisible. For small pools, or pools that are close to being completely full,
-these discrepancies may become more noticeable.
-.sp
-.LP
+a raidz configuration depends on the characteristics of the data being
+written. In addition, ZFS reserves some space for internal accounting
+that the
+.Xr zfs 1M
+command takes into account, but the
+.Nm
+command does not. For non-full pools of a reasonable size, these effects should
+be invisible. For small pools, or pools that are close to being completely
+full, these discrepancies may become more noticeable.
+.Pp
The following property can be set at creation time and import time:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBaltroot\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy altroot
Alternate root directory. If set, this directory is prepended to any mount
points within the pool. This can be used when examining an unknown pool where
the mount points cannot be trusted, or in an alternate boot environment, where
-the typical paths are not valid. \fBaltroot\fR is not a persistent property. It
-is valid only while the system is up. Setting \fBaltroot\fR defaults to using
-\fBcachefile\fR=none, though this may be overridden using an explicit setting.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.LP
+the typical paths are not valid.
+.Sy altroot
+is not a persistent property. It is valid only while the system is up. Setting
+.Sy altroot
+defaults to using
+.Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Sy none ,
+though this may be overridden using an explicit setting.
+.El
+.Pp
The following property can be set only at import time:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBreadonly\fR=\fBon\fR | \fBoff\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-If set to \fBon\fR, the pool will be imported in read-only mode. This
-property can also be referred to by its shortened column name, \fBrdonly\fR.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy readonly Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
+If set to
+.Sy on ,
+the pool will be imported in read-only mode. This property can also be referred
+to by its shortened column name,
+.Sy rdonly .
+.El
+.Pp
The following properties can be set at creation time and import time, and later
-changed with the \fBzpool set\fR command:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBautoexpand\fR=\fBon\fR | \fBoff\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+changed with the
+.Nm zpool Cm set
+command:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy autoexpand Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
Controls automatic pool expansion when the underlying LUN is grown. If set to
-\fBon\fR, the pool will be resized according to the size of the expanded
-device. If the device is part of a mirror or \fBraidz\fR then all devices
-within that mirror/\fBraidz\fR group must be expanded before the new space is
-made available to the pool. The default behavior is \fBoff\fR. This property
-can also be referred to by its shortened column name, \fBexpand\fR.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBautoreplace\fR=\fBon\fR | \fBoff\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Controls automatic device replacement. If set to "\fBoff\fR", device
-replacement must be initiated by the administrator by using the "\fBzpool
-replace\fR" command. If set to "\fBon\fR", any new device, found in the same
-physical location as a device that previously belonged to the pool, is
-automatically formatted and replaced. The default behavior is "\fBoff\fR". This
-property can also be referred to by its shortened column name, "replace".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBbootfs\fR=\fIpool\fR/\fIdataset\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.Sy on ,
+the pool will be resized according to the size of the expanded device. If the
+device is part of a mirror or raidz then all devices within that mirror/raidz
+group must be expanded before the new space is made available to the pool. The
+default behavior is
+.Sy off .
+This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
+.Sy expand .
+.It Sy autoreplace Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
+Controls automatic device replacement. If set to
+.Sy off ,
+device replacement must be initiated by the administrator by using the
+.Nm zpool Cm replace
+command. If set to
+.Sy on ,
+any new device, found in the same physical location as a device that previously
+belonged to the pool, is automatically formatted and replaced. The default
+behavior is
+.Sy off .
+This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
+.Sy replace .
+.It Sy bootfs Ns = Ns Ar pool Ns / Ns Ar dataset
Identifies the default bootable dataset for the root pool. This property is
expected to be set mainly by the installation and upgrade programs.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBcachefile\fR=\fIpath\fR | \fBnone\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Ar path Ns | Ns Sy none
Controls the location of where the pool configuration is cached. Discovering
all pools on system startup requires a cached copy of the configuration data
that is stored on the root file system. All pools in this cache are
@@ -749,1354 +537,953 @@ automatically imported when the system boots. Some environments, such as
install and clustering, need to cache this information in a different location
so that pools are not automatically imported. Setting this property caches the
pool configuration in a different location that can later be imported with
-"\fBzpool import -c\fR". Setting it to the special value "\fBnone\fR" creates a
-temporary pool that is never cached, and the special value \fB\&''\fR (empty
-string) uses the default location.
-.sp
+.Nm zpool Cm import Fl c .
+Setting it to the special value
+.Sy none
+creates a temporary pool that is never cached, and the special value
+.Qq
+.Pq empty string
+uses the default location.
+.Pp
Multiple pools can share the same cache file. Because the kernel destroys and
recreates this file when pools are added and removed, care should be taken when
-attempting to access this file. When the last pool using a \fBcachefile\fR is
-exported or destroyed, the file is removed.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBcomment\fR=\fB\fItext\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 4n
+attempting to access this file. When the last pool using a
+.Sy cachefile
+is exported or destroyed, the file is removed.
+.It Sy comment Ns = Ns Ar text
A text string consisting of printable ASCII characters that will be stored
such that it is available even if the pool becomes faulted. An administrator
can provide additional information about a pool using this property.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBdedupditto\fR=\fB\fInumber\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Sy dedupditto Ns = Ns Ar number
Threshold for the number of block ditto copies. If the reference count for a
deduplicated block increases above this number, a new ditto copy of this block
-is automatically stored. The default setting is 0 which causes no ditto copies
-to be created for deduplicated blocks. The miniumum legal nonzero setting is 100.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBdelegation\fR=\fBon\fR | \fBoff\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+is automatically stored. The default setting is
+.Sy 0
+which causes no ditto copies to be created for deduplicated blocks. The miniumum
+legal nonzero setting is
+.Sy 100 .
+.It Sy delegation Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
Controls whether a non-privileged user is granted access based on the dataset
-permissions defined on the dataset. See \fBzfs\fR(1M) for more information on
-\fBZFS\fR delegated administration.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBfailmode\fR=\fBwait\fR | \fBcontinue\fR | \fBpanic\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+permissions defined on the dataset. See
+.Xr zfs 1M
+for more information on ZFS delegated administration.
+.It Sy failmode Ns = Ns Sy wait Ns | Ns Sy continue Ns | Ns Sy panic
Controls the system behavior in the event of catastrophic pool failure. This
condition is typically a result of a loss of connectivity to the underlying
storage device(s) or a failure of all devices within the pool. The behavior of
such an event is determined as follows:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBwait\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Blocks all \fBI/O\fR access until the device connectivity is recovered and the
-errors are cleared. This is the default behavior.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBcontinue\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Returns \fBEIO\fR to any new write \fBI/O\fR requests but allows reads to any
-of the remaining healthy devices. Any write requests that have yet to be
-committed to disk would be blocked.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBpanic\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.Bl -tag -width "continue"
+.It Sy wait
+Blocks all I/O access until the device connectivity is recovered and the errors
+are cleared. This is the default behavior.
+.It Sy continue
+Returns
+.Er EIO
+to any new write I/O requests but allows reads to any of the remaining healthy
+devices. Any write requests that have yet to be committed to disk would be
+blocked.
+.It Sy panic
Prints out a message to the console and generates a system crash dump.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBfeature@\fR\fIfeature_name\fR=\fBenabled\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 4n
-The value of this property is the current state of \fIfeature_name\fR. The
-only valid value when setting this property is \fBenabled\fR which moves
-\fIfeature_name\fR to the enabled state. See \fBzpool-features\fR(5) for
-details on feature states.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBlistsnaps\fR=on | off\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.El
+.It Sy feature@ Ns Ar feature_name Ns = Ns Sy enabled
+The value of this property is the current state of
+.Ar feature_name .
+The only valid value when setting this property is
+.Sy enabled
+which moves
+.Ar feature_name
+to the enabled state. See
+.Xr zpool-features 5
+for details on feature states.
+.It Sy listsnaps Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
Controls whether information about snapshots associated with this pool is
-output when "\fBzfs list\fR" is run without the \fB-t\fR option. The default
-value is "off".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBversion\fR=\fIversion\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+output when
+.Nm zfs Cm list
+is run without the
+.Fl t
+option. The default value is
+.Sy off .
+.It Sy version Ns = Ns Ar version
The current on-disk version of the pool. This can be increased, but never
-decreased. The preferred method of updating pools is with the "\fBzpool
-upgrade\fR" command, though this property can be used when a specific version
-is needed for backwards compatibility. Once feature flags is enabled on a
-pool this property will no longer have a value.
-.RE
-
-.SS "Subcommands"
-.sp
-.LP
+decreased. The preferred method of updating pools is with the
+.Nm zpool Cm upgrade
+command, though this property can be used when a specific version is needed for
+backwards compatibility. Once feature flags is enabled on a pool this property
+will no longer have a value.
+.El
+.Ss Subcommands
All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to the pool in their
original form.
-.sp
-.LP
-The \fBzpool\fR command provides subcommands to create and destroy storage
-pools, add capacity to storage pools, and provide information about the storage
-pools. The following subcommands are supported:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool\fR \fB-?\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.Pp
+The
+.Nm
+command provides subcommands to create and destroy storage pools, add capacity
+to storage pools, and provide information about the storage pools. The
+following subcommands are supported:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Fl \?
+.Xc
Displays a help message.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool add\fR [\fB-fn\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIvdev\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool. The \fIvdev\fR
-specification is described in the "Virtual Devices" section. The behavior of
-the \fB-f\fR option, and the device checks performed are described in the
-"zpool create" subcommand.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Forces use of \fBvdev\fRs, even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting
-replication level. Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-n\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Displays the configuration that would be used without actually adding the
-\fBvdev\fRs. The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient
-privileges or device sharing.
-.RE
-
-Do not add a disk that is currently configured as a quorum device to a zpool.
-After a disk is in the pool, that disk can then be configured as a quorum
-device.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool attach\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR \fInew_device\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Attaches \fInew_device\fR to an existing \fBzpool\fR device. The existing
-device cannot be part of a \fBraidz\fR configuration. If \fIdevice\fR is not
-currently part of a mirrored configuration, \fIdevice\fR automatically
-transforms into a two-way mirror of \fIdevice\fR and \fInew_device\fR. If
-\fIdevice\fR is part of a two-way mirror, attaching \fInew_device\fR creates a
-three-way mirror, and so on. In either case, \fInew_device\fR begins to
-resilver immediately.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Forces use of \fInew_device\fR, even if its appears to be in use. Not all
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm add
+.Op Fl fn
+.Ar pool vdev Ns ...
+.Xc
+Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool. The
+.Ar vdev
+specification is described in the
+.Sx Virtual Devices
+section. The behavior of the
+.Fl f
+option, and the device checks performed are described in the
+.Nm zpool Cm create
+subcommand.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl f
+Forces use of
+.Ar vdev Ns s ,
+even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level. Not all
devices can be overridden in this manner.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool clear\fR \fIpool\fR [\fIdevice\fR] ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Fl n
+Displays the configuration that would be used without actually adding the
+.Ar vdev Ns s .
+The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
+device sharing.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm attach
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool device new_device
+.Xc
+Attaches
+.Ar new_device
+to the existing
+.Ar device .
+The existing device cannot be part of a raidz configuration. If
+.Ar device
+is not currently part of a mirrored configuration,
+.Ar device
+automatically transforms into a two-way mirror of
+.Ar device
+and
+.Ar new_device .
+If
+.Ar device
+is part of a two-way mirror, attaching
+.Ar new_device
+creates a three-way mirror, and so on. In either case,
+.Ar new_device
+begins to resilver immediately.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl f
+Forces use of
+.Ar new_device ,
+even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
+manner.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm clear
+.Ar pool
+.Op Ar device
+.Xc
Clears device errors in a pool. If no arguments are specified, all device
errors within the pool are cleared. If one or more devices is specified, only
those errors associated with the specified device or devices are cleared.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool create\fR [\fB-fnd\fR] [\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR] ... [\fB-O\fR
-\fIfile-system-property=value\fR] ... [\fB-m\fR \fImountpoint\fR] [\fB-R\fR
-\fIroot\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIvdev\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm create
+.Op Fl dfn
+.Op Fl m Ar mountpoint
+.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Oo Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl R Ar root
+.Ar pool vdev Ns ...
+.Xc
Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified on the
command line. The pool name must begin with a letter, and can only contain
-alphanumeric characters as well as underscore ("_"), dash ("-"), and period
-("."). The pool names "mirror", "raidz", "spare" and "log" are reserved, as are
-names beginning with the pattern "c[0-9]". The \fBvdev\fR specification is
-described in the "Virtual Devices" section.
-.sp
+alphanumeric characters as well as underscore
+.Pq Qq Sy _ ,
+dash
+.Pq Qq Sy - ,
+and period
+.Pq Qq Sy \&. .
+The pool names
+.Sy mirror ,
+.Sy raidz ,
+.Sy spare
+and
+.Sy log
+are reserved, as are names beginning with the pattern
+.Sy c[0-9] .
+The
+.Ar vdev
+specification is described in the
+.Sx Virtual Devices
+section.
+.Pp
The command verifies that each device specified is accessible and not currently
in use by another subsystem. There are some uses, such as being currently
mounted, or specified as the dedicated dump device, that prevents a device from
-ever being used by \fBZFS\fR. Other uses, such as having a preexisting
-\fBUFS\fR file system, can be overridden with the \fB-f\fR option.
-.sp
+ever being used by ZFS . Other uses, such as having a preexisting UFS file
+system, can be overridden with the
+.Fl f
+option.
+.Pp
The command also checks that the replication strategy for the pool is
consistent. An attempt to combine redundant and non-redundant storage in a
-single pool, or to mix disks and files, results in an error unless \fB-f\fR is
-specified. The use of differently sized devices within a single \fBraidz\fR or
-mirror group is also flagged as an error unless \fB-f\fR is specified.
-.sp
-Unless the \fB-R\fR option is specified, the default mount point is
-"/\fIpool\fR". The mount point must not exist or must be empty, or else the
-root dataset cannot be mounted. This can be overridden with the \fB-m\fR
+single pool, or to mix disks and files, results in an error unless
+.Fl f
+is specified. The use of differently sized devices within a single raidz or
+mirror group is also flagged as an error unless
+.Fl f
+is specified.
+.Pp
+Unless the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, the default mount point is
+.Pa / Ns Ar pool .
+The mount point must not exist or must be empty, or else the root dataset
+cannot be mounted. This can be overridden with the
+.Fl m
option.
-.sp
+.Pp
By default all supported features are enabled on the new pool unless the
-\fB-d\fR option is specified.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Forces use of \fBvdev\fRs, even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting
-replication level. Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-n\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.Fl d
+option is specified.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl d
+Do not enable any features on the new pool. Individual features can be enabled
+by setting their corresponding properties to
+.Sy enabled
+with the
+.Fl o
+option. See
+.Xr zpool-features 5
+for details about feature properties.
+.It Fl f
+Forces use of
+.Ar vdev Ns s ,
+even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level. Not all
+devices can be overridden in this manner.
+.It Fl m Ar mountpoint
+Sets the mount point for the root dataset. The default mount point is
+.Pa /pool
+or
+.Pa altroot/pool
+if
+.Ar altroot
+is specified. The mount point must be an absolute path,
+.Sy legacy ,
+or
+.Sy none .
+For more information on dataset mount points, see
+.Xr zfs 1M .
+.It Fl n
Displays the configuration that would be used without actually creating the
pool. The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
device sharing.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-d\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Do not enable any features on the new pool. Individual features can be enabled
-by setting their corresponding properties to \fBenabled\fR with the \fB-o\fR
-option. See \fBzpool-features\fR(5) for details about feature properties.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR [\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR] ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Sets the given pool properties. See the "Properties" section for a list of
-valid properties that can be set.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-O\fR \fIfile-system-property=value\fR\fR
-.ad
-.br
-.na
-\fB[\fB-O\fR \fIfile-system-property=value\fR] ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
+Sets the given pool properties. See the
+.Sx Properties
+section for a list of valid properties that can be set.
+.It Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the given file system properties in the root file system of the pool. See
-the "Properties" section of \fBzfs\fR(1M) for a list of valid properties that
-can be set.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Equivalent to "-o cachefile=none,altroot=\fIroot\fR"
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-m\fR \fImountpoint\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Sets the mount point for the root dataset. The default mount point is
-"/\fIpool\fR" or "\fBaltroot\fR/\fIpool\fR" if \fBaltroot\fR is specified. The
-mount point must be an absolute path, "\fBlegacy\fR", or "\fBnone\fR". For more
-information on dataset mount points, see \fBzfs\fR(1M).
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool destroy\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+the
+.Sx Properties
+section of
+.Xr zfs 1M
+for a list of valid properties that can be set.
+.It Fl R Ar root
+Equivalent to
+.Fl o Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Sy none Fl o Sy altroot Ns = Ns Ar root
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm destroy
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool
+.Xc
Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This command
tries to unmount any active datasets before destroying the pool.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl f
Forces any active datasets contained within the pool to be unmounted.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool detach\fR \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Detaches \fIdevice\fR from a mirror. The operation is refused if there are no
-other valid replicas of the data.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool export\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm detach
+.Ar pool device
+.Xc
+Detaches
+.Ar device
+from a mirror. The operation is refused if there are no other valid replicas of
+the data.
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm export
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool Ns ...
+.Xc
Exports the given pools from the system. All devices are marked as exported,
but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The devices can be moved
-between systems (even those of different endianness) and imported as long as a
-sufficient number of devices are present.
-.sp
+between systems
+.Pq even those of different endianness
+and imported as long as a sufficient number of devices are present.
+.Pp
Before exporting the pool, all datasets within the pool are unmounted. A pool
can not be exported if it has a shared spare that is currently being used.
-.sp
-For pools to be portable, you must give the \fBzpool\fR command whole disks,
-not just slices, so that \fBZFS\fR can label the disks with portable \fBEFI\fR
-labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of different endianness will not
-recognize the disks.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the "\fBunmount -f\fR" command.
-.sp
+.Pp
+For pools to be portable, you must give the
+.Nm
+command whole disks, not just slices, so that ZFS can label the disks with
+portable EFI labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of different
+endianness will not recognize the disks.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl f
+Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the
+.Nm unmount Fl f
+command.
+.Pp
This command will forcefully export the pool even if it has a shared spare that
is currently being used. This may lead to potential data corruption.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool get\fR [\fB-Hp\fR] [\fB-o \fR\fIfield\fR[,...]] "\fIall\fR" | \fIproperty\fR[,...]
-\fIpool\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Retrieves the given list of properties (or all properties if "\fBall\fR" is
-used) for the specified storage pool(s). These properties are displayed with
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm get
+.Op Fl Hp
+.Op Fl o Ar field Ns Oo , Ns Ar field Oc Ns ...
+.Sy all Ns | Ns Ar property Ns Oo , Ns Ar property Oc Ns ...
+.Ar pool Ns ...
+.Xc
+Retrieves the given list of properties
+.Po
+or all properties if
+.Sy all
+is used
+.Pc
+for the specified storage pool(s). These properties are displayed with
the following fields:
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
+.Bd -literal
name Name of storage pool
property Property name
value Property value
source Property source, either 'default' or 'local'.
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-See the "Properties" section for more information on the available pool
-properties.
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-H\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.Ed
+.Pp
+See the
+.Sx Properties
+section for more information on the available pool properties.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl H
Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
instead of arbitrary space.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-p\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Display numbers in parsable (exact) values.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fIfield\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-A comma-separated list of columns to display. \fBname,property,value,source\fR
+.It Fl o Ar field
+A comma-separated list of columns to display.
+.Sy name Ns , Ns Sy property Ns , Ns Sy value Ns , Ns Sy source
is the default value.
-.RE
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool history\fR [\fB-il\fR] [\fIpool\fR] ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Displays the command history of the specified pools or all pools if no pool is
+.It Fl p
+Display numbers in parsable (exact) values.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm history
+.Op Fl il
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Xc
+Displays the command history of the specified pool(s) or all pools if no pool is
specified.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-i\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Displays internally logged \fBZFS\fR events in addition to user initiated
-events.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-l\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl i
+Displays internally logged ZFS events in addition to user initiated events.
+.It Fl l
Displays log records in long format, which in addition to standard format
includes, the user name, the hostname, and the zone in which the operation was
performed.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool import\fR [\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR | \fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR]
-[\fB-D\fR]\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Lists pools available to import. If the \fB-d\fR option is not specified, this
-command searches for devices in "/dev/dsk". The \fB-d\fR option can be
-specified multiple times, and all directories are searched. If the device
-appears to be part of an exported pool, this command displays a summary of the
-pool with the name of the pool, a numeric identifier, as well as the \fIvdev\fR
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm import
+.Op Fl D
+.Op Fl d Ar dir
+.Xc
+Lists pools available to import. If the
+.Fl d
+option is not specified, this command searches for devices in
+.Pa /dev/dsk .
+The
+.Fl d
+option can be specified multiple times, and all directories are searched. If the
+device appears to be part of an exported pool, this command displays a summary
+of the pool with the name of the pool, a numeric identifier, as well as the vdev
layout and current health of the device for each device or file. Destroyed
-pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the "\fBzpool destroy\fR"
-command, are not listed unless the \fB-D\fR option is specified.
-.sp
+pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
+.Nm zpool Cm destroy
+command, are not listed unless the
+.Fl D
+option is specified.
+.Pp
The numeric identifier is unique, and can be used instead of the pool name when
multiple exported pools of the same name are available.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 16n
-Reads configuration from the given \fBcachefile\fR that was created with the
-"\fBcachefile\fR" pool property. This \fBcachefile\fR is used instead of
-searching for devices.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 16n
-Searches for devices or files in \fIdir\fR. The \fB-d\fR option can be
-specified multiple times.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-D\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 16n
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl c Ar cachefile
+Reads configuration from the given
+.Ar cachefile
+that was created with the
+.Sy cachefile
+pool property. This
+.Ar cachefile
+is used instead of searching for devices.
+.It Fl d Ar dir
+Searches for devices or files in
+.Ar dir .
+The
+.Fl d
+option can be specified multiple times.
+.It Fl D
Lists destroyed pools only.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool import\fR [\fB-o\fR \fImntopts\fR] [ \fB-o\fR
-\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR] ... [\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR | \fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR]
-[\fB-D\fR] [\fB-f\fR] [\fB-m\fR] [\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR] [\fB-F\fR [\fB-n\fR]] \fB-a\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm import
+.Fl a
+.Op Fl DfmN
+.Op Fl F Op Fl n
+.Op Fl c Ar cachefile Ns | Ns Fl d Ar dir
+.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
+.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl R Ar root
+.Xc
Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical to the previous
-command, except that all pools with a sufficient number of devices available
-are imported. Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
-"\fBzpool destroy\fR" command, will not be imported unless the \fB-D\fR option
-is specified.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fImntopts\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See \fBzfs\fR(1M) for a description of dataset properties and mount
-options.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the "Properties" section
-for more information on the available pool properties.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Reads configuration from the given \fBcachefile\fR that was created with the
-"\fBcachefile\fR" pool property. This \fBcachefile\fR is used instead of
-searching for devices.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Searches for devices or files in \fIdir\fR. The \fB-d\fR option can be
-specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the \fB-c\fR option.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-D\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Imports destroyed pools only. The \fB-f\fR option is also required.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-F\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an importable
-state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools can be recovered
-by using this option. If successful, the data from the discarded transactions is
-irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the pool is importable or already
-imported.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-a\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
+command, except that all pools with a sufficient number of devices available are
+imported. Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
+.Nm zpool Cm destroy
+command, will not be imported unless the
+.Fl D
+option is specified.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl a
Searches for and imports all pools found.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-m\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
+.It Fl c Ar cachefile
+Reads configuration from the given
+.Ar cachefile
+that was created with the
+.Sy cachefile
+pool property. This
+.Ar cachefile
+is used instead of searching for devices.
+.It Fl d Ar dir
+Searches for devices or files in
+.Ar dir .
+The
+.Fl d
+option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
+.Fl c
+option.
+.It Fl D
+Imports destroyed pools only. The
+.Fl f
+option is also required.
+.It Fl f
+Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
+.It Fl F
+Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
+importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
+can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
+discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the pool
+is importable or already imported.
+.It Fl m
Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Sets the "\fBcachefile\fR" property to "\fBnone\fR" and the "\fIaltroot\fR"
-property to "\fIroot\fR".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-N\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
+.It Fl n
+Used with the
+.Fl F
+recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made importable
+again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more details about
+pool recovery mode, see the
+.Fl F
+option, above.
+.It Fl N
Import the pool without mounting any file systems.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-n\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 21n
-Used with the \fB-F\fR recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made
-importable again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more details about pool
-recovery mode, see the \fB-F\fR option, above.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool import\fR [\fB-o\fR \fImntopts\fR] [ \fB-o\fR
-\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR] ... [\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR | \fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR]
-[\fB-D\fR] [\fB-f\fR] [\fB-m\fR] [\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR] [\fB-F\fR [\fB-n\fR]] \fIpool\fR | \fIid\fR
-[\fInewpool\fR]\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Fl o Ar mntopts
+Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
+pool. See
+.Xr zfs 1M
+for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
+.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
+Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
+.Sx Properties
+section for more information on the available pool properties.
+.It Fl R Ar root
+Sets the
+.Sy cachefile
+property to
+.Sy none
+and the
+.Sy altroot
+property to
+.Ar root .
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm import
+.Op Fl Dfm
+.Op Fl F Op Fl n
+.Op Fl c Ar cachefile Ns | Ns Fl d Ar dir
+.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
+.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl R Ar root
+.Ar pool Ns | Ns Ar id
+.Op Ar newpool
+.Xc
Imports a specific pool. A pool can be identified by its name or the numeric
-identifier. If \fInewpool\fR is specified, the pool is imported using the name
-\fInewpool\fR. Otherwise, it is imported with the same name as its exported
-name.
-.sp
-If a device is removed from a system without running "\fBzpool export\fR"
+identifier. If
+.Ar newpool
+is specified, the pool is imported using the name
+.Ar newpool .
+Otherwise, it is imported with the same name as its exported name.
+.Pp
+If a device is removed from a system without running
+.Nm zpool Cm export
first, the device appears as potentially active. It cannot be determined if
this was a failed export, or whether the device is really in use from another
-host. To import a pool in this state, the \fB-f\fR option is required.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fImntopts\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See \fBzfs\fR(1M) for a description of dataset properties and mount
-options.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fIproperty=value\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the "Properties" section
-for more information on the available pool properties.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-c\fR \fIcachefile\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Reads configuration from the given \fBcachefile\fR that was created with the
-"\fBcachefile\fR" pool property. This \fBcachefile\fR is used instead of
-searching for devices.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-d\fR \fIdir\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Searches for devices or files in \fIdir\fR. The \fB-d\fR option can be
-specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the \fB-c\fR option.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-D\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Imports destroyed pool. The \fB-f\fR option is also required.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+host. To import a pool in this state, the
+.Fl f
+option is required.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl c Ar cachefile
+Reads configuration from the given
+.Ar cachefile
+that was created with the
+.Sy cachefile
+pool property. This
+.Ar cachefile
+is used instead of searching for devices.
+.It Fl d Ar dir
+Searches for devices or files in
+.Ar dir .
+The
+.Fl d
+option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
+.Fl c
+option.
+.It Fl D
+Imports destroyed pool. The
+.Fl f
+option is also required.
+.It Fl f
Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-F\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an importable
-state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools can be recovered
-by using this option. If successful, the data from the discarded transactions is
-irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the pool is importable or already imported.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-R\fR \fIroot\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Sets the "\fBcachefile\fR" property to "\fBnone\fR" and the "\fIaltroot\fR"
-property to "\fIroot\fR".
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-n\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Used with the \fB-F\fR recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made
-importable again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more details about pool
-recovery mode, see the \fB-F\fR option, above.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-m\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Fl F
+Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
+importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
+can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
+discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the pool
+is importable or already imported.
+.It Fl m
Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool iostat\fR [\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR] [\fB-v\fR] [\fIpool\fR] ...
-[\fIinterval\fR[\fIcount\fR]]\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Displays \fBI/O\fR statistics for the given pools. When given an interval, the
-statistics are printed every \fIinterval\fR seconds until \fBCtrl-C\fR is
-pressed. If no \fIpools\fR are specified, statistics for every pool in the
-system is shown. If \fIcount\fR is specified, the command exits after
-\fIcount\fR reports are printed.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Display a time stamp.
-.sp
-Specify \fBu\fR for a printed representation of the internal representation of
-time. See \fBtime\fR(2). Specify \fBd\fR for standard date format. See
-\fBdate\fR(1).
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-v\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual \fIvdevs\fR within
-the pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool list\fR [\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR] [\fB-Hv\fR] [\fB-o\fR \fIprops\fR[,...]] [\fIpool\fR] ...
-[\fIinterval\fR[\fIcount\fR]]\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage. If no \fIpools\fR are specified,
-all pools in the system are listed. When given an \fIinterval\fR, the information is printed every
-\fIinterval\fR seconds until \fBCtrl-C\fR is pressed. If \fIcount\fR is specified, the command exits
-after \fIcount\fR reports are printed.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Display a time stamp.
-.sp
-Specify \fBu\fR for a printed representation of the internal representation of
-time. See \fBtime\fR(2). Specify \fBd\fR for standard date format. See
-\fBdate\fR(1).
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-H\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
+.It Fl n
+Used with the
+.Fl F
+recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made importable
+again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more details about
+pool recovery mode, see the
+.Fl F
+option, above.
+.It Fl o Ar mntopts
+Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
+pool. See
+.Xr zfs 1M
+for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
+.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
+Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
+.Sx Properties
+section for more information on the available pool properties.
+.It Fl R Ar root
+Sets the
+.Sy cachefile
+property to
+.Sy none
+and the
+.Sy altroot
+property to
+.Ar root .
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm iostat
+.Op Fl v
+.Op Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
+.Xc
+Displays I/O statistics for the given pools. When given an
+.Ar interval ,
+the statistics are printed every
+.Ar interval
+seconds until ^C is pressed. If no
+.Ar pool Ns s
+are specified, statistics for every pool in the system is shown. If
+.Ar count
+is specified, the command exits after
+.Ar count
+reports are printed.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+Display a time stamp. Specify
+.Sy u
+for a printed representation of the internal representation of time. See
+.Xr time 2 .
+Specify
+.Sy d
+for standard date format. See
+.Xr date 1 .
+.It Fl v
+Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the
+pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm list
+.Op Fl Hpv
+.Op Fl o Ar property Ns Oo , Ns Ar property Oc Ns ...
+.Op Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
+.Xc
+Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage. If no
+.Ar pool Ns s
+are specified, all pools in the system are listed. When given an
+.Ar interval ,
+the information is printed every
+.Ar interval
+seconds until ^C is pressed. If
+.Ar count
+is specified, the command exits after
+.Ar count
+reports are printed.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl H
Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
instead of arbitrary space.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-p\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Display numbers in parsable (exact) values.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-o\fR \fIprops\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Comma-separated list of properties to display. See the "Properties" section for
-a list of valid properties. The default list is "name, size, used, available,
-fragmentation, expandsize, capacity, dedupratio, health, altroot"
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-v\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual \fIvdevs\fR within
-the pool, in addition to the pool-wise statistics.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool offline\fR [\fB-t\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Takes the specified physical device offline. While the \fIdevice\fR is offline,
-no attempt is made to read or write to the device.
-.sp
-This command is not applicable to spares or cache devices.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-t\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
+.It Fl o Ar property
+Comma-separated list of properties to display. See the
+.Sx Properties
+section for a list of valid properties. The default list is
+.Sy name , size , used , available , fragmentation , expandsize , capacity ,
+.Sy dedupratio , health , altroot .
+.It Fl p
+Display numbers in parsable
+.Pq exact
+values.
+.It Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+Display a time stamp. Specify
+.Fl u
+for a printed representation of the internal representation of time. See
+.Xr time 2 .
+Specify
+.Fl d
+for standard date format. See
+.Xr date 1 .
+.It Fl v
+Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the
+pool, in addition to the pool-wise statistics.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm offline
+.Op Fl t
+.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
+.Xc
+Takes the specified physical device offline. While the
+.Ar device
+is offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device. This command is
+not applicable to spares.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl t
Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical device reverts to its previous
state.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool online\fR [\fB-e\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Brings the specified physical device online.
-.sp
-This command is not applicable to spares or cache devices.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-e\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm online
+.Op Fl e
+.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
+.Xc
+Brings the specified physical device online. This command is not applicable to
+spares.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl e
Expand the device to use all available space. If the device is part of a mirror
-or \fBraidz\fR then all devices must be expanded before the new space will
-become available to the pool.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool reguid\fR \fIpool\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Generates a new unique identifier for the pool. You must ensure that all
-devices in this pool are online and healthy before performing this action.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool reopen\fR \fIpool\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+or raidz then all devices must be expanded before the new space will become
+available to the pool.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm reguid
+.Ar pool
+.Xc
+Generates a new unique identifier for the pool. You must ensure that all devices
+in this pool are online and healthy before performing this action.
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm reopen
+.Ar pool
+.Xc
Reopen all the vdevs associated with the pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool remove\fR \fIpool\fR \fIdevice\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Removes the specified device from the pool. This command currently only
-supports removing hot spares, cache, and log devices. A mirrored log device can
-be removed by specifying the top-level mirror for the log. Non-log devices that
-are part of a mirrored configuration can be removed using the \fBzpool
-detach\fR command. Non-redundant and \fBraidz\fR devices cannot be removed from
-a pool.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool replace\fR [\fB-f\fR] \fIpool\fR \fIold_device\fR
-[\fInew_device\fR]\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Replaces \fIold_device\fR with \fInew_device\fR. This is equivalent to
-attaching \fInew_device\fR, waiting for it to resilver, and then detaching
-\fIold_device\fR.
-.sp
-The size of \fInew_device\fR must be greater than or equal to the minimum size
-of all the devices in a mirror or \fBraidz\fR configuration.
-.sp
-\fInew_device\fR is required if the pool is not redundant. If \fInew_device\fR
-is not specified, it defaults to \fIold_device\fR. This form of replacement is
-useful after an existing disk has failed and has been physically replaced. In
-this case, the new disk may have the same \fB/dev/dsk\fR path as the old
-device, even though it is actually a different disk. \fBZFS\fR recognizes this.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-f\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Forces use of \fInew_device\fR, even if its appears to be in use. Not all
-devices can be overridden in this manner.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool scrub\fR [\fB-s\fR] \fIpool\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm remove
+.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
+.Xc
+Removes the specified device from the pool. This command currently only supports
+removing hot spares, cache, and log devices. A mirrored log device can be
+removed by specifying the top-level mirror for the log. Non-log devices that are
+part of a mirrored configuration can be removed using the
+.Nm zpool Cm detach
+command. Non-redundant and raidz devices cannot be removed from a pool.
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm replace
+.Op Fl f
+.Ar pool Ar device Op Ar new_device
+.Xc
+Replaces
+.Ar old_device
+with
+.Ar new_device .
+This is equivalent to attaching
+.Ar new_device ,
+waiting for it to resilver, and then detaching
+.Ar old_device .
+.Pp
+The size of
+.Ar new_device
+must be greater than or equal to the minimum size of all the devices in a mirror
+or raidz configuration.
+.Pp
+.Ar new_device
+is required if the pool is not redundant. If
+.Ar new_device
+is not specified, it defaults to
+.Ar old_device .
+This form of replacement is useful after an existing disk has failed and has
+been physically replaced. In this case, the new disk may have the same
+.Pa /dev/dsk
+path as the old device, even though it is actually a different disk. ZFS
+recognizes this.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl f
+Forces use of
+.Ar new_device ,
+even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
+manner.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm scrub
+.Op Fl s
+.Ar pool Ns ...
+.Xc
Begins a scrub. The scrub examines all data in the specified pools to verify
-that it checksums correctly. For replicated (mirror or \fBraidz\fR) devices,
-\fBZFS\fR automatically repairs any damage discovered during the scrub. The
-"\fBzpool status\fR" command reports the progress of the scrub and summarizes
-the results of the scrub upon completion.
-.sp
+that it checksums correctly. For replicated
+.Pq mirror or raidz
+devices, ZFS automatically repairs any damage discovered during the scrub. The
+.Nm zpool Cm status
+command reports the progress of the scrub and summarizes the results of the
+scrub upon completion.
+.Pp
Scrubbing and resilvering are very similar operations. The difference is that
-resilvering only examines data that \fBZFS\fR knows to be out of date (for
-example, when attaching a new device to a mirror or replacing an existing
-device), whereas scrubbing examines all data to discover silent errors due to
-hardware faults or disk failure.
-.sp
-Because scrubbing and resilvering are \fBI/O\fR-intensive operations, \fBZFS\fR
-only allows one at a time. If a scrub is already in progress, the "\fBzpool
-scrub\fR" command terminates it and starts a new scrub. If a resilver is in
-progress, \fBZFS\fR does not allow a scrub to be started until the resilver
-completes.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-s\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
+resilvering only examines data that ZFS knows to be out of date
+.Po
+for example, when attaching a new device to a mirror or replacing an existing
+device
+.Pc ,
+whereas scrubbing examines all data to discover silent errors due to hardware
+faults or disk failure.
+.Pp
+Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS only allows
+one at a time. If a scrub is already in progress, the
+.Nm zpool Cm scrub
+command terminates it and starts a new scrub. If a resilver is in progress, ZFS
+does not allow a scrub to be started until the resilver completes.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl s
Stop scrubbing.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool set\fR \fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR \fIpool\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Sets the given property on the specified pool. See the "Properties" section for
-more information on what properties can be set and acceptable values.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fBzpool status\fR [\fB-xvD\fR] [\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR ] [\fIpool\fR] ... [\fIinterval\fR [\fIcount\fR]]
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Displays the detailed health status for the given pools. If no \fIpool\fR is
-specified, then the status of each pool in the system is displayed. For more
-information on pool and device health, see the "Device Failure and Recovery"
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm set
+.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
+.Ar pool
+.Xc
+Sets the given property on the specified pool. See the
+.Sx Properties
+section for more information on what properties can be set and acceptable
+values.
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm status
+.Op Fl Dvx
+.Op Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
+.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
+.Xc
+Displays the detailed health status for the given pools. If no
+.Ar pool
+is specified, then the status of each pool in the system is displayed. For more
+information on pool and device health, see the
+.Sx Device Failure and Recovery
section.
-.sp
+.Pp
If a scrub or resilver is in progress, this command reports the percentage done
and the estimated time to completion. Both of these are only approximate,
-because the amount of data in the pool and the other workloads on the system
-can change.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-x\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Only display status for pools that are exhibiting errors or are otherwise
-unavailable. Warnings about pools not using the latest on-disk format will
-not be included.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-v\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
+because the amount of data in the pool and the other workloads on the system can
+change.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl D
+Display a histogram of deduplication statistics, showing the allocated
+.Pq physically present on disk
+and referenced
+.Pq logically referenced in the pool
+block counts and sizes by reference count.
+.It Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
+Display a time stamp. Specify
+.Fl u
+for a printed representation of the internal representation of time. See
+.Xr time 2 .
+Specify
+.Fl d
+for standard date format. See
+.Xr date 1 .
+.It Fl v
Displays verbose data error information, printing out a complete list of all
data errors since the last complete pool scrub.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-D\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 6n
-Display a histogram of deduplication statistics, showing the allocated (physically present on disk) and
-referenced (logically referenced in the pool) block counts and sizes by reference count.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-T\fR \fBu\fR | \fBd\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 12n
-Display a time stamp.
-.sp
-Specify \fBu\fR for a printed representation of the internal representation of
-time. See \fBtime\fR(2). Specify \fBd\fR for standard date format. See
-\fBdate\fR(1).
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool upgrade\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
+.It Fl x
+Only display status for pools that are exhibiting errors or are otherwise
+unavailable. Warnings about pools not using the latest on-disk format will not
+be included.
+.El
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm upgrade
+.Xc
Displays pools which do not have all supported features enabled and pools
formatted using a legacy ZFS version number. These pools can continue to be
-used, but some features may not be available. Use "\fBzpool upgrade -a\fR"
+used, but some features may not be available. Use
+.Nm zpool Cm upgrade Fl a
to enable all features on all pools.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool upgrade\fR \fB-v\fR\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Displays legacy \fBZFS\fR versions supported by the current software. See
-\fBzpool-features\fR(5) for a description of feature flags features supported
-by the current software.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fBzpool upgrade\fR [\fB-V\fR \fIversion\fR] \fB-a\fR | \fIpool\fR ...\fR
-.ad
-.sp .6
-.RS 4n
-Enables all supported features on the given pool. Once this is done, the
-pool will no longer be accessible on systems that do not support feature
-flags. See \fBzpool-features\fR(5) for details on compatibility with systems
-that support feature flags, but do not support all features enabled on the
-pool.
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-a\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 14n
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm upgrade
+.Fl v
+.Xc
+Displays legacy ZFS versions supported by the current software. See
+.Xr zpool-features 5
+for a description of feature flags features supported by the current software.
+.It Xo
+.Nm
+.Cm upgrade
+.Op Fl V Ar version
+.Fl a Ns | Ns Ar pool Ns ...
+.Xc
+Enables all supported features on the given pool. Once this is done, the pool
+will no longer be accessible on systems that do not support feature flags. See
+.Xr zpool-features 5
+for details on compatibility with systems that support feature flags, but do not
+support all features enabled on the pool.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl a
Enables all supported features on all pools.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB-V\fR \fIversion\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 14n
-Upgrade to the specified legacy version. If the \fB-V\fR flag is specified, no
-features will be enabled on the pool. This option can only be used to increase
-the version number up to the last supported legacy version number.
-.RE
-
-.RE
-
-.SH EXAMPLES
-.LP
-\fBExample 1 \fRCreating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
-.sp
-.LP
-The following command creates a pool with a single \fBraidz\fR root \fIvdev\fR
-that consists of six disks.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create tank raidz c0t0d0 c0t1d0 c0t2d0 c0t3d0 c0t4d0 c0t5d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 2 \fRCreating a Mirrored Storage Pool
-.sp
-.LP
+.It Fl V Ar version
+Upgrade to the specified legacy version. If the
+.Fl V
+flag is specified, no features will be enabled on the pool. This option can only
+be used to increase the version number up to the last supported legacy version
+number.
+.El
+.El
+.Sh EXIT STATUS
+The following exit values are returned:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy 0
+Successful completion.
+.It Sy 1
+An error occurred.
+.It Sy 2
+Invalid command line options were specified.
+.El
+.Sh EXAMPLES
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Sy Example 1 No Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
+The following command creates a pool with a single raidz root vdev that
+consists of six disks.
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create tank raidz c0t0d0 c0t1d0 c0t2d0 c0t3d0 c0t4d0 c0t5d0
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 2 No Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool
The following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each mirror
contains two disks.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c0t2d0 c0t3d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 3 \fRCreating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Slices
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c0t2d0 c0t3d0
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 3 No Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Slices
The following command creates an unmirrored pool using two disk slices.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create tank /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s4\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 4 \fRCreating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Files
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create tank /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s4
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 4 No Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Files
The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files. While not
recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental purposes.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 5 \fRAdding a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool
-.sp
-.LP
-The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool "\fItank\fR",
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 5 No Adding a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool
+The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool
+.Em tank ,
assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors. The additional space
is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool add tank mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 6 \fRListing Available ZFS Storage Pools
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool add tank mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 6 No Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools
The following command lists all available pools on the system. In this case,
-the pool \fIzion\fR is faulted due to a missing device.
-
-.sp
-.LP
-The results from this command are similar to the following:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool list\fR
+the pool
+.Em zion
+is faulted due to a missing device. The results from this command are similar
+to the following:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool list
NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE FRAG EXPANDSZ CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
rpool 19.9G 8.43G 11.4G 33% - 42% 1.00x ONLINE -
tank 61.5G 20.0G 41.5G 48% - 32% 1.00x ONLINE -
zion - - - - - - - FAULTED -
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 7 \fRDestroying a ZFS Storage Pool
-.sp
-.LP
-The following command destroys the pool "\fItank\fR" and any datasets contained
-within.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool destroy -f tank\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 8 \fRExporting a ZFS Storage Pool
-.sp
-.LP
-The following command exports the devices in pool \fItank\fR so that they can
-be relocated or later imported.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool export tank\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 9 \fRImporting a ZFS Storage Pool
-.sp
-.LP
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 7 No Destroying a ZFS Storage Pool
+The following command destroys the pool
+.Em tank
+and any datasets contained within.
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool destroy -f tank
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 8 No Exporting a ZFS Storage Pool
+The following command exports the devices in pool
+.Em tank
+so that they can be relocated or later imported.
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool export tank
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 9 No Importing a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command displays available pools, and then imports the pool
-"tank" for use on the system.
-
-.sp
-.LP
-The results from this command are similar to the following:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool import\fR
+.Em tank
+for use on the system. The results from this command are similar to the
+following:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool import
pool: tank
id: 15451357997522795478
state: ONLINE
@@ -2108,130 +1495,63 @@ config:
c1t2d0 ONLINE
c1t3d0 ONLINE
-# \fBzpool import tank\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 10 \fRUpgrading All ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version
-.sp
-.LP
+# zpool import tank
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 10 No Upgrading All ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version
The following command upgrades all ZFS Storage pools to the current version of
the software.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool upgrade -a\fR
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool upgrade -a
This system is currently running ZFS version 2.
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 11 \fRManaging Hot Spares
-.sp
-.LP
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 11 No Managing Hot Spares
The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 spare c0t2d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 spare c0t2d0
+.Ed
+.Pp
If one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the degraded
state. The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool replace tank c0t0d0 c0t3d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool replace tank c0t0d0 c0t3d0
+.Ed
+.Pp
Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is automatically removed and is
made available should another device fails. The hot spare can be permanently
removed from the pool using the following command:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool remove tank c0t2d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 12 \fRCreating a ZFS Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool remove tank c0t2d0
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 12 No Creating a ZFS Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs
The following command creates a ZFS storage pool consisting of two, two-way
mirrors and mirrored log devices:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool create pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 mirror c2d0 c3d0 log mirror \e
- c4d0 c5d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 13 \fRAdding Cache Devices to a ZFS Pool
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool create pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 mirror c2d0 c3d0 log mirror \e
+ c4d0 c5d0
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 13 No Adding Cache Devices to a ZFS Pool
The following command adds two disks for use as cache devices to a ZFS storage
pool:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool add pool cache c2d0 c3d0\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool add pool cache c2d0 c3d0
+.Ed
+.Pp
Once added, the cache devices gradually fill with content from main memory.
Depending on the size of your cache devices, it could take over an hour for
-them to fill. Capacity and reads can be monitored using the \fBiostat\fR option
-as follows:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool iostat -v pool 5\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 14 \fRRemoving a Mirrored Log Device
-.sp
-.LP
-The following command removes the mirrored log device \fBmirror-2\fR.
-
-.sp
-.LP
+them to fill. Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
+.Cm iostat
+option as follows:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool iostat -v pool 5
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 14 No Removing a Mirrored Log Device
+The following command removes the mirrored log device
+.Sy mirror-2 .
Given this configuration:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
- pool: tank
- state: ONLINE
- scrub: none requested
+.Bd -literal
+ pool: tank
+ state: ONLINE
+ scrub: none requested
config:
NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM
@@ -2246,93 +1566,34 @@ config:
mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0
c4t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0
c4t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.LP
-The command to remove the mirrored log \fBmirror-2\fR is:
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool remove tank mirror-2\fR
-.fi
-.in -2
-.sp
-
-.LP
-\fBExample 15 \fRDisplaying expanded space on a device
-.sp
-.LP
-The following command dipslays the detailed information for the \fIdata\fR
-pool. This pool is comprised of a single \fIraidz\fR vdev where one of its
-devices increased its capacity by 10GB. In this example, the pool will not
-be able to utilized this extra capacity until all the devices under the
-\fIraidz\fR vdev have been expanded.
-
-.sp
-.in +2
-.nf
-# \fBzpool list -v data\fR
+.Ed
+.Pp
+The command to remove the mirrored log
+.Sy mirror-2
+is:
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool remove tank mirror-2
+.Ed
+.It Sy Example 15 No Displaying expanded space on a device
+The following command dipslays the detailed information for the pool
+.Em data .
+This pool is comprised of a single raidz vdev where one of its devices
+increased its capacity by 10GB. In this example, the pool will not be able to
+utilize this extra capacity until all the devices under the raidz vdev have
+been expanded.
+.Bd -literal
+# zpool list -v data
NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE FRAG EXPANDSZ CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
data 23.9G 14.6G 9.30G 48% - 61% 1.00x ONLINE -
raidz1 23.9G 14.6G 9.30G 48% -
c1t1d0 - - - - -
c1t2d0 - - - - 10G
c1t3d0 - - - - -
-.fi
-.in -2
-
-.SH EXIT STATUS
-.sp
-.LP
-The following exit values are returned:
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB0\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 5n
-Successful completion.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB1\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 5n
-An error occurred.
-.RE
-
-.sp
-.ne 2
-.na
-\fB\fB2\fR\fR
-.ad
-.RS 5n
-Invalid command line options were specified.
-.RE
-
-.SH ATTRIBUTES
-.sp
-.LP
-See \fBattributes\fR(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
-.sp
-
-.sp
-.TS
-box;
-c | c
-l | l .
-ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE
-_
-Interface Stability Evolving
-.TE
-
-.SH SEE ALSO
-.sp
-.LP
-\fBzfs\fR(1M), \fBzpool-features\fR(5), \fBattributes\fR(5)
+.Ed
+.El
+.Sh INTERFACE STABILITY
+.Sy Evolving
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr zfs 1M ,
+.Xr attributes 5 ,
+.Xr zpool-features 5