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authorAndriy Gapon <avg@FreeBSD.org>2017-09-01 17:37:10 +0000
committerAndriy Gapon <avg@FreeBSD.org>2017-09-01 17:37:10 +0000
commit1493f2aba32256a05805b46be5212fdf00d3258e (patch)
treea8a62119ed7924b46435742dcee69045b60668eb /man
parente9b6f3f506a5abcd99ed33f4a4fb249c65e09b5c (diff)
downloadsrc-1493f2aba32256a05805b46be5212fdf00d3258e.tar.gz
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8300 fix man page issues found by mandoc 1.14.1
illumos/illumos-gate@72d3dbb9ab4481606cb93caca98ba3b3a8eb6ce2 https://github.com/illumos/illumos-gate/commit/72d3dbb9ab4481606cb93caca98ba3b3a8eb6ce2 https://www.illumos.org/issues/8300 Prior to integrating the mdocml update to 1.14.1, fix issues found by new version, especially the "new sentence, new line" style rule. Reviewed by: Robert Mustacchi <rm@joyent.com> Reviewed by: Toomas Soome <tsoome@me.com> Approved by: Gordon Ross <gwr@nexenta.com> Author: Yuri Pankov <yuri.pankov@nexenta.com>
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/illumos/dist/; revision=323105
Diffstat (limited to 'man')
-rw-r--r--man/man1m/zfs.1m1404
-rw-r--r--man/man1m/zpool.1m843
-rw-r--r--man/man4/ctf.4513
3 files changed, 1612 insertions, 1148 deletions
diff --git a/man/man1m/zfs.1m b/man/man1m/zfs.1m
index 90ebe1263bc1..37df882728eb 100644
--- a/man/man1m/zfs.1m
+++ b/man/man1m/zfs.1m
@@ -270,7 +270,8 @@ The
.Nm
command configures ZFS datasets within a ZFS storage pool, as described in
.Xr zpool 1M .
-A dataset is identified by a unique path within the ZFS namespace. For example:
+A dataset is identified by a unique path within the ZFS namespace.
+For example:
.Bd -literal
pool/{filesystem,volume,snapshot}
.Ed
@@ -285,28 +286,30 @@ A dataset can be one of the following:
A ZFS dataset of type
.Sy filesystem
can be mounted within the standard system namespace and behaves like other file
-systems. While ZFS file systems are designed to be POSIX compliant, known issues
-exist that prevent compliance in some cases. Applications that depend on
-standards conformance might fail due to non-standard behavior when checking file
-system free space.
+systems.
+While ZFS file systems are designed to be POSIX compliant, known issues exist
+that prevent compliance in some cases.
+Applications that depend on standards conformance might fail due to non-standard
+behavior when checking file system free space.
.It Sy volume
-A logical volume exported as a raw or block device. This type of dataset should
-only be used under special circumstances. File systems are typically used in
-most environments.
+A logical volume exported as a raw or block device.
+This type of dataset should only be used under special circumstances.
+File systems are typically used in most environments.
.It Sy snapshot
-A read-only version of a file system or volume at a given point in time. It is
-specified as
+A read-only version of a file system or volume at a given point in time.
+It is specified as
.Ar filesystem Ns @ Ns Ar name
or
.Ar volume Ns @ Ns Ar name .
.El
.Ss ZFS File System Hierarchy
A ZFS storage pool is a logical collection of devices that provide space for
-datasets. A storage pool is also the root of the ZFS file system hierarchy.
+datasets.
+A storage pool is also the root of the ZFS file system hierarchy.
.Pp
The root of the pool can be accessed as a file system, such as mounting and
-unmounting, taking snapshots, and setting properties. The physical storage
-characteristics, however, are managed by the
+unmounting, taking snapshots, and setting properties.
+The physical storage characteristics, however, are managed by the
.Xr zpool 1M
command.
.Pp
@@ -314,31 +317,38 @@ See
.Xr zpool 1M
for more information on creating and administering pools.
.Ss Snapshots
-A snapshot is a read-only copy of a file system or volume. Snapshots can be
-created extremely quickly, and initially consume no additional space within the
-pool. As data within the active dataset changes, the snapshot consumes more
-data than would otherwise be shared with the active dataset.
+A snapshot is a read-only copy of a file system or volume.
+Snapshots can be created extremely quickly, and initially consume no additional
+space within the pool.
+As data within the active dataset changes, the snapshot consumes more data than
+would otherwise be shared with the active dataset.
.Pp
-Snapshots can have arbitrary names. Snapshots of volumes can be cloned or
-rolled back, but cannot be accessed independently.
+Snapshots can have arbitrary names.
+Snapshots of volumes can be cloned or rolled back, but cannot be accessed
+independently.
.Pp
File system snapshots can be accessed under the
.Pa .zfs/snapshot
-directory in the root of the file system. Snapshots are automatically mounted on
-demand and may be unmounted at regular intervals. The visibility of the
+directory in the root of the file system.
+Snapshots are automatically mounted on demand and may be unmounted at regular
+intervals.
+The visibility of the
.Pa .zfs
directory can be controlled by the
snapdir
property.
.Ss Clones
A clone is a writable volume or file system whose initial contents are the same
-as another dataset. As with snapshots, creating a clone is nearly instantaneous,
-and initially consumes no additional space.
-.Pp
-Clones can only be created from a snapshot. When a snapshot is cloned, it
-creates an implicit dependency between the parent and child. Even though the
-clone is created somewhere else in the dataset hierarchy, the original snapshot
-cannot be destroyed as long as a clone exists. The
+as another dataset.
+As with snapshots, creating a clone is nearly instantaneous, and initially
+consumes no additional space.
+.Pp
+Clones can only be created from a snapshot.
+When a snapshot is cloned, it creates an implicit dependency between the parent
+and child.
+Even though the clone is created somewhere else in the dataset hierarchy, the
+original snapshot cannot be destroyed as long as a clone exists.
+The
.Sy origin
property exposes this dependency, and the
.Cm destroy
@@ -346,28 +356,32 @@ command lists any such dependencies, if they exist.
.Pp
The clone parent-child dependency relationship can be reversed by using the
.Cm promote
-subcommand. This causes the
+subcommand.
+This causes the
.Qq origin
file system to become a clone of the specified file system, which makes it
possible to destroy the file system that the clone was created from.
.Ss "Mount Points"
Creating a ZFS file system is a simple operation, so the number of file systems
-per system is likely to be numerous. To cope with this, ZFS automatically
-manages mounting and unmounting file systems without the need to edit the
+per system is likely to be numerous.
+To cope with this, ZFS automatically manages mounting and unmounting file
+systems without the need to edit the
.Pa /etc/vfstab
-file. All automatically managed file systems are mounted by ZFS at boot time.
+file.
+All automatically managed file systems are mounted by ZFS at boot time.
.Pp
By default, file systems are mounted under
.Pa /path ,
where
.Ar path
-is the name of the file system in the ZFS namespace. Directories are created and
-destroyed as needed.
+is the name of the file system in the ZFS namespace.
+Directories are created and destroyed as needed.
.Pp
A file system can also have a mount point set in the
.Sy mountpoint
-property. This directory is created as needed, and ZFS automatically mounts the
-file system when the
+property.
+This directory is created as needed, and ZFS automatically mounts the file
+system when the
.Nm zfs Cm mount Fl a
command is invoked
.Po without editing
@@ -403,20 +417,25 @@ responsible for mounting and unmounting the file system.
.Ss "Zones"
A ZFS file system can be added to a non-global zone by using the
.Nm zonecfg Cm add Sy fs
-subcommand. A ZFS file system that is added to a non-global zone must have its
+subcommand.
+A ZFS file system that is added to a non-global zone must have its
.Sy mountpoint
property set to
.Sy legacy .
.Pp
The physical properties of an added file system are controlled by the global
-administrator. However, the zone administrator can create, modify, or destroy
-files within the added file system, depending on how the file system is mounted.
+administrator.
+However, the zone administrator can create, modify, or destroy files within the
+added file system, depending on how the file system is mounted.
.Pp
A dataset can also be delegated to a non-global zone by using the
.Nm zonecfg Cm add Sy dataset
-subcommand. You cannot delegate a dataset to one zone and the children of the
-same dataset to another zone. The zone administrator can change properties of
-the dataset or any of its children. However, the
+subcommand.
+You cannot delegate a dataset to one zone and the children of the same dataset
+to another zone.
+The zone administrator can change properties of the dataset or any of its
+children.
+However, the
.Sy quota ,
.Sy filesystem_limit
and
@@ -426,7 +445,8 @@ administrator.
.Pp
A ZFS volume can be added as a device to a non-global zone by using the
.Nm zonecfg Cm add Sy device
-subcommand. However, its physical properties can be modified only by the global
+subcommand.
+However, its physical properties can be modified only by the global
administrator.
.Pp
For more information about
@@ -436,32 +456,33 @@ syntax, see
.Pp
After a dataset is delegated to a non-global zone, the
.Sy zoned
-property is automatically set. A zoned file system cannot be mounted in the
-global zone, since the zone administrator might have to set the mount point to
-an unacceptable value.
+property is automatically set.
+A zoned file system cannot be mounted in the global zone, since the zone
+administrator might have to set the mount point to an unacceptable value.
.Pp
The global administrator can forcibly clear the
.Sy zoned
-property, though this should be done with extreme care. The global administrator
-should verify that all the mount points are acceptable before clearing the
-property.
+property, though this should be done with extreme care.
+The global administrator should verify that all the mount points are acceptable
+before clearing the property.
.Ss Native Properties
Properties are divided into two types, native properties and user-defined
.Po or
.Qq user
.Pc
-properties. Native properties either export internal statistics or control ZFS
-behavior. In addition, native properties are either editable or read-only. User
-properties have no effect on ZFS behavior, but you can use them to annotate
-datasets in a way that is meaningful in your environment. For more information
-about user properties, see the
+properties.
+Native properties either export internal statistics or control ZFS behavior.
+In addition, native properties are either editable or read-only.
+User properties have no effect on ZFS behavior, but you can use them to annotate
+datasets in a way that is meaningful in your environment.
+For more information about user properties, see the
.Sx User Properties
section, below.
.Pp
Every dataset has a set of properties that export statistics about the dataset
-as well as control various behaviors. Properties are inherited from the parent
-unless overridden by the child. Some properties apply only to certain types of
-datasets
+as well as control various behaviors.
+Properties are inherited from the parent unless overridden by the child.
+Some properties apply only to certain types of datasets
.Pq file systems, volumes, or snapshots .
.Pp
The values of numeric properties can be specified using human-readable suffixes
@@ -487,28 +508,33 @@ and
.Sy sharesmb .
.Pp
The following native properties consist of read-only statistics about the
-dataset. These properties can be neither set, nor inherited. Native properties
-apply to all dataset types unless otherwise noted.
+dataset.
+These properties can be neither set, nor inherited.
+Native properties apply to all dataset types unless otherwise noted.
.Bl -tag -width "usedbyrefreservation"
.It Sy available
The amount of space available to the dataset and all its children, assuming that
-there is no other activity in the pool. Because space is shared within a pool,
-availability can be limited by any number of factors, including physical pool
-size, quotas, reservations, or other datasets within the pool.
+there is no other activity in the pool.
+Because space is shared within a pool, availability can be limited by any number
+of factors, including physical pool size, quotas, reservations, or other
+datasets within the pool.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy avail .
.It Sy compressratio
For non-snapshots, the compression ratio achieved for the
.Sy used
-space of this dataset, expressed as a multiplier. The
+space of this dataset, expressed as a multiplier.
+The
.Sy used
property includes descendant datasets, and, for clones, does not include the
-space shared with the origin snapshot. For snapshots, the
+space shared with the origin snapshot.
+For snapshots, the
.Sy compressratio
is the same as the
.Sy refcompressratio
-property. Compression can be turned on by running:
+property.
+Compression can be turned on by running:
.Nm zfs Cm set Sy compression Ns = Ns Sy on Ar dataset .
The default value is
.Sy off .
@@ -516,9 +542,11 @@ The default value is
The time this dataset was created.
.It Sy clones
For snapshots, this property is a comma-separated list of filesystems or volumes
-which are clones of this snapshot. The clones'
+which are clones of this snapshot.
+The clones'
.Sy origin
-property is this snapshot. If the
+property is this snapshot.
+If the
.Sy clones
property is not empty, then this snapshot can not be destroyed
.Po even with the
@@ -532,50 +560,59 @@ This property is
.Sy on
if the snapshot has been marked for deferred destroy by using the
.Nm zfs Cm destroy Fl d
-command. Otherwise, the property is
+command.
+Otherwise, the property is
.Sy off .
.It Sy filesystem_count
The total number of filesystems and volumes that exist under this location in
-the dataset tree. This value is only available when a
+the dataset tree.
+This value is only available when a
.Sy filesystem_limit
has been set somewhere in the tree under which the dataset resides.
.It Sy logicalreferenced
The amount of space that is
.Qq logically
-accessible by this dataset. See the
+accessible by this dataset.
+See the
.Sy referenced
-property. The logical space ignores the effect of the
+property.
+The logical space ignores the effect of the
.Sy compression
and
.Sy copies
properties, giving a quantity closer to the amount of data that applications
-see. However, it does include space consumed by metadata.
+see.
+However, it does include space consumed by metadata.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy lrefer .
.It Sy logicalused
The amount of space that is
.Qq logically
-consumed by this dataset and all its descendents. See the
+consumed by this dataset and all its descendents.
+See the
.Sy used
-property. The logical space ignores the effect of the
+property.
+The logical space ignores the effect of the
.Sy compression
and
.Sy copies
properties, giving a quantity closer to the amount of data that applications
-see. However, it does include space consumed by metadata.
+see.
+However, it does include space consumed by metadata.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy lused .
.It Sy mounted
-For file systems, indicates whether the file system is currently mounted. This
-property can be either
+For file systems, indicates whether the file system is currently mounted.
+This property can be either
.Sy yes
or
.Sy no .
.It Sy origin
For cloned file systems or volumes, the snapshot from which the clone was
-created. See also the
+created.
+See also the
.Sy clones
property.
.It Sy receive_resume_token
@@ -587,21 +624,24 @@ to resume and complete the
.Sy zfs receive .
.It Sy referenced
The amount of data that is accessible by this dataset, which may or may not be
-shared with other datasets in the pool. When a snapshot or clone is created, it
-initially references the same amount of space as the file system or snapshot it
-was created from, since its contents are identical.
+shared with other datasets in the pool.
+When a snapshot or clone is created, it initially references the same amount of
+space as the file system or snapshot it was created from, since its contents are
+identical.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy refer .
.It Sy refcompressratio
The compression ratio achieved for the
.Sy referenced
-space of this dataset, expressed as a multiplier. See also the
+space of this dataset, expressed as a multiplier.
+See also the
.Sy compressratio
property.
.It Sy snapshot_count
The total number of snapshots that exist under this location in the dataset
-tree. This value is only available when a
+tree.
+This value is only available when a
.Sy snapshot_limit
has been set somewhere in the tree under which the dataset resides.
.It Sy type
@@ -611,35 +651,39 @@ The type of dataset:
or
.Sy snapshot .
.It Sy used
-The amount of space consumed by this dataset and all its descendents. This is
-the value that is checked against this dataset's quota and reservation. The
-space used does not include this dataset's reservation, but does take into
-account the reservations of any descendent datasets. The amount of space that a
-dataset consumes from its parent, as well as the amount of space that is freed
-if this dataset is recursively destroyed, is the greater of its space used and
-its reservation.
+The amount of space consumed by this dataset and all its descendents.
+This is the value that is checked against this dataset's quota and reservation.
+The space used does not include this dataset's reservation, but does take into
+account the reservations of any descendent datasets.
+The amount of space that a dataset consumes from its parent, as well as the
+amount of space that is freed if this dataset is recursively destroyed, is the
+greater of its space used and its reservation.
.Pp
The used space of a snapshot
.Po see the
.Sx Snapshots
section
.Pc
-is space that is referenced exclusively by this snapshot. If this snapshot is
-destroyed, the amount of
+is space that is referenced exclusively by this snapshot.
+If this snapshot is destroyed, the amount of
.Sy used
-space will be freed. Space that is shared by multiple snapshots isn't accounted
-for in this metric. When a snapshot is destroyed, space that was previously
-shared with this snapshot can become unique to snapshots adjacent to it, thus
-changing the used space of those snapshots. The used space of the latest
-snapshot can also be affected by changes in the file system. Note that the
+space will be freed.
+Space that is shared by multiple snapshots isn't accounted for in this metric.
+When a snapshot is destroyed, space that was previously shared with this
+snapshot can become unique to snapshots adjacent to it, thus changing the used
+space of those snapshots.
+The used space of the latest snapshot can also be affected by changes in the
+file system.
+Note that the
.Sy used
space of a snapshot is a subset of the
.Sy written
space of the snapshot.
.Pp
The amount of space used, available, or referenced does not take into account
-pending changes. Pending changes are generally accounted for within a few
-seconds. Committing a change to a disk using
+pending changes.
+Pending changes are generally accounted for within a few seconds.
+Committing a change to a disk using
.Xr fsync 3C
or
.Dv O_SYNC
@@ -650,7 +694,8 @@ The
.Sy usedby*
properties decompose the
.Sy used
-properties into the various reasons that space is used. Specifically,
+properties into the various reasons that space is used.
+Specifically,
.Sy used No =
.Sy usedbychildren No +
.Sy usedbydataset No +
@@ -677,14 +722,15 @@ set on this dataset, which would be freed if the
.Sy refreservation
was removed.
.It Sy usedbysnapshots
-The amount of space consumed by snapshots of this dataset. In particular, it is
-the amount of space that would be freed if all of this dataset's snapshots were
-destroyed. Note that this is not simply the sum of the snapshots'
+The amount of space consumed by snapshots of this dataset.
+In particular, it is the amount of space that would be freed if all of this
+dataset's snapshots were destroyed.
+Note that this is not simply the sum of the snapshots'
.Sy used
properties because space can be shared by multiple snapshots.
.It Sy userused Ns @ Ns Em user
-The amount of space consumed by the specified user in this dataset. Space is
-charged to the owner of each file, as displayed by
+The amount of space consumed by the specified user in this dataset.
+Space is charged to the owner of each file, as displayed by
.Nm ls Fl l .
The amount of space charged is displayed by
.Nm du
@@ -694,8 +740,8 @@ See the
.Nm zfs Cm userspace
subcommand for more information.
.Pp
-Unprivileged users can access only their own space usage. The root user, or a
-user who has been granted the
+Unprivileged users can access only their own space usage.
+The root user, or a user who has been granted the
.Sy userused
privilege with
.Nm zfs Cm allow ,
@@ -730,31 +776,34 @@ forms:
.Pc
.El
.It Sy userrefs
-This property is set to the number of user holds on this snapshot. User holds
-are set by using the
+This property is set to the number of user holds on this snapshot.
+User holds are set by using the
.Nm zfs Cm hold
command.
.It Sy groupused Ns @ Ns Em group
-The amount of space consumed by the specified group in this dataset. Space is
-charged to the group of each file, as displayed by
+The amount of space consumed by the specified group in this dataset.
+Space is charged to the group of each file, as displayed by
.Nm ls Fl l .
See the
.Sy userused Ns @ Ns Em user
property for more information.
.Pp
-Unprivileged users can only access their own groups' space usage. The root user,
-or a user who has been granted the
+Unprivileged users can only access their own groups' space usage.
+The root user, or a user who has been granted the
.Sy groupused
privilege with
.Nm zfs Cm allow ,
can access all groups' usage.
.It Sy volblocksize
-For volumes, specifies the block size of the volume. The
+For volumes, specifies the block size of the volume.
+The
.Sy blocksize
cannot be changed once the volume has been written, so it should be set at
-volume creation time. The default
+volume creation time.
+The default
.Sy blocksize
-for volumes is 8 Kbytes. Any power of 2 from 512 bytes to 128 Kbytes is valid.
+for volumes is 8 Kbytes.
+Any power of 2 from 512 bytes to 128 Kbytes is valid.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy volblock .
@@ -766,9 +815,9 @@ by this dataset, that was written since the previous snapshot
.It Sy written Ns @ Ns Em snapshot
The amount of
.Sy referenced
-space written to this dataset since the specified snapshot. This is the space
-that is referenced by this dataset but was not referenced by the specified
-snapshot.
+space written to this dataset since the specified snapshot.
+This is the space that is referenced by this dataset but was not referenced by
+the specified snapshot.
.Pp
The
.Em snapshot
@@ -777,7 +826,8 @@ may be specified as a short snapshot name
.Sy @
.Pc ,
in which case it will be interpreted as a snapshot in the same filesystem as
-this dataset. The
+this dataset.
+The
.Em snapshot
may be a full snapshot name
.Po Em filesystem Ns @ Ns Em snapshot Pc ,
@@ -854,7 +904,8 @@ non-trivial ACL, with entries in addition to those that represent the mode.
.Pp
.Xr chmod 2
is required to change the set user ID, set group ID, or sticky bit on a file or
-directory, as they do not have equivalent ACEs. In order to use
+directory, as they do not have equivalent ACEs.
+In order to use
.Xr chmod 2
on a file or directory with a non-trivial ACL when
.Sy aclmode
@@ -865,7 +916,8 @@ you must first remove all ACEs except for those that represent the current mode.
Controls whether the access time for files is updated when they are read.
Turning this property off avoids producing write traffic when reading files and
can result in significant performance gains, though it might confuse mailers
-and other similar utilities. The default value is
+and other similar utilities.
+The default value is
.Sy on .
.It Sy canmount Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off Ns | Ns Sy noauto
If this property is set to
@@ -880,10 +932,11 @@ property to
.Sy none ,
except that the dataset still has a normal
.Sy mountpoint
-property, which can be inherited. Setting this property to
+property, which can be inherited.
+Setting this property to
.Sy off
-allows datasets to be used solely as a mechanism to inherit properties. One
-example of setting
+allows datasets to be used solely as a mechanism to inherit properties.
+One example of setting
.Sy canmount Ns = Ns Sy off
is to have two datasets with the same
.Sy mountpoint ,
@@ -892,9 +945,9 @@ have different inherited characteristics.
.Pp
When set to
.Sy noauto ,
-a dataset can only be mounted and unmounted explicitly. The dataset is not
-mounted automatically when the dataset is created or imported, nor is it mounted
-by the
+a dataset can only be mounted and unmounted explicitly.
+The dataset is not mounted automatically when the dataset is created or
+imported, nor is it mounted by the
.Nm zfs Cm mount Fl a
command or unmounted by the
.Nm zfs Cm unmount Fl a
@@ -906,7 +959,8 @@ This property is not inherited.
.Sy fletcher4 Ns | Ns Sy sha256 Ns | Ns Sy noparity Ns | Ns
.Sy sha512 Ns | Ns Sy skein Ns | Ns Sy edonr
.Xc
-Controls the checksum used to verify data integrity. The default value is
+Controls the checksum used to verify data integrity.
+The default value is
.Sy on ,
which automatically selects an appropriate algorithm
.Po currently,
@@ -915,11 +969,13 @@ but this may change in future releases
.Pc .
The value
.Sy off
-disables integrity checking on user data. The value
+disables integrity checking on user data.
+The value
.Sy noparity
not only disables integrity but also disables maintaining parity for user data.
This setting is used internally by a dump device residing on a RAID-Z pool and
-should not be used by any other dataset. Disabling checksums is
+should not be used by any other dataset.
+Disabling checksums is
.Sy NOT
a recommended practice.
.Pp
@@ -928,8 +984,8 @@ The
.Sy skein ,
and
.Sy edonr
-checksum algorithms require enabling the appropriate features on the
-pool. Please see
+checksum algorithms require enabling the appropriate features on the pool.
+Please see
.Xr zpool-features 5
for more information on these algorithms.
.Pp
@@ -942,14 +998,15 @@ Controls the compression algorithm used for this dataset.
.Pp
Setting compression to
.Sy on
-indicates that the current default compression algorithm should be used. The
-default balances compression and decompression speed, with compression ratio and
-is expected to work well on a wide variety of workloads. Unlike all other
-settings for this property,
+indicates that the current default compression algorithm should be used.
+The default balances compression and decompression speed, with compression ratio
+and is expected to work well on a wide variety of workloads.
+Unlike all other settings for this property,
.Sy on
-does not select a fixed compression type. As new compression algorithms are
-added to ZFS and enabled on a pool, the default compression algorithm may
-change. The current default compression algorithm is either
+does not select a fixed compression type.
+As new compression algorithms are added to ZFS and enabled on a pool, the
+default compression algorithm may change.
+The current default compression algorithm is either
.Sy lzjb
or, if the
.Sy lz4_compress
@@ -960,8 +1017,9 @@ The
.Sy lz4
compression algorithm is a high-performance replacement for the
.Sy lzjb
-algorithm. It features significantly faster compression and decompression, as
-well as a moderately higher compression ratio than
+algorithm.
+It features significantly faster compression and decompression, as well as a
+moderately higher compression ratio than
.Sy lzjb ,
but can only be used on pools with the
.Sy lz4_compress
@@ -982,7 +1040,8 @@ The
.Sy gzip
compression algorithm uses the same compression as the
.Xr gzip 1
-command. You can specify the
+command.
+You can specify the
.Sy gzip
level by using the value
.Sy gzip- Ns Em N ,
@@ -1005,31 +1064,35 @@ The
compression algorithm compresses runs of zeros.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name
-\fBcompress\fR. Changing this property affects only newly-written data.
+.Sy compress .
+Changing this property affects only newly-written data.
.It Sy copies Ns = Ns Sy 1 Ns | Ns Sy 2 Ns | Ns Sy 3
-Controls the number of copies of data stored for this dataset. These copies are
-in addition to any redundancy provided by the pool, for example, mirroring or
-RAID-Z. The copies are stored on different disks, if possible. The space used
-by multiple copies is charged to the associated file and dataset, changing the
+Controls the number of copies of data stored for this dataset.
+These copies are in addition to any redundancy provided by the pool, for
+example, mirroring or RAID-Z.
+The copies are stored on different disks, if possible.
+The space used by multiple copies is charged to the associated file and dataset,
+changing the
.Sy used
property and counting against quotas and reservations.
.Pp
-Changing this property only affects newly-written data. Therefore, set this
-property at file system creation time by using the
+Changing this property only affects newly-written data.
+Therefore, set this property at file system creation time by using the
.Fl o Sy copies Ns = Ns Ar N
option.
.It Sy devices Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls whether device nodes can be opened on this file system. The default
-value is
+Controls whether device nodes can be opened on this file system.
+The default value is
.Sy on .
.It Sy exec Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls whether processes can be executed from within this file system. The
-default value is
+Controls whether processes can be executed from within this file system.
+The default value is
.Sy on .
.It Sy filesystem_limit Ns = Ns Em count Ns | Ns Sy none
Limits the number of filesystems and volumes that can exist under this point in
-the dataset tree. The limit is not enforced if the user is allowed to change
-the limit. Setting a
+the dataset tree.
+The limit is not enforced if the user is allowed to change the limit.
+Setting a
.Sy filesystem_limit
to
.Sy on
@@ -1037,33 +1100,40 @@ a descendent of a filesystem that already has a
.Sy filesystem_limit
does not override the ancestor's
.Sy filesystem_limit ,
-but rather imposes an additional limit. This feature must be enabled to be used
+but rather imposes an additional limit.
+This feature must be enabled to be used
.Po see
.Xr zpool-features 5
.Pc .
.It Sy mountpoint Ns = Ns Pa path Ns | Ns Sy none Ns | Ns Sy legacy
-Controls the mount point used for this file system. See the
+Controls the mount point used for this file system.
+See the
.Sx Mount Points
section for more information on how this property is used.
.Pp
When the
.Sy mountpoint
property is changed for a file system, the file system and any children that
-inherit the mount point are unmounted. If the new value is
+inherit the mount point are unmounted.
+If the new value is
.Sy legacy ,
-then they remain unmounted. Otherwise, they are automatically remounted in the
-new location if the property was previously
+then they remain unmounted.
+Otherwise, they are automatically remounted in the new location if the property
+was previously
.Sy legacy
or
.Sy none ,
-or if they were mounted before the property was changed. In addition, any shared
-file systems are unshared and shared in the new location.
+or if they were mounted before the property was changed.
+In addition, any shared file systems are unshared and shared in the new
+location.
.It Sy nbmand Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
Controls whether the file system should be mounted with
.Sy nbmand
.Pq Non Blocking mandatory locks .
-This is used for SMB clients. Changes to this property only take effect when the
-file system is umounted and remounted. See
+This is used for SMB clients.
+Changes to this property only take effect when the file system is umounted and
+remounted.
+See
.Xr mount 1M
for more information on
.Sy nbmand
@@ -1073,60 +1143,68 @@ Controls what is cached in the primary cache
.Pq ARC .
If this property is set to
.Sy all ,
-then both user data and metadata is cached. If this property is set to
+then both user data and metadata is cached.
+If this property is set to
.Sy none ,
-then neither user data nor metadata is cached. If this property is set to
+then neither user data nor metadata is cached.
+If this property is set to
.Sy metadata ,
-then only metadata is cached. The default value is
+then only metadata is cached.
+The default value is
.Sy all .
.It Sy quota Ns = Ns Em size Ns | Ns Sy none
-Limits the amount of space a dataset and its descendents can consume. This
-property enforces a hard limit on the amount of space used. This includes all
-space consumed by descendents, including file systems and snapshots. Setting a
-quota on a descendent of a dataset that already has a quota does not override
-the ancestor's quota, but rather imposes an additional limit.
+Limits the amount of space a dataset and its descendents can consume.
+This property enforces a hard limit on the amount of space used.
+This includes all space consumed by descendents, including file systems and
+snapshots.
+Setting a quota on a descendent of a dataset that already has a quota does not
+override the ancestor's quota, but rather imposes an additional limit.
.Pp
Quotas cannot be set on volumes, as the
.Sy volsize
property acts as an implicit quota.
.It Sy snapshot_limit Ns = Ns Em count Ns | Ns Sy none
Limits the number of snapshots that can be created on a dataset and its
-descendents. Setting a
+descendents.
+Setting a
.Sy snapshot_limit
on a descendent of a dataset that already has a
.Sy snapshot_limit
does not override the ancestor's
.Sy snapshot_limit ,
-but rather imposes an additional limit. The limit is not enforced if the user is
-allowed to change the limit. For example, this means that recursive snapshots
-taken from the global zone are counted against each delegated dataset within
-a zone. This feature must be enabled to be used
+but rather imposes an additional limit.
+The limit is not enforced if the user is allowed to change the limit.
+For example, this means that recursive snapshots taken from the global zone are
+counted against each delegated dataset within a zone.
+This feature must be enabled to be used
.Po see
.Xr zpool-features 5
.Pc .
.It Sy userquota@ Ns Em user Ns = Ns Em size Ns | Ns Sy none
-Limits the amount of space consumed by the specified user. User space
-consumption is identified by the
+Limits the amount of space consumed by the specified user.
+User space consumption is identified by the
.Sy userspace@ Ns Em user
property.
.Pp
-Enforcement of user quotas may be delayed by several seconds. This delay means
-that a user might exceed their quota before the system notices that they are
-over quota and begins to refuse additional writes with the
+Enforcement of user quotas may be delayed by several seconds.
+This delay means that a user might exceed their quota before the system notices
+that they are over quota and begins to refuse additional writes with the
.Er EDQUOT
-error message. See the
+error message.
+See the
.Nm zfs Cm userspace
subcommand for more information.
.Pp
-Unprivileged users can only access their own groups' space usage. The root
-user, or a user who has been granted the
+Unprivileged users can only access their own groups' space usage.
+The root user, or a user who has been granted the
.Sy userquota
privilege with
.Nm zfs Cm allow ,
can get and set everyone's quota.
.Pp
This property is not available on volumes, on file systems before version 4, or
-on pools before version 15. The
+on pools before version 15.
+The
.Sy userquota@ Ns Em ...
properties are not displayed by
.Nm zfs Cm get Sy all .
@@ -1156,40 +1234,46 @@ symbol, using one of the following forms:
.Pc
.El
.It Sy groupquota@ Ns Em group Ns = Ns Em size Ns | Ns Sy none
-Limits the amount of space consumed by the specified group. Group space
-consumption is identified by the
+Limits the amount of space consumed by the specified group.
+Group space consumption is identified by the
.Sy groupused@ Ns Em group
property.
.Pp
-Unprivileged users can access only their own groups' space usage. The root
-user, or a user who has been granted the
+Unprivileged users can access only their own groups' space usage.
+The root user, or a user who has been granted the
.Sy groupquota
privilege with
.Nm zfs Cm allow ,
can get and set all groups' quotas.
.It Sy readonly Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls whether this dataset can be modified. The default value is
+Controls whether this dataset can be modified.
+The default value is
.Sy off .
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy rdonly .
.It Sy recordsize Ns = Ns Em size
-Specifies a suggested block size for files in the file system. This property is
-designed solely for use with database workloads that access files in fixed-size
-records. ZFS automatically tunes block sizes according to internal algorithms
-optimized for typical access patterns.
+Specifies a suggested block size for files in the file system.
+This property is designed solely for use with database workloads that access
+files in fixed-size records.
+ZFS automatically tunes block sizes according to internal algorithms optimized
+for typical access patterns.
.Pp
For databases that create very large files but access them in small random
-chunks, these algorithms may be suboptimal. Specifying a
+chunks, these algorithms may be suboptimal.
+Specifying a
.Sy recordsize
greater than or equal to the record size of the database can result in
-significant performance gains. Use of this property for general purpose file
-systems is strongly discouraged, and may adversely affect performance.
+significant performance gains.
+Use of this property for general purpose file systems is strongly discouraged,
+and may adversely affect performance.
.Pp
The size specified must be a power of two greater than or equal to 512 and less
-than or equal to 128 Kbytes. If the
+than or equal to 128 Kbytes.
+If the
.Sy large_blocks
-feature is enabled on the pool, the size may be up to 1 Mbyte. See
+feature is enabled on the pool, the size may be up to 1 Mbyte.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags.
.Pp
@@ -1200,10 +1284,10 @@ affects only files created afterward; existing files are unaffected.
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy recsize .
.It Sy redundant_metadata Ns = Ns Sy all Ns | Ns Sy most
-Controls what types of metadata are stored redundantly. ZFS stores an extra copy
-of metadata, so that if a single block is corrupted, the amount of user data
-lost is limited. This extra copy is in addition to any redundancy provided at
-the pool level
+Controls what types of metadata are stored redundantly.
+ZFS stores an extra copy of metadata, so that if a single block is corrupted,
+the amount of user data lost is limited.
+This extra copy is in addition to any redundancy provided at the pool level
.Pq e.g. by mirroring or RAID-Z ,
and is in addition to an extra copy specified by the
.Sy copies
@@ -1218,8 +1302,8 @@ metadata.
.Pp
When set to
.Sy all ,
-ZFS stores an extra copy of all metadata. If a single on-disk block is corrupt,
-at worst a single block of user data
+ZFS stores an extra copy of all metadata.
+If a single on-disk block is corrupt, at worst a single block of user data
.Po which is
.Sy recordsize
bytes long
@@ -1228,27 +1312,30 @@ can be lost.
.Pp
When set to
.Sy most ,
-ZFS stores an extra copy of most types of metadata. This can improve performance
-of random writes, because less metadata must be written. In practice, at worst
-about 100 blocks
+ZFS stores an extra copy of most types of metadata.
+This can improve performance of random writes, because less metadata must be
+written.
+In practice, at worst about 100 blocks
.Po of
.Sy recordsize
bytes each
.Pc
-of user data can be lost if a single on-disk block is corrupt. The exact
-behavior of which metadata blocks are stored redundantly may change in future
-releases.
+of user data can be lost if a single on-disk block is corrupt.
+The exact behavior of which metadata blocks are stored redundantly may change in
+future releases.
.Pp
The default value is
.Sy all .
.It Sy refquota Ns = Ns Em size Ns | Ns Sy none
-Limits the amount of space a dataset can consume. This property enforces a hard
-limit on the amount of space used. This hard limit does not include space used
-by descendents, including file systems and snapshots.
+Limits the amount of space a dataset can consume.
+This property enforces a hard limit on the amount of space used.
+This hard limit does not include space used by descendents, including file
+systems and snapshots.
.It Sy refreservation Ns = Ns Em size Ns | Ns Sy none
The minimum amount of space guaranteed to a dataset, not including its
-descendents. When the amount of space used is below this value, the dataset is
-treated as if it were taking up the amount of space specified by
+descendents.
+When the amount of space used is below this value, the dataset is treated as if
+it were taking up the amount of space specified by
.Sy refreservation .
The
.Sy refreservation
@@ -1265,11 +1352,11 @@ bytes in the dataset.
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy refreserv .
.It Sy reservation Ns = Ns Em size Ns | Ns Sy none
-The minimum amount of space guaranteed to a dataset and its descendents. When
-the amount of space used is below this value, the dataset is treated as if it
-were taking up the amount of space specified by its reservation. Reservations
-are accounted for in the parent datasets' space used, and count against the
-parent datasets' quotas and reservations.
+The minimum amount of space guaranteed to a dataset and its descendents.
+When the amount of space used is below this value, the dataset is treated as if
+it were taking up the amount of space specified by its reservation.
+Reservations are accounted for in the parent datasets' space used, and count
+against the parent datasets' quotas and reservations.
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy reserv .
@@ -1278,19 +1365,23 @@ Controls what is cached in the secondary cache
.Pq L2ARC .
If this property is set to
.Sy all ,
-then both user data and metadata is cached. If this property is set to
+then both user data and metadata is cached.
+If this property is set to
.Sy none ,
-then neither user data nor metadata is cached. If this property is set to
+then neither user data nor metadata is cached.
+If this property is set to
.Sy metadata ,
-then only metadata is cached. The default value is
+then only metadata is cached.
+The default value is
.Sy all .
.It Sy setuid Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls whether the setuid bit is respected for the file system. The default
-value is
+Controls whether the setuid bit is respected for the file system.
+The default value is
.Sy on .
.It Sy sharesmb Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off Ns | Ns Em opts
Controls whether the file system is shared via SMB, and what options are to be
-used. A file system with the
+used.
+A file system with the
.Sy sharesmb
property set to
.Sy off
@@ -1300,24 +1391,30 @@ Otherwise, the file system is automatically shared and unshared with the
.Nm zfs Cm share
and
.Nm zfs Cm unshare
-commands. If the property is set to
+commands.
+If the property is set to
.Sy on ,
the
.Xr sharemgr 1M
-command is invoked with no options. Otherwise, the
+command is invoked with no options.
+Otherwise, the
.Xr sharemgr 1M
command is invoked with options equivalent to the contents of this property.
.Pp
Because SMB shares requires a resource name, a unique resource name is
-constructed from the dataset name. The constructed name is a copy of the dataset
-name except that the characters in the dataset name, which would be illegal in
-the resource name, are replaced with underscore
+constructed from the dataset name.
+The constructed name is a copy of the dataset name except that the characters in
+the dataset name, which would be illegal in the resource name, are replaced with
+underscore
.Pq Sy _
-characters. A pseudo property
+characters.
+A pseudo property
.Qq name
is also supported that allows you to replace the data set name with a specified
-name. The specified name is then used to replace the prefix dataset in the case
-of inheritance. For example, if the dataset
+name.
+The specified name is then used to replace the prefix dataset in the case of
+inheritance.
+For example, if the dataset
.Em data/home/john
is set to
.Sy name Ns = Ns Sy john ,
@@ -1332,7 +1429,8 @@ is shared, it has a resource name of
.Pp
When SMB shares are created, the SMB share name appears as an entry in the
.Pa .zfs/shares
-directory. You can use the
+directory.
+You can use the
.Nm ls
or
.Nm chmod
@@ -1344,13 +1442,14 @@ property is changed for a dataset, the dataset and any children inheriting the
property are re-shared with the new options, only if the property was previously
set to
.Sy off ,
-or if they were shared before the property was changed. If the new property is
-set to
+or if they were shared before the property was changed.
+If the new property is set to
.Sy off ,
the file systems are unshared.
.It Sy sharenfs Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off Ns | Ns Em opts
Controls whether the file system is shared via NFS, and what options are to be
-used. A file system with a
+used.
+A file system with a
.Sy sharenfs
property of
.Sy off
@@ -1363,10 +1462,12 @@ Otherwise, the file system is automatically shared and unshared with the
.Nm zfs Cm share
and
.Nm zfs Cm unshare
-commands. If the property is set to
+commands.
+If the property is set to
.Sy on ,
.Xr share 1M
-command is invoked with no options. Otherwise, the
+command is invoked with no options.
+Otherwise, the
.Xr share 1M
command is invoked with options equivalent to the contents of this property.
.Pp
@@ -1375,31 +1476,35 @@ When the
property is changed for a dataset, the dataset and any children inheriting the
property are re-shared with the new options, only if the property was previously
.Sy off ,
-or if they were shared before the property was changed. If the new property is
+or if they were shared before the property was changed.
+If the new property is
.Sy off ,
the file systems are unshared.
.It Sy logbias Ns = Ns Sy latency Ns | Ns Sy throughput
-Provide a hint to ZFS about handling of synchronous requests in this dataset. If
+Provide a hint to ZFS about handling of synchronous requests in this dataset.
+If
.Sy logbias
is set to
.Sy latency
.Pq the default ,
ZFS will use pool log devices
.Pq if configured
-to handle the requests at low latency. If
+to handle the requests at low latency.
+If
.Sy logbias
is set to
.Sy throughput ,
-ZFS will not use configured pool log devices. ZFS will instead optimize
-synchronous operations for global pool throughput and efficient use of
-resources.
+ZFS will not use configured pool log devices.
+ZFS will instead optimize synchronous operations for global pool throughput and
+efficient use of resources.
.It Sy snapdir Ns = Ns Sy hidden Ns | Ns Sy visible
Controls whether the
.Pa .zfs
directory is hidden or visible in the root of the file system as discussed in
the
.Sx Snapshots
-section. The default value is
+section.
+The default value is
.Sy hidden .
.It Sy sync Ns = Ns Sy standard Ns | Ns Sy always Ns | Ns Sy disabled
Controls the behavior of synchronous requests
@@ -1413,24 +1518,29 @@ controllers
.Pq this is the default .
.Sy always
causes every file system transaction to be written and flushed before its
-system call returns. This has a large performance penalty.
+system call returns.
+This has a large performance penalty.
.Sy disabled
-disables synchronous requests. File system transactions are only committed to
-stable storage periodically. This option will give the highest performance.
+disables synchronous requests.
+File system transactions are only committed to stable storage periodically.
+This option will give the highest performance.
However, it is very dangerous as ZFS would be ignoring the synchronous
-transaction demands of applications such as databases or NFS. Administrators
-should only use this option when the risks are understood.
+transaction demands of applications such as databases or NFS.
+Administrators should only use this option when the risks are understood.
.It Sy version Ns = Ns Em N Ns | Ns Sy current
The on-disk version of this file system, which is independent of the pool
-version. This property can only be set to later supported versions. See the
+version.
+This property can only be set to later supported versions.
+See the
.Nm zfs Cm upgrade
command.
.It Sy volsize Ns = Ns Em size
-For volumes, specifies the logical size of the volume. By default, creating a
-volume establishes a reservation of equal size. For storage pools with a version
-number of 9 or higher, a
+For volumes, specifies the logical size of the volume.
+By default, creating a volume establishes a reservation of equal size.
+For storage pools with a version number of 9 or higher, a
.Sy refreservation
-is set instead. Any changes to
+is set instead.
+Any changes to
.Sy volsize
are reflected in an equivalent change to the reservation
.Po or
@@ -1443,10 +1553,10 @@ can only be set to a multiple of
and cannot be zero.
.Pp
The reservation is kept equal to the volume's logical size to prevent unexpected
-behavior for consumers. Without the reservation, the volume could run out of
-space, resulting in undefined behavior or data corruption, depending on how the
-volume is used. These effects can also occur when the volume size is changed
-while it is in use
+behavior for consumers.
+Without the reservation, the volume could run out of space, resulting in
+undefined behavior or data corruption, depending on how the volume is used.
+These effects can also occur when the volume size is changed while it is in use
.Pq particularly when shrinking the size .
Extreme care should be used when adjusting the volume size.
.Pp
@@ -1459,40 +1569,46 @@ can be created by specifying the
.Fl s
option to the
.Nm zfs Cm create Fl V
-command, or by changing the reservation after the volume has been created. A
+command, or by changing the reservation after the volume has been created.
+A
.Qq sparse volume
-is a volume where the reservation is less then the volume size. Consequently,
-writes to a sparse volume can fail with
+is a volume where the reservation is less then the volume size.
+Consequently, writes to a sparse volume can fail with
.Er ENOSPC
-when the pool is low on space. For a sparse volume, changes to
+when the pool is low on space.
+For a sparse volume, changes to
.Sy volsize
are not reflected in the reservation.
.It Sy vscan Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
Controls whether regular files should be scanned for viruses when a file is
-opened and closed. In addition to enabling this property, the virus scan
-service must also be enabled for virus scanning to occur. The default value is
+opened and closed.
+In addition to enabling this property, the virus scan service must also be
+enabled for virus scanning to occur.
+The default value is
.Sy off .
.It Sy xattr Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls whether extended attributes are enabled for this file system. The
-default value is
+Controls whether extended attributes are enabled for this file system.
+The default value is
.Sy on .
.It Sy zoned Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls whether the dataset is managed from a non-global zone. See the
+Controls whether the dataset is managed from a non-global zone.
+See the
.Sx Zones
-section for more information. The default value is
+section for more information.
+The default value is
.Sy off .
.El
.Pp
The following three properties cannot be changed after the file system is
-created, and therefore, should be set when the file system is created. If the
-properties are not set with the
+created, and therefore, should be set when the file system is created.
+If the properties are not set with the
.Nm zfs Cm create
or
.Nm zpool Cm create
-commands, these properties are inherited from the parent dataset. If the parent
-dataset lacks these properties due to having been created prior to these
-features being supported, the new file system will have the default values for
-these properties.
+commands, these properties are inherited from the parent dataset.
+If the parent dataset lacks these properties due to having been created prior to
+these features being supported, the new file system will have the default values
+for these properties.
.Bl -tag -width ""
.It Xo
.Sy casesensitivity Ns = Ns Sy sensitive Ns | Ns
@@ -1500,7 +1616,8 @@ these properties.
.Xc
Indicates whether the file name matching algorithm used by the file system
should be case-sensitive, case-insensitive, or allow a combination of both
-styles of matching. The default value for the
+styles of matching.
+The default value for the
.Sy casesensitivity
property is
.Sy sensitive .
@@ -1515,9 +1632,10 @@ The
value for the
.Sy casesensitivity
property indicates that the file system can support requests for both
-case-sensitive and case-insensitive matching behavior. Currently,
-case-insensitive matching behavior on a file system that supports mixed behavior
-is limited to the SMB server product. For more information about the
+case-sensitive and case-insensitive matching behavior.
+Currently, case-insensitive matching behavior on a file system that supports
+mixed behavior is limited to the SMB server product.
+For more information about the
.Sy mixed
value behavior, see the "ZFS Administration Guide".
.It Xo
@@ -1527,9 +1645,10 @@ value behavior, see the "ZFS Administration Guide".
Indicates whether the file system should perform a
.Sy unicode
normalization of file names whenever two file names are compared, and which
-normalization algorithm should be used. File names are always stored unmodified,
-names are normalized as part of any comparison process. If this property is set
-to a legal value other than
+normalization algorithm should be used.
+File names are always stored unmodified, names are normalized as part of any
+comparison process.
+If this property is set to a legal value other than
.Sy none ,
and the
.Sy utf8only
@@ -1546,7 +1665,8 @@ This property cannot be changed after the file system is created.
Indicates whether the file system should reject file names that include
characters that are not present in the
.Sy UTF-8
-character code set. If this property is explicitly set to
+character code set.
+If this property is explicitly set to
.Sy off ,
the normalization property must either not be explicitly set or be set to
.Sy none .
@@ -1570,7 +1690,8 @@ When a file system is mounted, either through
for legacy mounts or the
.Nm zfs Cm mount
command for normal file systems, its mount options are set according to its
-properties. The correlation between properties and mount options is as follows:
+properties.
+The correlation between properties and mount options is as follows:
.Bd -literal
PROPERTY MOUNT OPTION
devices devices/nodevices
@@ -1582,8 +1703,10 @@ properties. The correlation between properties and mount options is as follows:
.Pp
In addition, these options can be set on a per-mount basis using the
.Fl o
-option, without affecting the property that is stored on disk. The values
-specified on the command line override the values stored in the dataset. The
+option, without affecting the property that is stored on disk.
+The values specified on the command line override the values stored in the
+dataset.
+The
.Sy nosuid
option is an alias for
.Sy nodevices Ns , Ns Sy nosetuid .
@@ -1591,18 +1714,21 @@ These properties are reported as
.Qq temporary
by the
.Nm zfs Cm get
-command. If the properties are changed while the dataset is mounted, the new
-setting overrides any temporary settings.
+command.
+If the properties are changed while the dataset is mounted, the new setting
+overrides any temporary settings.
.Ss "User Properties"
In addition to the standard native properties, ZFS supports arbitrary user
-properties. User properties have no effect on ZFS behavior, but applications or
+properties.
+User properties have no effect on ZFS behavior, but applications or
administrators can use them to annotate datasets
.Pq file systems, volumes, and snapshots .
.Pp
User property names must contain a colon
.Pq Qq Sy \&:
-character to distinguish them from native properties. They may contain lowercase
-letters, numbers, and the following punctuation characters: colon
+character to distinguish them from native properties.
+They may contain lowercase letters, numbers, and the following punctuation
+characters: colon
.Pq Qq Sy \&: ,
dash
.Pq Qq Sy - ,
@@ -1627,23 +1753,29 @@ independently-developed packages use the same property name for different
purposes.
.Pp
The values of user properties are arbitrary strings, are always inherited, and
-are never validated. All of the commands that operate on properties
+are never validated.
+All of the commands that operate on properties
.Po Nm zfs Cm list ,
.Nm zfs Cm get ,
.Nm zfs Cm set ,
and so forth
.Pc
-can be used to manipulate both native properties and user properties. Use the
+can be used to manipulate both native properties and user properties.
+Use the
.Nm zfs Cm inherit
-command to clear a user property. If the property is not defined in any parent
-dataset, it is removed entirely. Property values are limited to 8192 bytes.
+command to clear a user property.
+If the property is not defined in any parent dataset, it is removed entirely.
+Property values are limited to 8192 bytes.
.Ss ZFS Volumes as Swap or Dump Devices
During an initial installation a swap device and dump device are created on ZFS
-volumes in the ZFS root pool. By default, the swap area size is based on 1/2 the
-size of physical memory up to 2 Gbytes. The size of the dump device depends on
-the kernel's requirements at installation time. Separate ZFS volumes must be
-used for the swap area and dump devices. Do not swap to a file on a ZFS file
-system. A ZFS swap file configuration is not supported.
+volumes in the ZFS root pool.
+By default, the swap area size is based on 1/2 the size of physical memory up to
+2 Gbytes.
+The size of the dump device depends on the kernel's requirements at installation
+time.
+Separate ZFS volumes must be used for the swap area and dump devices.
+Do not swap to a file on a ZFS file system.
+A ZFS swap file configuration is not supported.
.Pp
If you need to change your swap area or dump device after the system is
installed or upgraded, use the
@@ -1664,30 +1796,31 @@ Displays a help message.
.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
.Ar filesystem
.Xc
-Creates a new ZFS file system. The file system is automatically mounted
-according to the
+Creates a new ZFS file system.
+The file system is automatically mounted according to the
.Sy mountpoint
property inherited from the parent.
.Bl -tag -width "-o"
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property as if the command
.Nm zfs Cm set Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-was invoked at the same time the dataset was created. Any editable ZFS property
-can also be set at creation time. Multiple
+was invoked at the same time the dataset was created.
+Any editable ZFS property can also be set at creation time.
+Multiple
.Fl o
-options can be specified. An error results if the same property is specified in
-multiple
+options can be specified.
+An error results if the same property is specified in multiple
.Fl o
options.
.It Fl p
-Creates all the non-existing parent datasets. Datasets created in this manner
-are automatically mounted according to the
+Creates all the non-existing parent datasets.
+Datasets created in this manner are automatically mounted according to the
.Sy mountpoint
-property inherited from their parent. Any property specified on the command line
-using the
+property inherited from their parent.
+Any property specified on the command line using the
.Fl o
-option is ignored. If the target filesystem already exists, the operation
-completes successfully.
+option is ignored.
+If the target filesystem already exists, the operation completes successfully.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -1697,13 +1830,14 @@ completes successfully.
.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
.Fl V Ar size Ar volume
.Xc
-Creates a volume of the given size. The volume is exported as a block device in
+Creates a volume of the given size.
+The volume is exported as a block device in
.Pa /dev/zvol/{dsk,rdsk}/path ,
where
.Em path
-is the name of the volume in the ZFS namespace. The size represents the logical
-size as exported by the device. By default, a reservation of equal size is
-created.
+is the name of the volume in the ZFS namespace.
+The size represents the logical size as exported by the device.
+By default, a reservation of equal size is created.
.Pp
.Ar size
is automatically rounded up to the nearest 128 Kbytes to ensure that the volume
@@ -1719,24 +1853,26 @@ the resulting behavior is undefined.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property as if the
.Nm zfs Cm set Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-command was invoked at the same time the dataset was created. Any editable ZFS
-property can also be set at creation time. Multiple
+command was invoked at the same time the dataset was created.
+Any editable ZFS property can also be set at creation time.
+Multiple
.Fl o
-options can be specified. An error results if the same property is specified in
-multiple
+options can be specified.
+An error results if the same property is specified in multiple
.Fl o
options.
.It Fl p
-Creates all the non-existing parent datasets. Datasets created in this manner
-are automatically mounted according to the
+Creates all the non-existing parent datasets.
+Datasets created in this manner are automatically mounted according to the
.Sy mountpoint
-property inherited from their parent. Any property specified on the command line
-using the
+property inherited from their parent.
+Any property specified on the command line using the
.Fl o
-option is ignored. If the target filesystem already exists, the operation
-completes successfully.
+option is ignored.
+If the target filesystem already exists, the operation completes successfully.
.It Fl s
-Creates a sparse volume with no reservation. See
+Creates a sparse volume with no reservation.
+See
.Sy volsize
in the
.Sx Native Properties
@@ -1748,9 +1884,10 @@ section for more information about sparse volumes.
.Op Fl Rfnprv
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Xc
-Destroys the given dataset. By default, the command unshares any file systems
-that are currently shared, unmounts any file systems that are currently
-mounted, and refuses to destroy a dataset that has active dependents
+Destroys the given dataset.
+By default, the command unshares any file systems that are currently shared,
+unmounts any file systems that are currently mounted, and refuses to destroy a
+dataset that has active dependents
.Pq children or clones .
.Bl -tag -width "-R"
.It Fl R
@@ -1759,12 +1896,14 @@ target hierarchy.
.It Fl f
Force an unmount of any file systems using the
.Nm unmount Fl f
-command. This option has no effect on non-file systems or unmounted file
-systems.
+command.
+This option has no effect on non-file systems or unmounted file systems.
.It Fl n
Do a dry-run
.Pq Qq No-op
-deletion. No data will be deleted. This is useful in conjunction with the
+deletion.
+No data will be deleted.
+This is useful in conjunction with the
.Fl v
or
.Fl p
@@ -1794,22 +1933,25 @@ The given snapshots are destroyed immediately if and only if the
.Nm zfs Cm destroy
command without the
.Fl d
-option would have destroyed it. Such immediate destruction would occur, for
-example, if the snapshot had no clones and the user-initiated reference count
-were zero.
+option would have destroyed it.
+Such immediate destruction would occur, for example, if the snapshot had no
+clones and the user-initiated reference count were zero.
.Pp
If a snapshot does not qualify for immediate destruction, it is marked for
-deferred deletion. In this state, it exists as a usable, visible snapshot until
-both of the preconditions listed above are met, at which point it is destroyed.
+deferred deletion.
+In this state, it exists as a usable, visible snapshot until both of the
+preconditions listed above are met, at which point it is destroyed.
.Pp
An inclusive range of snapshots may be specified by separating the first and
-last snapshots with a percent sign. The first and/or last snapshots may be left
-blank, in which case the filesystem's oldest or newest snapshot will be implied.
+last snapshots with a percent sign.
+The first and/or last snapshots may be left blank, in which case the
+filesystem's oldest or newest snapshot will be implied.
.Pp
Multiple snapshots
.Pq or ranges of snapshots
of the same filesystem or volume may be specified in a comma-separated list of
-snapshots. Only the snapshot's short name
+snapshots.
+Only the snapshot's short name
.Po the part after the
.Sy @
.Pc
@@ -1818,7 +1960,8 @@ multiple snapshots.
.Bl -tag -width "-R"
.It Fl R
Recursively destroy all clones of these snapshots, including the clones,
-snapshots, and children. If this flag is specified, the
+snapshots, and children.
+If this flag is specified, the
.Fl d
flag will have no effect.
.It Fl d
@@ -1826,8 +1969,9 @@ Defer snapshot deletion.
.It Fl n
Do a dry-run
.Pq Qq No-op
-deletion. No data will be deleted. This is
-useful in conjunction with the
+deletion.
+No data will be deleted.
+This is useful in conjunction with the
.Fl p
or
.Fl v
@@ -1861,9 +2005,12 @@ The given bookmark is destroyed.
.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns value Oc Ns ...
.Ar filesystem Ns @ Ns Ar snapname Ns | Ns Ar volume Ns @ Ns Ar snapname Ns ...
.Xc
-Creates snapshots with the given names. All previous modifications by successful
-system calls to the file system are part of the snapshots. Snapshots are taken
-atomically, so that all snapshots correspond to the same moment in time. See the
+Creates snapshots with the given names.
+All previous modifications by successful system calls to the file system are
+part of the snapshots.
+Snapshots are taken atomically, so that all snapshots correspond to the same
+moment in time.
+See the
.Sx Snapshots
section for details.
.Bl -tag -width "-o"
@@ -1880,12 +2027,13 @@ Recursively create snapshots of all descendent datasets
.Op Fl Rfr
.Ar snapshot
.Xc
-Roll back the given dataset to a previous snapshot. When a dataset is rolled
-back, all data that has changed since the snapshot is discarded, and the dataset
-reverts to the state at the time of the snapshot. By default, the command
-refuses to roll back to a snapshot other than the most recent one. In order to
-do so, all intermediate snapshots and bookmarks must be destroyed by specifying
-the
+Roll back the given dataset to a previous snapshot.
+When a dataset is rolled back, all data that has changed since the snapshot is
+discarded, and the dataset reverts to the state at the time of the snapshot.
+By default, the command refuses to roll back to a snapshot other than the most
+recent one.
+In order to do so, all intermediate snapshots and bookmarks must be destroyed by
+specifying the
.Fl r
option.
.Pp
@@ -1893,8 +2041,9 @@ The
.Fl rR
options do not recursively destroy the child snapshots of a recursive snapshot.
Only direct snapshots of the specified filesystem are destroyed by either of
-these options. To completely roll back a recursive snapshot, you must rollback
-the individual child snapshots.
+these options.
+To completely roll back a recursive snapshot, you must rollback the individual
+child snapshots.
.Bl -tag -width "-R"
.It Fl R
Destroy any more recent snapshots and bookmarks, as well as any clones of those
@@ -1913,21 +2062,24 @@ Destroy any snapshots and bookmarks more recent than the one specified.
.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
.Ar snapshot Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Xc
-Creates a clone of the given snapshot. See the
+Creates a clone of the given snapshot.
+See the
.Sx Clones
-section for details. The target dataset can be located anywhere in the ZFS
-hierarchy, and is created as the same type as the original.
+section for details.
+The target dataset can be located anywhere in the ZFS hierarchy, and is created
+as the same type as the original.
.Bl -tag -width "-o"
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property; see
.Nm zfs Cm create
for details.
.It Fl p
-Creates all the non-existing parent datasets. Datasets created in this manner
-are automatically mounted according to the
+Creates all the non-existing parent datasets.
+Datasets created in this manner are automatically mounted according to the
.Sy mountpoint
-property inherited from their parent. If the target filesystem or volume already
-exists, the operation completes successfully.
+property inherited from their parent.
+If the target filesystem or volume already exists, the operation completes
+successfully.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -1936,16 +2088,20 @@ exists, the operation completes successfully.
.Xc
Promotes a clone file system to no longer be dependent on its
.Qq origin
-snapshot. This makes it possible to destroy the file system that the clone was
-created from. The clone parent-child dependency relationship is reversed, so
-that the origin file system becomes a clone of the specified file system.
+snapshot.
+This makes it possible to destroy the file system that the clone was created
+from.
+The clone parent-child dependency relationship is reversed, so that the origin
+file system becomes a clone of the specified file system.
.Pp
The snapshot that was cloned, and any snapshots previous to this snapshot, are
-now owned by the promoted clone. The space they use moves from the origin file
-system to the promoted clone, so enough space must be available to accommodate
-these snapshots. No new space is consumed by this operation, but the space
-accounting is adjusted. The promoted clone must not have any conflicting
-snapshot names of its own. The
+now owned by the promoted clone.
+The space they use moves from the origin file system to the promoted clone, so
+enough space must be available to accommodate these snapshots.
+No new space is consumed by this operation, but the space accounting is
+adjusted.
+The promoted clone must not have any conflicting snapshot names of its own.
+The
.Cm rename
subcommand can be used to rename any conflicting snapshots.
.It Xo
@@ -1961,18 +2117,20 @@ subcommand can be used to rename any conflicting snapshots.
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Xc
-Renames the given dataset. The new target can be located anywhere in the ZFS
-hierarchy, with the exception of snapshots. Snapshots can only be renamed within
-the parent file system or volume. When renaming a snapshot, the parent file
-system of the snapshot does not need to be specified as part of the second
-argument. Renamed file systems can inherit new mount points, in which case they
-are unmounted and remounted at the new mount point.
+Renames the given dataset.
+The new target can be located anywhere in the ZFS hierarchy, with the exception
+of snapshots.
+Snapshots can only be renamed within the parent file system or volume.
+When renaming a snapshot, the parent file system of the snapshot does not need
+to be specified as part of the second argument.
+Renamed file systems can inherit new mount points, in which case they are
+unmounted and remounted at the new mount point.
.Bl -tag -width "-a"
.It Fl f
Force unmount any filesystems that need to be unmounted in the process.
.It Fl p
-Creates all the nonexistent parent datasets. Datasets created in this manner are
-automatically mounted according to the
+Creates all the nonexistent parent datasets.
+Datasets created in this manner are automatically mounted according to the
.Sy mountpoint
property inherited from their parent.
.El
@@ -1982,8 +2140,8 @@ property inherited from their parent.
.Fl r
.Ar snapshot Ar snapshot
.Xc
-Recursively rename the snapshots of all descendent datasets. Snapshots are the
-only dataset that can be renamed recursively.
+Recursively rename the snapshots of all descendent datasets.
+Snapshots are the only dataset that can be renamed recursively.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm list
@@ -1995,9 +2153,10 @@ only dataset that can be renamed recursively.
.Oo Fl t Ar type Ns Oo , Ns Ar type Oc Ns ... Oc
.Oo Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume Ns | Ns Ar snapshot Oc Ns ...
.Xc
-Lists the property information for the given datasets in tabular form. If
-specified, you can list property information by the absolute pathname or the
-relative pathname. By default, all file systems and volumes are displayed.
+Lists the property information for the given datasets in tabular form.
+If specified, you can list property information by the absolute pathname or the
+relative pathname.
+By default, all file systems and volumes are displayed.
Snapshots are displayed if the
.Sy listsnaps
property is
@@ -2010,8 +2169,9 @@ The following fields are displayed,
.Sy mountpoint .
.Bl -tag -width "-H"
.It Fl H
-Used for scripting mode. Do not print headers and separate fields by a single
-tab instead of arbitrary white space.
+Used for scripting mode.
+Do not print headers and separate fields by a single tab instead of arbitrary
+white space.
.It Fl S Ar property
Same as the
.Fl s
@@ -2025,7 +2185,8 @@ of
.Sy 1
will display only the dataset and its direct children.
.It Fl o Ar property
-A comma-separated list of properties to display. The property must be:
+A comma-separated list of properties to display.
+The property must be:
.Bl -bullet
.It
One of the properties described in the
@@ -2040,8 +2201,8 @@ to display the dataset name
.It
The value
.Sy space
-to display space usage properties on file systems and volumes. This is a
-shortcut for specifying
+to display space usage properties on file systems and volumes.
+This is a shortcut for specifying
.Fl o Sy name Ns , Ns Sy avail Ns , Ns Sy used Ns , Ns Sy usedsnap Ns , Ns
.Sy usedds Ns , Ns Sy usedrefreserv Ns , Ns Sy usedchild Fl t
.Sy filesystem Ns , Ns Sy volume
@@ -2055,18 +2216,19 @@ values.
Recursively display any children of the dataset on the command line.
.It Fl s Ar property
A property for sorting the output by column in ascending order based on the
-value of the property. The property must be one of the properties described in
-the
+value of the property.
+The property must be one of the properties described in the
.Sx Properties
section, or the special value
.Sy name
-to sort by the dataset name. Multiple properties can be specified at one time
-using multiple
+to sort by the dataset name.
+Multiple properties can be specified at one time using multiple
.Fl s
-property options. Multiple
+property options.
+Multiple
.Fl s
-options are evaluated from left to right in decreasing order of importance. The
-following is a list of sorting criteria:
+options are evaluated from left to right in decreasing order of importance.
+The following is a list of sorting criteria:
.Bl -bullet
.It
Numeric types sort in numeric order.
@@ -2101,16 +2263,19 @@ displays only snapshots.
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume Ns | Ns Ar snapshot Ns ...
.Xc
Sets the property or list of properties to the given value(s) for each dataset.
-Only some properties can be edited. See the
+Only some properties can be edited.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for more information on what properties can be set and acceptable
-values. Numeric values can be specified as exact values, or in a human-readable
-form with a suffix of
+values.
+Numeric values can be specified as exact values, or in a human-readable form
+with a suffix of
.Sy B , K , M , G , T , P , E , Z
.Po for bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, petabytes, exabytes,
or zettabytes, respectively
.Pc .
-User properties can be set on snapshots. For more information, see the
+User properties can be set on snapshots.
+For more information, see the
.Sx User Properties
section.
.It Xo
@@ -2124,21 +2289,22 @@ section.
.Cm all | Ar property Ns Oo , Ns Ar property Oc Ns ...
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume Ns | Ns Ar snapshot Ns | Ns Ar bookmark Ns ...
.Xc
-Displays properties for the given datasets. If no datasets are specified, then
-the command displays properties for all datasets on the system. For each
-property, the following columns are displayed:
+Displays properties for the given datasets.
+If no datasets are specified, then the command displays properties for all
+datasets on the system.
+For each property, the following columns are displayed:
.Bd -literal
name Dataset name
property Property name
value Property value
- source Property source. Can either be local, default,
+ source Property source. Can either be local, default,
temporary, inherited, or none (-).
.Ed
.Pp
All columns are displayed by default, though this can be controlled by using the
.Fl o
-option. This command takes a comma-separated list of properties as described in
-the
+option.
+This command takes a comma-separated list of properties as described in the
.Sx Native Properties
and
.Sx User Properties
@@ -2150,9 +2316,9 @@ can be used to display all properties that apply to the given dataset's type
.Pq filesystem, volume, snapshot, or bookmark .
.Bl -tag -width "-H"
.It Fl H
-Display output in a form more easily parsed by scripts. Any headers are omitted,
-and fields are explicitly separated by a single tab instead of an arbitrary
-amount of space.
+Display output in a form more easily parsed by scripts.
+Any headers are omitted, and fields are explicitly separated by a single tab
+instead of an arbitrary amount of space.
.It Fl d Ar depth
Recursively display any children of the dataset, limiting the recursion to
.Ar depth .
@@ -2170,9 +2336,9 @@ values.
.It Fl r
Recursively display properties for any children.
.It Fl s Ar source
-A comma-separated list of sources to display. Those properties coming from a
-source other than those in this list are ignored. Each source must be one of the
-following:
+A comma-separated list of sources to display.
+Those properties coming from a source other than those in this list are ignored.
+Each source must be one of the following:
.Sy local ,
.Sy default ,
.Sy inherited ,
@@ -2200,7 +2366,8 @@ or
Clears the specified property, causing it to be inherited from an ancestor,
restored to default if no ancestor has the property set, or with the
.Fl S
-option reverted to the received value if one exists. See the
+option reverted to the received value if one exists.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for a listing of default values, and details on which properties can be
inherited.
@@ -2231,28 +2398,31 @@ Displays a list of currently supported file system versions.
.Op Fl V Ar version
.Fl a | Ar filesystem
.Xc
-Upgrades file systems to a new on-disk version. Once this is done, the file
-systems will no longer be accessible on systems running older versions of the
-software.
+Upgrades file systems to a new on-disk version.
+Once this is done, the file systems will no longer be accessible on systems
+running older versions of the software.
.Nm zfs Cm send
streams generated from new snapshots of these file systems cannot be accessed on
systems running older versions of the software.
.Pp
-In general, the file system version is independent of the pool version. See
+In general, the file system version is independent of the pool version.
+See
.Xr zpool 1M
for information on the
.Nm zpool Cm upgrade
command.
.Pp
In some cases, the file system version and the pool version are interrelated and
-the pool version must be upgraded before the file system version can be upgraded.
+the pool version must be upgraded before the file system version can be
+upgraded.
.Bl -tag -width "-V"
.It Fl V Ar version
Upgrade to the specified
.Ar version .
If the
.Fl V
-flag is not specified, this command upgrades to the most recent version. This
+flag is not specified, this command upgrades to the most recent version.
+This
option can only be used to increase the version number, and only up to the most
recent version supported by this software.
.It Fl a
@@ -2273,7 +2443,8 @@ Upgrade the specified file system and all descendent file systems.
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar snapshot
.Xc
Displays space consumed by, and quotas on, each user in the specified filesystem
-or snapshot. This corresponds to the
+or snapshot.
+This corresponds to the
.Sy userused@ Ns Em user
and
.Sy userquota@ Ns Em user
@@ -2282,10 +2453,12 @@ properties.
.It Fl H
Do not print headers, use tab-delimited output.
.It Fl S Ar field
-Sort by this field in reverse order. See
+Sort by this field in reverse order.
+See
.Fl s .
.It Fl i
-Translate SID to POSIX ID. The POSIX ID may be ephemeral if no mapping exists.
+Translate SID to POSIX ID.
+The POSIX ID may be ephemeral if no mapping exists.
Normal POSIX interfaces
.Po for example,
.Xr stat 2 ,
@@ -2295,11 +2468,14 @@ perform this translation, so the
.Fl i
option allows the output from
.Nm zfs Cm userspace
-to be compared directly with those utilities. However,
+to be compared directly with those utilities.
+However,
.Fl i
may lead to confusion if some files were created by an SMB user before a
-SMB-to-POSIX name mapping was established. In such a case, some files will be
-owned by the SMB entity and some by the POSIX entity. However, the
+SMB-to-POSIX name mapping was established.
+In such a case, some files will be owned by the SMB entity and some by the POSIX
+entity.
+However, the
.Fl i
option will report that the POSIX entity has the total usage and quota for both.
.It Fl n
@@ -2316,12 +2492,14 @@ Use exact
.Pq parsable
numeric output.
.It Fl s Ar field
-Sort output by this field. The
+Sort output by this field.
+The
.Fl s
and
.Fl S
flags may be specified multiple times to sort first by one field, then by
-another. The default is
+another.
+The default is
.Fl s Sy type Fl s Sy name .
.It Fl t Ar type Ns Oo , Ns Ar type Oc Ns ...
Print only the specified types from the following set:
@@ -2345,7 +2523,8 @@ The default can be changed to include group types.
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar snapshot
.Xc
Displays space consumed by, and quotas on, each group in the specified
-filesystem or snapshot. This subcommand is identical to
+filesystem or snapshot.
+This subcommand is identical to
.Nm zfs Cm userspace ,
except that the default types to display are
.Fl t Sy posixgroup Ns , Ns Sy smbgroup .
@@ -2364,17 +2543,19 @@ Displays all ZFS file systems currently mounted.
Mounts ZFS file systems.
.Bl -tag -width "-O"
.It Fl O
-Perform an overlay mount. See
+Perform an overlay mount.
+See
.Xr mount 1M
for more information.
.It Fl a
-Mount all available ZFS file systems. Invoked automatically as part of the boot
-process.
+Mount all available ZFS file systems.
+Invoked automatically as part of the boot process.
.It Ar filesystem
Mount the specified filesystem.
.It Fl o Ar options
An optional, comma-separated list of mount options to use temporarily for the
-duration of the mount. See the
+duration of the mount.
+See the
.Sx Temporary Mount Point Properties
section for details.
.It Fl v
@@ -2389,11 +2570,12 @@ Report mount progress.
Unmounts currently mounted ZFS file systems.
.Bl -tag -width "-a"
.It Fl a
-Unmount all available ZFS file systems. Invoked automatically as part of the
-shutdown process.
+Unmount all available ZFS file systems.
+Invoked automatically as part of the shutdown process.
.It Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar mountpoint
-Unmount the specified filesystem. The command can also be given a path to a ZFS
-file system mount point on the system.
+Unmount the specified filesystem.
+The command can also be given a path to a ZFS file system mount point on the
+system.
.It Fl f
Forcefully unmount the file system, even if it is currently in use.
.El
@@ -2405,14 +2587,15 @@ Forcefully unmount the file system, even if it is currently in use.
Shares available ZFS file systems.
.Bl -tag -width "-a"
.It Fl a
-Share all available ZFS file systems. Invoked automatically as part of the boot
-process.
+Share all available ZFS file systems.
+Invoked automatically as part of the boot process.
.It Ar filesystem
Share the specified filesystem according to the
.Sy sharenfs
and
.Sy sharesmb
-properties. File systems are shared when the
+properties.
+File systems are shared when the
.Sy sharenfs
or
.Sy sharesmb
@@ -2426,23 +2609,25 @@ property is set.
Unshares currently shared ZFS file systems.
.Bl -tag -width "-a"
.It Fl a
-Unshare all available ZFS file systems. Invoked automatically as part of the
-shutdown process.
+Unshare all available ZFS file systems.
+Invoked automatically as part of the shutdown process.
.It Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar mountpoint
-Unshare the specified filesystem. The command can also be given a path to a ZFS
-file system shared on the system.
+Unshare the specified filesystem.
+The command can also be given a path to a ZFS file system shared on the system.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm bookmark
.Ar snapshot bookmark
.Xc
-Creates a bookmark of the given snapshot. Bookmarks mark the point in time when
-the snapshot was created, and can be used as the incremental source for a
+Creates a bookmark of the given snapshot.
+Bookmarks mark the point in time when the snapshot was created, and can be used
+as the incremental source for a
.Nm zfs Cm send
command.
.Pp
-This feature must be enabled to be used. See
+This feature must be enabled to be used.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags and the
.Sy bookmarks
@@ -2456,18 +2641,20 @@ feature.
.Xc
Creates a stream representation of the second
.Ar snapshot ,
-which is written to standard output. The output can be redirected to a file or
-to a different system
+which is written to standard output.
+The output can be redirected to a file or to a different system
.Po for example, using
.Xr ssh 1
.Pc .
By default, a full stream is generated.
.Bl -tag -width "-D"
.It Fl D, -dedup
-Generate a deduplicated stream. Blocks which would have been sent multiple times
-in the send stream will only be sent once. The receiving system must also
-support this feature to receive a deduplicated stream. This flag can be used
-regardless of the dataset's
+Generate a deduplicated stream.
+Blocks which would have been sent multiple times in the send stream will only be
+sent once.
+The receiving system must also support this feature to receive a deduplicated
+stream.
+This flag can be used regardless of the dataset's
.Sy dedup
property, but performance will be much better if the filesystem uses a
dedup-capable checksum
@@ -2476,7 +2663,8 @@ dedup-capable checksum
.Pc .
.It Fl I Ar snapshot
Generate a stream package that sends all intermediary snapshots from the first
-snapshot to the second snapshot. For example,
+snapshot to the second snapshot.
+For example,
.Fl I Em @a Em fs@d
is similar to
.Fl i Em @a Em fs@b Ns ; Fl i Em @b Em fs@c Ns ; Fl i Em @c Em fs@d .
@@ -2484,15 +2672,16 @@ The incremental source may be specified as with the
.Fl i
option.
.It Fl L, -large-block
-Generate a stream which may contain blocks larger than 128KB. This flag has no
-effect if the
+Generate a stream which may contain blocks larger than 128KB.
+This flag has no effect if the
.Sy large_blocks
pool feature is disabled, or if the
.Sy recordsize
-property of this filesystem has never been set above 128KB. The receiving system
-must have the
+property of this filesystem has never been set above 128KB.
+The receiving system must have the
.Sy large_blocks
-pool feature enabled as well. See
+pool feature enabled as well.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags and the
.Sy large_blocks
@@ -2501,9 +2690,9 @@ feature.
Print machine-parsable verbose information about the stream package generated.
.It Fl R, -replicate
Generate a replication stream package, which will replicate the specified
-file system, and all descendent file systems, up to the named snapshot. When
-received, all properties, snapshots, descendent file systems, and clones are
-preserved.
+file system, and all descendent file systems, up to the named snapshot.
+When received, all properties, snapshots, descendent file systems, and clones
+are preserved.
.Pp
If the
.Fl i
@@ -2511,9 +2700,10 @@ or
.Fl I
flags are used in conjunction with the
.Fl R
-flag, an incremental replication stream is generated. The current values of
-properties, and current snapshot and file system names are set when the stream
-is received. If the
+flag, an incremental replication stream is generated.
+The current values of properties, and current snapshot and file system names are
+set when the stream is received.
+If the
.Fl F
flag is specified when this stream is received, snapshots and file systems that
do not exist on the sending side are destroyed.
@@ -2522,28 +2712,41 @@ Generate a more compact stream by using
.Sy WRITE_EMBEDDED
records for blocks which are stored more compactly on disk by the
.Sy embedded_data
-pool feature. This flag has no effect if the
+pool feature.
+This flag has no effect if the
.Sy embedded_data
-feature is disabled. The receiving system must have the
+feature is disabled.
+The receiving system must have the
.Sy embedded_data
-feature enabled. If the
+feature enabled.
+If the
.Sy lz4_compress
feature is active on the sending system, then the receiving system must have
-that feature enabled as well. See
+that feature enabled as well.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags and the
.Sy embedded_data
feature.
.It Fl c, -compressed
Generate a more compact stream by using compressed WRITE records for blocks
-which are compressed on disk and in memory (see the
-.Sy compression No property for details). If the Sy lz4_compress No feature
-is active on the sending system, then the receiving system must have that
-feature enabled as well. If the
-.Sy large_blocks No feature is enabled on the sending system but the Fl L
+which are compressed on disk and in memory
+.Po see the
+.Sy compression
+property for details
+.Pc .
+If the
+.Sy lz4_compress
+feature is active on the sending system, then the receiving system must have
+that feature enabled as well.
+If the
+.Sy large_blocks
+feature is enabled on the sending system but the
+.Fl L
option is not supplied in conjunction with
-.Fl c, No then the data will be decompressed before sending so it can be split
-into smaller block sizes.
+.Fl c ,
+then the data will be decompressed before sending so it can be split into
+smaller block sizes.
.It Fl i Ar snapshot
Generate an incremental stream from the first
.Ar snapshot
@@ -2569,26 +2772,29 @@ not just
.It Fl n, -dryrun
Do a dry-run
.Pq Qq No-op
-send. Do not generate any actual send data. This is useful in conjunction with
-the
+send.
+Do not generate any actual send data.
+This is useful in conjunction with the
.Fl v
or
.Fl P
-flags to determine what data will be sent. In this case, the verbose output will
-be written to standard output
+flags to determine what data will be sent.
+In this case, the verbose output will be written to standard output
.Po contrast with a non-dry-run, where the stream is written to standard output
and the verbose output goes to standard error
.Pc .
.It Fl p, -props
-Include the dataset's properties in the stream. This flag is implicit when
+Include the dataset's properties in the stream.
+This flag is implicit when
.Fl R
-is specified. The receiving system must also support this feature.
+is specified.
+The receiving system must also support this feature.
.It Fl v, -verbose
-Print verbose information about the stream package generated. This information
-includes a per-second report of how much data has been sent.
+Print verbose information about the stream package generated.
+This information includes a per-second report of how much data has been sent.
.Pp
-The format of the stream is committed. You will be able to receive your streams
-on future versions of ZFS .
+The format of the stream is committed.
+You will be able to receive your streams on future versions of ZFS .
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -2598,57 +2804,73 @@ on future versions of ZFS .
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume Ns | Ns Ar snapshot
.Xc
Generate a send stream, which may be of a filesystem, and may be incremental
-from a bookmark. If the destination is a filesystem or volume, the pool must be
-read-only, or the filesystem must not be mounted. When the stream generated from
-a filesystem or volume is received, the default snapshot name will be
+from a bookmark.
+If the destination is a filesystem or volume, the pool must be read-only, or the
+filesystem must not be mounted.
+When the stream generated from a filesystem or volume is received, the default
+snapshot name will be
.Qq --head-- .
.Bl -tag -width "-L"
.It Fl L, -large-block
-Generate a stream which may contain blocks larger than 128KB. This flag has no
-effect if the
+Generate a stream which may contain blocks larger than 128KB.
+This flag has no effect if the
.Sy large_blocks
pool feature is disabled, or if the
.Sy recordsize
-property of this filesystem has never been set above 128KB. The receiving system
-must have the
+property of this filesystem has never been set above 128KB.
+The receiving system must have the
.Sy large_blocks
-pool feature enabled as well. See
+pool feature enabled as well.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags and the
.Sy large_blocks
feature.
.It Fl c, -compressed
Generate a more compact stream by using compressed WRITE records for blocks
-which are compressed on disk and in memory (see the
-.Sy compression No property for details). If the Sy lz4_compress No feature is
-active on the sending system, then the receiving system must have that feature
-enabled as well. If the
-.Sy large_blocks No feature is enabled on the sending system but the Fl L
+which are compressed on disk and in memory
+.Po see the
+.Sy compression
+property for details
+.Pc .
+If the
+.Sy lz4_compress
+feature is active on the sending system, then the receiving system must have
+that feature enabled as well.
+If the
+.Sy large_blocks
+feature is enabled on the sending system but the
+.Fl L
option is not supplied in conjunction with
-.Fl c, No then the data will be decompressed before sending so it can be split
-into smaller block sizes.
+.Fl c ,
+then the data will be decompressed before sending so it can be split into
+smaller block sizes.
.It Fl e, -embed
Generate a more compact stream by using
.Sy WRITE_EMBEDDED
records for blocks which are stored more compactly on disk by the
.Sy embedded_data
-pool feature. This flag has no effect if the
+pool feature.
+This flag has no effect if the
.Sy embedded_data
-feature is disabled. The receiving system must have the
+feature is disabled.
+The receiving system must have the
.Sy embedded_data
-feature enabled. If the
+feature enabled.
+If the
.Sy lz4_compress
feature is active on the sending system, then the receiving system must have
-that feature enabled as well. See
+that feature enabled as well.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags and the
.Sy embedded_data
feature.
.It Fl i Ar snapshot Ns | Ns Ar bookmark
-Generate an incremental send stream. The incremental source must be an earlier
-snapshot in the destination's history. It will commonly be an earlier snapshot
-in the destination's file system, in which case it can be specified as the last
-component of the name
+Generate an incremental send stream.
+The incremental source must be an earlier snapshot in the destination's history.
+It will commonly be an earlier snapshot in the destination's file system, in
+which case it can be specified as the last component of the name
.Po the
.Sy #
or
@@ -2667,10 +2889,12 @@ origin, etc.
.Fl t
.Ar receive_resume_token
.Xc
-Creates a send stream which resumes an interrupted receive. The
+Creates a send stream which resumes an interrupted receive.
+The
.Ar receive_resume_token
-is the value of this property on the filesystem
-or volume that was being received into. See the documentation for
+is the value of this property on the filesystem or volume that was being
+received into.
+See the documentation for
.Sy zfs receive -s
for more details.
.It Xo
@@ -2688,8 +2912,9 @@ for more details.
.Ar filesystem
.Xc
Creates a snapshot whose contents are as specified in the stream provided on
-standard input. If a full stream is received, then a new file system is created
-as well. Streams are created using the
+standard input.
+If a full stream is received, then a new file system is created as well.
+Streams are created using the
.Nm zfs Cm send
subcommand, which by default creates a full stream.
.Nm zfs Cm recv
@@ -2698,7 +2923,8 @@ can be used as an alias for
.Pp
If an incremental stream is received, then the destination file system must
already exist, and its most recent snapshot must match the incremental stream's
-source. For
+source.
+For
.Sy zvols ,
the destination device link is destroyed and recreated, which means the
.Sy zvol
@@ -2723,8 +2949,9 @@ options.
.Pp
If the argument is a snapshot name, the specified
.Ar snapshot
-is created. If the argument is a file system or volume name, a snapshot with the
-same name as the sent snapshot is created within the specified
+is created.
+If the argument is a file system or volume name, a snapshot with the same name
+as the sent snapshot is created within the specified
.Ar filesystem
or
.Ar volume .
@@ -2748,7 +2975,8 @@ option is specified, all but the first element of the sent snapshot's file
system path
.Pq usually the pool name
is used and any required intermediate file systems within the specified one are
-created. If the
+created.
+If the
.Fl e
option is specified, then only the last element of the sent snapshot's file
system name
@@ -2757,7 +2985,8 @@ is used as the target file system name.
.Bl -tag -width "-F"
.It Fl F
Force a rollback of the file system to the most recent snapshot before
-performing the receive operation. If receiving an incremental replication stream
+performing the receive operation.
+If receiving an incremental replication stream
.Po for example, one generated by
.Nm zfs Cm send Fl R Op Fl i Ns | Ns Fl I
.Pc ,
@@ -2771,16 +3000,18 @@ Discard all but the last element of the sent snapshot's file system name, using
that element to determine the name of the target file system for the new
snapshot as described in the paragraph above.
.It Fl n
-Do not actually receive the stream. This can be useful in conjunction with the
+Do not actually receive the stream.
+This can be useful in conjunction with the
.Fl v
option to verify the name the receive operation would use.
.It Fl o Sy origin Ns = Ns Ar snapshot
Forces the stream to be received as a clone of the given snapshot.
If the stream is a full send stream, this will create the filesystem
-described by the stream as a clone of the specified snapshot. Which
-snapshot was specified will not affect the success or failure of the
-receive, as long as the snapshot does exist. If the stream is an
-incremental send stream, all the normal verification will be performed.
+described by the stream as a clone of the specified snapshot.
+Which snapshot was specified will not affect the success or failure of the
+receive, as long as the snapshot does exist.
+If the stream is an incremental send stream, all the normal verification will be
+performed.
.It Fl u
File system that is associated with the received stream is not mounted.
.It Fl v
@@ -2788,8 +3019,8 @@ Print verbose information about the stream and the time required to perform the
receive operation.
.It Fl s
If the receive is interrupted, save the partially received state, rather
-than deleting it. Interruption may be due to premature termination of
-the stream
+than deleting it.
+Interruption may be due to premature termination of the stream
.Po e.g. due to network failure or failure of the remote system
if the stream is being read over a network connection
.Pc ,
@@ -2807,7 +3038,8 @@ property of the filesystem or volume which is received into.
.Pp
To use this flag, the storage pool must have the
.Sy extensible_dataset
-feature enabled. See
+feature enabled.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on ZFS feature flags.
.El
@@ -2826,7 +3058,8 @@ deleting its saved partially received state.
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Xc
Displays permissions that have been delegated on the specified filesystem or
-volume. See the other forms of
+volume.
+See the other forms of
.Nm zfs Cm allow
for more information.
.It Xo
@@ -2862,32 +3095,36 @@ only for the specified file system.
.It Fl u Ar user Ns Oo , Ns Ar user Oc Ns ...
Explicitly specify that permissions are delegated to the user.
.It Ar user Ns | Ns Ar group Ns Oo , Ns Ar user Ns | Ns Ar group Oc Ns ...
-Specifies to whom the permissions are delegated. Multiple entities can be
-specified as a comma-separated list. If neither of the
+Specifies to whom the permissions are delegated.
+Multiple entities can be specified as a comma-separated list.
+If neither of the
.Fl gu
options are specified, then the argument is interpreted preferentially as the
keyword
.Sy everyone ,
-then as a user name, and lastly as a group name. To specify a user or group
-named
+then as a user name, and lastly as a group name.
+To specify a user or group named
.Qq everyone ,
use the
.Fl g
or
.Fl u
-options. To specify a group with the same name as a user, use the
+options.
+To specify a group with the same name as a user, use the
.Fl g
options.
.It Xo
.Ar perm Ns | Ns @ Ns Ar setname Ns Oo , Ns Ar perm Ns | Ns @ Ns
.Ar setname Oc Ns ...
.Xc
-The permissions to delegate. Multiple permissions may be specified as a
-comma-separated list. Permission names are the same as ZFS subcommand and
-property names. See the property list below. Property set names,
-which begin with
+The permissions to delegate.
+Multiple permissions may be specified as a comma-separated list.
+Permission names are the same as ZFS subcommand and property names.
+See the property list below.
+Property set names, which begin with
.Sy @ ,
-may be specified. See the
+may be specified.
+See the
.Fl s
form below for details.
.El
@@ -2898,7 +3135,8 @@ options are specified, or both are, then the permissions are allowed for the
file system or volume, and all of its descendents.
.Pp
Permissions are generally the ability to use a ZFS subcommand or change a ZFS
-property. The following permissions are available:
+property.
+The following permissions are available:
.Bd -literal
NAME TYPE NOTES
allow subcommand Must also have the permission that is being
@@ -2973,7 +3211,8 @@ zoned property
.Xc
Sets
.Qq create time
-permissions. These permissions are granted
+permissions.
+These permissions are granted
.Pq locally
to the creator of any newly-created descendent file system.
.It Xo
@@ -2984,12 +3223,13 @@ to the creator of any newly-created descendent file system.
.Ar setname Oc Ns ...
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Xc
-Defines or adds permissions to a permission set. The set can be used by other
+Defines or adds permissions to a permission set.
+The set can be used by other
.Nm zfs Cm allow
-commands for the specified file system and its descendents. Sets are evaluated
-dynamically, so changes to a set are immediately reflected. Permission sets
-follow the same naming restrictions as ZFS file systems, but the name must begin
-with
+commands for the specified file system and its descendents.
+Sets are evaluated dynamically, so changes to a set are immediately reflected.
+Permission sets follow the same naming restrictions as ZFS file systems, but the
+name must begin with
.Sy @ ,
and can be no more than 64 characters long.
.It Xo
@@ -3019,21 +3259,25 @@ and can be no more than 64 characters long.
.Xc
Removes permissions that were granted with the
.Nm zfs Cm allow
-command. No permissions are explicitly denied, so other permissions granted are
-still in effect. For example, if the permission is granted by an ancestor. If no
-permissions are specified, then all permissions for the specified
+command.
+No permissions are explicitly denied, so other permissions granted are still in
+effect.
+For example, if the permission is granted by an ancestor.
+If no permissions are specified, then all permissions for the specified
.Ar user ,
.Ar group ,
or
.Sy everyone
-are removed. Specifying
+are removed.
+Specifying
.Sy everyone
.Po or using the
.Fl e
option
.Pc
only removes the permissions that were granted to everyone, not all permissions
-for every user and group. See the
+for every user and group.
+See the
.Nm zfs Cm allow
command for a description of the
.Fl ldugec
@@ -3051,8 +3295,9 @@ Recursively remove the permissions from this file system and all descendents.
.Ar setname Oc Ns ... Oc
.Ar filesystem Ns | Ns Ar volume
.Xc
-Removes permissions from a permission set. If no permissions are specified, then
-all permissions are removed, thus removing the set entirely.
+Removes permissions from a permission set.
+If no permissions are specified, then all permissions are removed, thus removing
+the set entirely.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm hold
@@ -3061,8 +3306,9 @@ all permissions are removed, thus removing the set entirely.
.Xc
Adds a single reference, named with the
.Ar tag
-argument, to the specified snapshot or snapshots. Each snapshot has its own tag
-namespace, and tags must be unique within that space.
+argument, to the specified snapshot or snapshots.
+Each snapshot has its own tag namespace, and tags must be unique within that
+space.
.Pp
If a hold exists on a snapshot, attempts to destroy that snapshot by using the
.Nm zfs Cm destroy
@@ -3093,9 +3339,9 @@ listing the holds on the named snapshot.
.Xc
Removes a single reference, named with the
.Ar tag
-argument, from the specified snapshot or snapshots. The tag must already exist
-for each snapshot. If a hold exists on a snapshot, attempts to destroy that
-snapshot by using the
+argument, from the specified snapshot or snapshots.
+The tag must already exist for each snapshot.
+If a hold exists on a snapshot, attempts to destroy that snapshot by using the
.Nm zfs Cm destroy
command return
.Er EBUSY .
@@ -3112,11 +3358,12 @@ descendent file systems.
.Xc
Display the difference between a snapshot of a given filesystem and another
snapshot of that filesystem from a later time or the current contents of the
-filesystem. The first column is a character indicating the type of change, the
-other columns indicate pathname, new pathname
+filesystem.
+The first column is a character indicating the type of change, the other columns
+indicate pathname, new pathname
.Pq in case of rename ,
-change in link count, and optionally file type and/or change time. The types of
-change are:
+change in link count, and optionally file type and/or change time.
+The types of change are:
.Bd -literal
- The path has been removed
+ The path has been created
@@ -3184,11 +3431,11 @@ The following command creates snapshots named
.Sy yesterday
of
.Em pool/home
-and all of its descendent file systems. Each snapshot is mounted on demand in
-the
+and all of its descendent file systems.
+Each snapshot is mounted on demand in the
.Pa .zfs/snapshot
-directory at the root of its file system. The second command destroys the newly
-created snapshots.
+directory at the root of its file system.
+The second command destroys the newly created snapshots.
.Bd -literal
# zfs snapshot -r pool/home@yesterday
# zfs destroy -r pool/home@yesterday
@@ -3382,9 +3629,9 @@ property for a dataset.
.Ed
.It Sy Example 15 No Performing a Rolling Snapshot
The following example shows how to maintain a history of snapshots with a
-consistent naming scheme. To keep a week's worth of snapshots, the user
-destroys the oldest snapshot, renames the remaining snapshots, and then creates
-a new snapshot, as follows:
+consistent naming scheme.
+To keep a week's worth of snapshots, the user destroys the oldest snapshot,
+renames the remaining snapshots, and then creates a new snapshot, as follows:
.Bd -literal
# zfs destroy -r pool/users@7daysago
# zfs rename -r pool/users@6daysago @7daysago
@@ -3447,7 +3694,8 @@ The following example shows how to grant anyone in the group
to create file systems in
.Em tank/users .
This syntax also allows staff members to destroy their own file systems, but not
-destroy anyone else's file system. The permissions on
+destroy anyone else's file system.
+The permissions on
.Em tank/users
are also displayed.
.Bd -literal
@@ -3463,7 +3711,8 @@ Local+Descendent permissions:
.It Sy Example 19 No Defining and Granting a Permission Set on a ZFS Dataset
The following example shows how to define and grant a permission set on the
.Em tank/users
-file system. The permissions on
+file system.
+The permissions on
.Em tank/users
are also displayed.
.Bd -literal
@@ -3480,7 +3729,8 @@ Local+Descendent permissions:
The following example shows to grant the ability to set quotas and reservations
on the
.Em users/home
-file system. The permissions on
+file system.
+The permissions on
.Em users/home
are also displayed.
.Bd -literal
@@ -3499,7 +3749,8 @@ The following example shows how to remove the snapshot permission from the
.Sy staff
group on the
.Em tank/users
-file system. The permissions on
+file system.
+The permissions on
.Em tank/users
are also displayed.
.Bd -literal
@@ -3513,7 +3764,8 @@ Local+Descendent permissions:
.Ed
.It Sy Example 22 No Showing the differences between a snapshot and a ZFS Dataset
The following example shows how to see what has changed between a prior
-snapshot of a ZFS dataset and its current state. The
+snapshot of a ZFS dataset and its current state.
+The
.Fl F
option is used to indicate type information for the files affected.
.Bd -literal
diff --git a/man/man1m/zpool.1m b/man/man1m/zpool.1m
index da923aa174a9..61e456ad0402 100644
--- a/man/man1m/zpool.1m
+++ b/man/man1m/zpool.1m
@@ -167,22 +167,24 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command configures ZFS storage pools. A storage pool is a collection of devices
-that provides physical storage and data replication for ZFS datasets. All
-datasets within a storage pool share the same space. See
+command configures ZFS storage pools.
+A storage pool is a collection of devices that provides physical storage and
+data replication for ZFS datasets.
+All datasets within a storage pool share the same space.
+See
.Xr zfs 1M
for information on managing datasets.
.Ss Virtual Devices (vdevs)
A "virtual device" describes a single device or a collection of devices
-organized according to certain performance and fault characteristics. The
-following virtual devices are supported:
+organized according to certain performance and fault characteristics.
+The following virtual devices are supported:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Sy disk
A block device, typically located under
.Pa /dev/dsk .
ZFS can use individual slices or partitions, though the recommended mode of
-operation is to use whole disks. A disk can be specified by a full path, or it
-can be a shorthand name
+operation is to use whole disks.
+A disk can be specified by a full path, or it can be a shorthand name
.Po the relative portion of the path under
.Pa /dev/dsk
.Pc .
@@ -193,15 +195,16 @@ is equivalent to
.Pa /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2 .
When given a whole disk, ZFS automatically labels the disk, if necessary.
.It Sy file
-A regular file. The use of files as a backing store is strongly discouraged. It
-is designed primarily for experimental purposes, as the fault tolerance of a
-file is only as good as the file system of which it is a part. A file must be
-specified by a full path.
+A regular file.
+The use of files as a backing store is strongly discouraged.
+It is designed primarily for experimental purposes, as the fault tolerance of a
+file is only as good as the file system of which it is a part.
+A file must be specified by a full path.
.It Sy mirror
-A mirror of two or more devices. Data is replicated in an identical fashion
-across all components of a mirror. A mirror with N disks of size X can hold X
-bytes and can withstand (N-1) devices failing before data integrity is
-compromised.
+A mirror of two or more devices.
+Data is replicated in an identical fashion across all components of a mirror.
+A mirror with N disks of size X can hold X bytes and can withstand (N-1) devices
+failing before data integrity is compromised.
.It Sy raidz , raidz1 , raidz2 , raidz3
A variation on RAID-5 that allows for better distribution of parity and
eliminates the RAID-5
@@ -211,43 +214,50 @@ Data and parity is striped across all disks within a raidz group.
.Pp
A raidz group can have single-, double-, or triple-parity, meaning that the
raidz group can sustain one, two, or three failures, respectively, without
-losing any data. The
+losing any data.
+The
.Sy raidz1
vdev type specifies a single-parity raidz group; the
.Sy raidz2
vdev type specifies a double-parity raidz group; and the
.Sy raidz3
-vdev type specifies a triple-parity raidz group. The
+vdev type specifies a triple-parity raidz group.
+The
.Sy raidz
vdev type is an alias for
.Sy raidz1 .
.Pp
A raidz group with N disks of size X with P parity disks can hold approximately
(N-P)*X bytes and can withstand P device(s) failing before data integrity is
-compromised. The minimum number of devices in a raidz group is one more than
-the number of parity disks. The recommended number is between 3 and 9 to help
-increase performance.
+compromised.
+The minimum number of devices in a raidz group is one more than the number of
+parity disks.
+The recommended number is between 3 and 9 to help increase performance.
.It Sy spare
-A special pseudo-vdev which keeps track of available hot spares for a pool. For
-more information, see the
+A special pseudo-vdev which keeps track of available hot spares for a pool.
+For more information, see the
.Sx Hot Spares
section.
.It Sy log
-A separate intent log device. If more than one log device is specified, then
-writes are load-balanced between devices. Log devices can be mirrored. However,
-raidz vdev types are not supported for the intent log. For more information,
-see the
+A separate intent log device.
+If more than one log device is specified, then writes are load-balanced between
+devices.
+Log devices can be mirrored.
+However, raidz vdev types are not supported for the intent log.
+For more information, see the
.Sx Intent Log
section.
.It Sy cache
-A device used to cache storage pool data. A cache device cannot be configured
-as a mirror or raidz group. For more information, see the
+A device used to cache storage pool data.
+A cache device cannot be configured as a mirror or raidz group.
+For more information, see the
.Sx Cache Devices
section.
.El
.Pp
Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or raidz virtual device can only
-contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors
+contain files or disks.
+Mirrors of mirrors
.Pq or other combinations
are not allowed.
.Pp
@@ -256,68 +266,72 @@ A pool can have any number of virtual devices at the top of the configuration
.Qq root vdevs
.Pc .
Data is dynamically distributed across all top-level devices to balance data
-among devices. As new virtual devices are added, ZFS automatically places data
-on the newly available devices.
+among devices.
+As new virtual devices are added, ZFS automatically places data on the newly
+available devices.
.Pp
Virtual devices are specified one at a time on the command line, separated by
-whitespace. The keywords
+whitespace.
+The keywords
.Sy mirror
and
.Sy raidz
-are used to distinguish where a group ends and another begins. For example,
-the following creates two root vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:
+are used to distinguish where a group ends and another begins.
+For example, the following creates two root vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:
.Bd -literal
# zpool create mypool mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0
.Ed
.Ss Device Failure and Recovery
ZFS supports a rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and data
-corruption. All metadata and data is checksummed, and ZFS automatically repairs
-bad data from a good copy when corruption is detected.
+corruption.
+All metadata and data is checksummed, and ZFS automatically repairs bad data
+from a good copy when corruption is detected.
.Pp
In order to take advantage of these features, a pool must make use of some form
-of redundancy, using either mirrored or raidz groups. While ZFS supports
-running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root vdev is simply a disk
-or file, this is strongly discouraged. A single case of bit corruption can
-render some or all of your data unavailable.
+of redundancy, using either mirrored or raidz groups.
+While ZFS supports running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root
+vdev is simply a disk or file, this is strongly discouraged.
+A single case of bit corruption can render some or all of your data unavailable.
.Pp
A pool's health status is described by one of three states: online, degraded,
-or faulted. An online pool has all devices operating normally. A degraded pool
-is one in which one or more devices have failed, but the data is still
-available due to a redundant configuration. A faulted pool has corrupted
-metadata, or one or more faulted devices, and insufficient replicas to continue
-functioning.
+or faulted.
+An online pool has all devices operating normally.
+A degraded pool is one in which one or more devices have failed, but the data is
+still available due to a redundant configuration.
+A faulted pool has corrupted metadata, or one or more faulted devices, and
+insufficient replicas to continue functioning.
.Pp
The health of the top-level vdev, such as mirror or raidz device, is
potentially impacted by the state of its associated vdevs, or component
-devices. A top-level vdev or component device is in one of the following
-states:
+devices.
+A top-level vdev or component device is in one of the following states:
.Bl -tag -width "DEGRADED"
.It Sy DEGRADED
One or more top-level vdevs is in the degraded state because one or more
-component devices are offline. Sufficient replicas exist to continue
-functioning.
+component devices are offline.
+Sufficient replicas exist to continue functioning.
.Pp
One or more component devices is in the degraded or faulted state, but
-sufficient replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions
-are as follows:
+sufficient replicas exist to continue functioning.
+The underlying conditions are as follows:
.Bl -bullet
.It
The number of checksum errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is
-degraded as an indication that something may be wrong. ZFS continues to use the
-device as necessary.
+degraded as an indication that something may be wrong.
+ZFS continues to use the device as necessary.
.It
-The number of I/O errors exceeds acceptable levels. The device could not be
-marked as faulted because there are insufficient replicas to continue
-functioning.
+The number of I/O errors exceeds acceptable levels.
+The device could not be marked as faulted because there are insufficient
+replicas to continue functioning.
.El
.It Sy FAULTED
One or more top-level vdevs is in the faulted state because one or more
-component devices are offline. Insufficient replicas exist to continue
-functioning.
+component devices are offline.
+Insufficient replicas exist to continue functioning.
.Pp
One or more component devices is in the faulted state, and insufficient
-replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions are as
-follows:
+replicas exist to continue functioning.
+The underlying conditions are as follows:
.Bl -bullet
.It
The device could be opened, but the contents did not match expected values.
@@ -332,25 +346,29 @@ command.
.It Sy ONLINE
The device is online and functioning.
.It Sy REMOVED
-The device was physically removed while the system was running. Device removal
-detection is hardware-dependent and may not be supported on all platforms.
+The device was physically removed while the system was running.
+Device removal detection is hardware-dependent and may not be supported on all
+platforms.
.It Sy UNAVAIL
-The device could not be opened. If a pool is imported when a device was
-unavailable, then the device will be identified by a unique identifier instead
-of its path since the path was never correct in the first place.
+The device could not be opened.
+If a pool is imported when a device was unavailable, then the device will be
+identified by a unique identifier instead of its path since the path was never
+correct in the first place.
.El
.Pp
If a device is removed and later re-attached to the system, ZFS attempts
-to put the device online automatically. Device attach detection is
-hardware-dependent and might not be supported on all platforms.
+to put the device online automatically.
+Device attach detection is hardware-dependent and might not be supported on all
+platforms.
.Ss Hot Spares
ZFS allows devices to be associated with pools as
.Qq hot spares .
These devices are not actively used in the pool, but when an active device
-fails, it is automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create a pool with hot
-spares, specify a
+fails, it is automatically replaced by a hot spare.
+To create a pool with hot spares, specify a
.Sy spare
-vdev with any number of devices. For example,
+vdev with any number of devices.
+For example,
.Bd -literal
# zpool create pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 spare c2d0 c3d0
.Ed
@@ -359,11 +377,12 @@ Spares can be shared across multiple pools, and can be added with the
.Nm zpool Cm add
command and removed with the
.Nm zpool Cm remove
-command. Once a spare replacement is initiated, a new
+command.
+Once a spare replacement is initiated, a new
.Sy spare
vdev is created within the configuration that will remain there until the
-original device is replaced. At this point, the hot spare becomes available
-again if another device fails.
+original device is replaced.
+At this point, the hot spare becomes available again if another device fails.
.Pp
If a pool has a shared spare that is currently being used, the pool can not be
exported since other pools may use this shared spare, which may lead to
@@ -377,74 +396,82 @@ pools.
Spares cannot replace log devices.
.Ss Intent Log
The ZFS Intent Log (ZIL) satisfies POSIX requirements for synchronous
-transactions. For instance, databases often require their transactions to be on
-stable storage devices when returning from a system call. NFS and other
-applications can also use
+transactions.
+For instance, databases often require their transactions to be on stable storage
+devices when returning from a system call.
+NFS and other applications can also use
.Xr fsync 3C
-to ensure data stability. By default, the intent log is allocated from blocks
-within the main pool. However, it might be possible to get better performance
-using separate intent log devices such as NVRAM or a dedicated disk. For
-example:
+to ensure data stability.
+By default, the intent log is allocated from blocks within the main pool.
+However, it might be possible to get better performance using separate intent
+log devices such as NVRAM or a dedicated disk.
+For example:
.Bd -literal
# zpool create pool c0d0 c1d0 log c2d0
.Ed
.Pp
-Multiple log devices can also be specified, and they can be mirrored. See the
+Multiple log devices can also be specified, and they can be mirrored.
+See the
.Sx EXAMPLES
section for an example of mirroring multiple log devices.
.Pp
Log devices can be added, replaced, attached, detached, and imported and
-exported as part of the larger pool. Mirrored log devices can be removed by
-specifying the top-level mirror for the log.
+exported as part of the larger pool.
+Mirrored log devices can be removed by specifying the top-level mirror for the
+log.
.Ss Cache Devices
Devices can be added to a storage pool as
.Qq cache devices .
These devices provide an additional layer of caching between main memory and
-disk. For read-heavy workloads, where the working set size is much larger than
-what can be cached in main memory, using cache devices allow much more of this
-working set to be served from low latency media. Using cache devices provides
-the greatest performance improvement for random read-workloads of mostly static
-content.
+disk.
+For read-heavy workloads, where the working set size is much larger than what
+can be cached in main memory, using cache devices allow much more of this
+working set to be served from low latency media.
+Using cache devices provides the greatest performance improvement for random
+read-workloads of mostly static content.
.Pp
To create a pool with cache devices, specify a
.Sy cache
-vdev with any number of devices. For example:
+vdev with any number of devices.
+For example:
.Bd -literal
# zpool create pool c0d0 c1d0 cache c2d0 c3d0
.Ed
.Pp
-Cache devices cannot be mirrored or part of a raidz configuration. If a read
-error is encountered on a cache device, that read I/O is reissued to the
-original storage pool device, which might be part of a mirrored or raidz
+Cache devices cannot be mirrored or part of a raidz configuration.
+If a read error is encountered on a cache device, that read I/O is reissued to
+the original storage pool device, which might be part of a mirrored or raidz
configuration.
.Pp
The content of the cache devices is considered volatile, as is the case with
other system caches.
.Ss Properties
-Each pool has several properties associated with it. Some properties are
-read-only statistics while others are configurable and change the behavior of
-the pool.
+Each pool has several properties associated with it.
+Some properties are read-only statistics while others are configurable and
+change the behavior of the pool.
.Pp
The following are read-only properties:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Sy available
-Amount of storage available within the pool. This property can also be referred
-to by its shortened column name,
+Amount of storage available within the pool.
+This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy avail .
.It Sy bootsize
-The size of the system boot partition. This property can only be set at pool
-creation time and is read-only once pool is created. Setting this property
-implies using the
+The size of the system boot partition.
+This property can only be set at pool creation time and is read-only once pool
+is created.
+Setting this property implies using the
.Fl B
option.
.It Sy capacity
-Percentage of pool space used. This property can also be referred to by its
-shortened column name,
+Percentage of pool space used.
+This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy cap .
.It Sy expandsize
Amount of uninitialized space within the pool or device that can be used to
-increase the total capacity of the pool. Uninitialized space consists of
-any space on an EFI labeled vdev which has not been brought online
+increase the total capacity of the pool.
+Uninitialized space consists of any space on an EFI labeled vdev which has not
+been brought online
.Po e.g, using
.Nm zpool Cm online Fl e
.Pc .
@@ -457,20 +484,23 @@ The amount of free space available in the pool.
After a file system or snapshot is destroyed, the space it was using is
returned to the pool asynchronously.
.Sy freeing
-is the amount of space remaining to be reclaimed. Over time
+is the amount of space remaining to be reclaimed.
+Over time
.Sy freeing
will decrease while
.Sy free
increases.
.It Sy health
-The current health of the pool. Health can be one of
+The current health of the pool.
+Health can be one of
.Sy ONLINE , DEGRADED , FAULTED , OFFLINE, REMOVED , UNAVAIL .
.It Sy guid
A unique identifier for the pool.
.It Sy size
Total size of the storage pool.
.It Sy unsupported@ Ns Em feature_guid
-Information about unsupported features that are enabled on the pool. See
+Information about unsupported features that are enabled on the pool.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details.
.It Sy used
@@ -478,27 +508,32 @@ Amount of storage space used within the pool.
.El
.Pp
The space usage properties report actual physical space available to the
-storage pool. The physical space can be different from the total amount of
-space that any contained datasets can actually use. The amount of space used in
-a raidz configuration depends on the characteristics of the data being
-written. In addition, ZFS reserves some space for internal accounting
-that the
+storage pool.
+The physical space can be different from the total amount of space that any
+contained datasets can actually use.
+The amount of space used in a raidz configuration depends on the characteristics
+of the data being written.
+In addition, ZFS reserves some space for internal accounting that the
.Xr zfs 1M
command takes into account, but the
.Nm
-command does not. For non-full pools of a reasonable size, these effects should
-be invisible. For small pools, or pools that are close to being completely
-full, these discrepancies may become more noticeable.
+command does not.
+For non-full pools of a reasonable size, these effects should be invisible.
+For small pools, or pools that are close to being completely full, these
+discrepancies may become more noticeable.
.Pp
The following property can be set at creation time and import time:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Sy altroot
-Alternate root directory. If set, this directory is prepended to any mount
-points within the pool. This can be used when examining an unknown pool where
-the mount points cannot be trusted, or in an alternate boot environment, where
-the typical paths are not valid.
+Alternate root directory.
+If set, this directory is prepended to any mount points within the pool.
+This can be used when examining an unknown pool where the mount points cannot be
+trusted, or in an alternate boot environment, where the typical paths are not
+valid.
.Sy altroot
-is not a persistent property. It is valid only while the system is up. Setting
+is not a persistent property.
+It is valid only while the system is up.
+Setting
.Sy altroot
defaults to using
.Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Sy none ,
@@ -510,8 +545,8 @@ The following property can be set only at import time:
.It Sy readonly Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
If set to
.Sy on ,
-the pool will be imported in read-only mode. This property can also be referred
-to by its shortened column name,
+the pool will be imported in read-only mode.
+This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy rdonly .
.El
.Pp
@@ -521,39 +556,46 @@ changed with the
command:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Sy autoexpand Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls automatic pool expansion when the underlying LUN is grown. If set to
+Controls automatic pool expansion when the underlying LUN is grown.
+If set to
.Sy on ,
-the pool will be resized according to the size of the expanded device. If the
-device is part of a mirror or raidz then all devices within that mirror/raidz
-group must be expanded before the new space is made available to the pool. The
-default behavior is
+the pool will be resized according to the size of the expanded device.
+If the device is part of a mirror or raidz then all devices within that
+mirror/raidz group must be expanded before the new space is made available to
+the pool.
+The default behavior is
.Sy off .
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy expand .
.It Sy autoreplace Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
-Controls automatic device replacement. If set to
+Controls automatic device replacement.
+If set to
.Sy off ,
device replacement must be initiated by the administrator by using the
.Nm zpool Cm replace
-command. If set to
+command.
+If set to
.Sy on ,
any new device, found in the same physical location as a device that previously
-belonged to the pool, is automatically formatted and replaced. The default
-behavior is
+belonged to the pool, is automatically formatted and replaced.
+The default behavior is
.Sy off .
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy replace .
.It Sy bootfs Ns = Ns Ar pool Ns / Ns Ar dataset
-Identifies the default bootable dataset for the root pool. This property is
-expected to be set mainly by the installation and upgrade programs.
+Identifies the default bootable dataset for the root pool.
+This property is expected to be set mainly by the installation and upgrade
+programs.
.It Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Ar path Ns | Ns Sy none
-Controls the location of where the pool configuration is cached. Discovering
-all pools on system startup requires a cached copy of the configuration data
-that is stored on the root file system. All pools in this cache are
-automatically imported when the system boots. Some environments, such as
-install and clustering, need to cache this information in a different location
-so that pools are not automatically imported. Setting this property caches the
-pool configuration in a different location that can later be imported with
+Controls the location of where the pool configuration is cached.
+Discovering all pools on system startup requires a cached copy of the
+configuration data that is stored on the root file system.
+All pools in this cache are automatically imported when the system boots.
+Some environments, such as install and clustering, need to cache this
+information in a different location so that pools are not automatically
+imported.
+Setting this property caches the pool configuration in a different location that
+can later be imported with
.Nm zpool Cm import Fl c .
Setting it to the special value
.Sy none
@@ -562,43 +604,48 @@ creates a temporary pool that is never cached, and the special value
.Pq empty string
uses the default location.
.Pp
-Multiple pools can share the same cache file. Because the kernel destroys and
-recreates this file when pools are added and removed, care should be taken when
-attempting to access this file. When the last pool using a
+Multiple pools can share the same cache file.
+Because the kernel destroys and recreates this file when pools are added and
+removed, care should be taken when attempting to access this file.
+When the last pool using a
.Sy cachefile
is exported or destroyed, the file is removed.
.It Sy comment Ns = Ns Ar text
A text string consisting of printable ASCII characters that will be stored
-such that it is available even if the pool becomes faulted. An administrator
-can provide additional information about a pool using this property.
+such that it is available even if the pool becomes faulted.
+An administrator can provide additional information about a pool using this
+property.
.It Sy dedupditto Ns = Ns Ar number
-Threshold for the number of block ditto copies. If the reference count for a
-deduplicated block increases above this number, a new ditto copy of this block
-is automatically stored. The default setting is
+Threshold for the number of block ditto copies.
+If the reference count for a deduplicated block increases above this number, a
+new ditto copy of this block is automatically stored.
+The default setting is
.Sy 0
-which causes no ditto copies to be created for deduplicated blocks. The minimum
-legal nonzero setting is
+which causes no ditto copies to be created for deduplicated blocks.
+The minimum legal nonzero setting is
.Sy 100 .
.It Sy delegation Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
Controls whether a non-privileged user is granted access based on the dataset
-permissions defined on the dataset. See
+permissions defined on the dataset.
+See
.Xr zfs 1M
for more information on ZFS delegated administration.
.It Sy failmode Ns = Ns Sy wait Ns | Ns Sy continue Ns | Ns Sy panic
-Controls the system behavior in the event of catastrophic pool failure. This
-condition is typically a result of a loss of connectivity to the underlying
-storage device(s) or a failure of all devices within the pool. The behavior of
-such an event is determined as follows:
+Controls the system behavior in the event of catastrophic pool failure.
+This condition is typically a result of a loss of connectivity to the underlying
+storage device(s) or a failure of all devices within the pool.
+The behavior of such an event is determined as follows:
.Bl -tag -width "continue"
.It Sy wait
Blocks all I/O access until the device connectivity is recovered and the errors
-are cleared. This is the default behavior.
+are cleared.
+This is the default behavior.
.It Sy continue
Returns
.Er EIO
to any new write I/O requests but allows reads to any of the remaining healthy
-devices. Any write requests that have yet to be committed to disk would be
-blocked.
+devices.
+Any write requests that have yet to be committed to disk would be blocked.
.It Sy panic
Prints out a message to the console and generates a system crash dump.
.El
@@ -609,7 +656,8 @@ The only valid value when setting this property is
.Sy enabled
which moves
.Ar feature_name
-to the enabled state. See
+to the enabled state.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on feature states.
.It Sy listsnaps Ns = Ns Sy on Ns | Ns Sy off
@@ -618,15 +666,18 @@ output when
.Nm zfs Cm list
is run without the
.Fl t
-option. The default value is
+option.
+The default value is
.Sy off .
.It Sy version Ns = Ns Ar version
-The current on-disk version of the pool. This can be increased, but never
-decreased. The preferred method of updating pools is with the
+The current on-disk version of the pool.
+This can be increased, but never decreased.
+The preferred method of updating pools is with the
.Nm zpool Cm upgrade
command, though this property can be used when a specific version is needed for
-backwards compatibility. Once feature flags is enabled on a pool this property
-will no longer have a value.
+backwards compatibility.
+Once feature flags is enabled on a pool this property will no longer have a
+value.
.El
.Ss Subcommands
All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to the pool in their
@@ -635,8 +686,8 @@ original form.
The
.Nm
command provides subcommands to create and destroy storage pools, add capacity
-to storage pools, and provide information about the storage pools. The
-following subcommands are supported:
+to storage pools, and provide information about the storage pools.
+The following subcommands are supported:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -649,11 +700,13 @@ Displays a help message.
.Op Fl fn
.Ar pool vdev Ns ...
.Xc
-Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool. The
+Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool.
+The
.Ar vdev
specification is described in the
.Sx Virtual Devices
-section. The behavior of the
+section.
+The behavior of the
.Fl f
option, and the device checks performed are described in the
.Nm zpool Cm create
@@ -662,8 +715,8 @@ subcommand.
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar vdev Ns s ,
-even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level. Not all
-devices can be overridden in this manner.
+even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level.
+Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
.It Fl n
Displays the configuration that would be used without actually adding the
.Ar vdev Ns s .
@@ -680,7 +733,8 @@ Attaches
.Ar new_device
to the existing
.Ar device .
-The existing device cannot be part of a raidz configuration. If
+The existing device cannot be part of a raidz configuration.
+If
.Ar device
is not currently part of a mirrored configuration,
.Ar device
@@ -692,15 +746,16 @@ If
.Ar device
is part of a two-way mirror, attaching
.Ar new_device
-creates a three-way mirror, and so on. In either case,
+creates a three-way mirror, and so on.
+In either case,
.Ar new_device
begins to resilver immediately.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar new_device ,
-even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
-manner.
+even if its appears to be in use.
+Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -708,9 +763,10 @@ manner.
.Ar pool
.Op Ar device
.Xc
-Clears device errors in a pool. If no arguments are specified, all device
-errors within the pool are cleared. If one or more devices is specified, only
-those errors associated with the specified device or devices are cleared.
+Clears device errors in a pool.
+If no arguments are specified, all device errors within the pool are cleared.
+If one or more devices is specified, only those errors associated with the
+specified device or devices are cleared.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm create
@@ -723,7 +779,8 @@ those errors associated with the specified device or devices are cleared.
.Ar pool vdev Ns ...
.Xc
Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified on the
-command line. The pool name must begin with a letter, and can only contain
+command line.
+The pool name must begin with a letter, and can only contain
alphanumeric characters as well as underscore
.Pq Qq Sy _ ,
dash
@@ -745,19 +802,22 @@ specification is described in the
section.
.Pp
The command verifies that each device specified is accessible and not currently
-in use by another subsystem. There are some uses, such as being currently
-mounted, or specified as the dedicated dump device, that prevents a device from
-ever being used by ZFS . Other uses, such as having a preexisting UFS file
-system, can be overridden with the
+in use by another subsystem.
+There are some uses, such as being currently mounted, or specified as the
+dedicated dump device, that prevents a device from ever being used by ZFS.
+Other uses, such as having a preexisting UFS file system, can be overridden with
+the
.Fl f
option.
.Pp
The command also checks that the replication strategy for the pool is
-consistent. An attempt to combine redundant and non-redundant storage in a
-single pool, or to mix disks and files, results in an error unless
+consistent.
+An attempt to combine redundant and non-redundant storage in a single pool, or
+to mix disks and files, results in an error unless
.Fl f
-is specified. The use of differently sized devices within a single raidz or
-mirror group is also flagged as an error unless
+is specified.
+The use of differently sized devices within a single raidz or mirror group is
+also flagged as an error unless
.Fl f
is specified.
.Pp
@@ -766,7 +826,8 @@ Unless the
option is specified, the default mount point is
.Pa / Ns Ar pool .
The mount point must not exist or must be empty, or else the root dataset
-cannot be mounted. This can be overridden with the
+cannot be mounted.
+This can be overridden with the
.Fl m
option.
.Pp
@@ -776,36 +837,41 @@ option is specified.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl B
Create whole disk pool with EFI System partition to support booting system
-with UEFI firmware. Default size is 256MB. To create boot partition with
-custom size, set the
+with UEFI firmware.
+Default size is 256MB.
+To create boot partition with custom size, set the
.Sy bootsize
property with the
.Fl o
-option. See the
+option.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for details.
.It Fl d
-Do not enable any features on the new pool. Individual features can be enabled
-by setting their corresponding properties to
+Do not enable any features on the new pool.
+Individual features can be enabled by setting their corresponding properties to
.Sy enabled
with the
.Fl o
-option. See
+option.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details about feature properties.
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar vdev Ns s ,
-even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level. Not all
-devices can be overridden in this manner.
+even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level.
+Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
.It Fl m Ar mountpoint
-Sets the mount point for the root dataset. The default mount point is
+Sets the mount point for the root dataset.
+The default mount point is
.Pa /pool
or
.Pa altroot/pool
if
.Ar altroot
-is specified. The mount point must be an absolute path,
+is specified.
+The mount point must be an absolute path,
.Sy legacy ,
or
.Sy none .
@@ -813,15 +879,17 @@ For more information on dataset mount points, see
.Xr zfs 1M .
.It Fl n
Displays the configuration that would be used without actually creating the
-pool. The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
+pool.
+The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
device sharing.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the given pool properties. See the
+Sets the given pool properties.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for a list of valid properties that can be set.
.It Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the given file system properties in the root file system of the pool. See
-the
+Sets the given file system properties in the root file system of the pool.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section of
.Xr zfs 1M
@@ -836,8 +904,8 @@ Equivalent to
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool
.Xc
-Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This command
-tries to unmount any active datasets before destroying the pool.
+Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use.
+This command tries to unmount any active datasets before destroying the pool.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl f
Forces any active datasets contained within the pool to be unmounted.
@@ -849,28 +917,31 @@ Forces any active datasets contained within the pool to be unmounted.
.Xc
Detaches
.Ar device
-from a mirror. The operation is refused if there are no other valid replicas of
-the data.
+from a mirror.
+The operation is refused if there are no other valid replicas of the data.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm export
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool Ns ...
.Xc
-Exports the given pools from the system. All devices are marked as exported,
-but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The devices can be moved
-between systems
+Exports the given pools from the system.
+All devices are marked as exported, but are still considered in use by other
+subsystems.
+The devices can be moved between systems
.Pq even those of different endianness
and imported as long as a sufficient number of devices are present.
.Pp
-Before exporting the pool, all datasets within the pool are unmounted. A pool
-can not be exported if it has a shared spare that is currently being used.
+Before exporting the pool, all datasets within the pool are unmounted.
+A pool can not be exported if it has a shared spare that is currently being
+used.
.Pp
For pools to be portable, you must give the
.Nm
command whole disks, not just slices, so that ZFS can label the disks with
-portable EFI labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of different
-endianness will not recognize the disks.
+portable EFI labels.
+Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of different endianness will not recognize
+the disks.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl f
Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the
@@ -878,7 +949,8 @@ Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the
command.
.Pp
This command will forcefully export the pool even if it has a shared spare that
-is currently being used. This may lead to potential data corruption.
+is currently being used.
+This may lead to potential data corruption.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -894,8 +966,8 @@ or all properties if
.Sy all
is used
.Pc
-for the specified storage pool(s). These properties are displayed with
-the following fields:
+for the specified storage pool(s).
+These properties are displayed with the following fields:
.Bd -literal
name Name of storage pool
property Property name
@@ -908,8 +980,9 @@ See the
section for more information on the available pool properties.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl H
-Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
-instead of arbitrary space.
+Scripted mode.
+Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab instead of arbitrary
+space.
.It Fl o Ar field
A comma-separated list of columns to display.
.Sy name Ns , Ns Sy property Ns , Ns Sy value Ns , Ns Sy source
@@ -939,17 +1012,18 @@ performed.
.Op Fl D
.Op Fl d Ar dir
.Xc
-Lists pools available to import. If the
+Lists pools available to import.
+If the
.Fl d
option is not specified, this command searches for devices in
.Pa /dev/dsk .
The
.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times, and all directories are searched. If the
-device appears to be part of an exported pool, this command displays a summary
-of the pool with the name of the pool, a numeric identifier, as well as the vdev
-layout and current health of the device for each device or file. Destroyed
-pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
+option can be specified multiple times, and all directories are searched.
+If the device appears to be part of an exported pool, this command displays a
+summary of the pool with the name of the pool, a numeric identifier, as well as
+the vdev layout and current health of the device for each device or file.
+Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
.Nm zpool Cm destroy
command, are not listed unless the
.Fl D
@@ -963,7 +1037,8 @@ Reads configuration from the given
.Ar cachefile
that was created with the
.Sy cachefile
-pool property. This
+pool property.
+This
.Ar cachefile
is used instead of searching for devices.
.It Fl d Ar dir
@@ -986,9 +1061,10 @@ Lists destroyed pools only.
.Oo Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value Oc Ns ...
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Xc
-Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical to the previous
-command, except that all pools with a sufficient number of devices available are
-imported. Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
+Imports all pools found in the search directories.
+Identical to the previous command, except that all pools with a sufficient
+number of devices available are imported.
+Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
.Nm zpool Cm destroy
command, will not be imported unless the
.Fl D
@@ -1001,7 +1077,8 @@ Reads configuration from the given
.Ar cachefile
that was created with the
.Sy cachefile
-pool property. This
+pool property.
+This
.Ar cachefile
is used instead of searching for devices.
.It Fl d Ar dir
@@ -1009,41 +1086,47 @@ Searches for devices or files in
.Ar dir .
The
.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
+option can be specified multiple times.
+This option is incompatible with the
.Fl c
option.
.It Fl D
-Imports destroyed pools only. The
+Imports destroyed pools only.
+The
.Fl f
option is also required.
.It Fl f
Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
.It Fl F
-Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
-importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
-can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
-discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the pool
-is importable or already imported.
+Recovery mode for a non-importable pool.
+Attempt to return the pool to an importable state by discarding the last few
+transactions.
+Not all damaged pools can be recovered by using this option.
+If successful, the data from the discarded transactions is irretrievably lost.
+This option is ignored if the pool is importable or already imported.
.It Fl m
-Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
-can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
+Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device.
+Recent transactions can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
.It Fl n
Used with the
.Fl F
-recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made importable
-again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more details about
-pool recovery mode, see the
+recovery option.
+Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made importable again, but does
+not actually perform the pool recovery.
+For more details about pool recovery mode, see the
.Fl F
option, above.
.It Fl N
Import the pool without mounting any file systems.
.It Fl o Ar mntopts
Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See
+pool.
+See
.Xr zfs 1M
for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
+Sets the specified property on the imported pool.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for more information on the available pool properties.
.It Fl R Ar root
@@ -1068,8 +1151,9 @@ property to
.Ar pool Ns | Ns Ar id
.Op Ar newpool
.Xc
-Imports a specific pool. A pool can be identified by its name or the numeric
-identifier. If
+Imports a specific pool.
+A pool can be identified by its name or the numeric identifier.
+If
.Ar newpool
is specified, the pool is imported using the name
.Ar newpool .
@@ -1077,9 +1161,10 @@ Otherwise, it is imported with the same name as its exported name.
.Pp
If a device is removed from a system without running
.Nm zpool Cm export
-first, the device appears as potentially active. It cannot be determined if
-this was a failed export, or whether the device is really in use from another
-host. To import a pool in this state, the
+first, the device appears as potentially active.
+It cannot be determined if this was a failed export, or whether the device is
+really in use from another host.
+To import a pool in this state, the
.Fl f
option is required.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
@@ -1088,7 +1173,8 @@ Reads configuration from the given
.Ar cachefile
that was created with the
.Sy cachefile
-pool property. This
+pool property.
+This
.Ar cachefile
is used instead of searching for devices.
.It Fl d Ar dir
@@ -1096,39 +1182,45 @@ Searches for devices or files in
.Ar dir .
The
.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
+option can be specified multiple times.
+This option is incompatible with the
.Fl c
option.
.It Fl D
-Imports destroyed pool. The
+Imports destroyed pool.
+The
.Fl f
option is also required.
.It Fl f
Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
.It Fl F
-Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
-importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
-can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
-discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the pool
-is importable or already imported.
+Recovery mode for a non-importable pool.
+Attempt to return the pool to an importable state by discarding the last few
+transactions.
+Not all damaged pools can be recovered by using this option.
+If successful, the data from the discarded transactions is irretrievably lost.
+This option is ignored if the pool is importable or already imported.
.It Fl m
-Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
-can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
+Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device.
+Recent transactions can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
.It Fl n
Used with the
.Fl F
-recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made importable
-again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more details about
-pool recovery mode, see the
+recovery option.
+Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made importable again, but does
+not actually perform the pool recovery.
+For more details about pool recovery mode, see the
.Fl F
option, above.
.It Fl o Ar mntopts
Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See
+pool.
+See
.Xr zfs 1M
for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
+Sets the specified property on the imported pool.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for more information on the available pool properties.
.It Fl R Ar root
@@ -1149,29 +1241,35 @@ property to
.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
.Xc
-Displays I/O statistics for the given pools. When given an
+Displays I/O statistics for the given pools.
+When given an
.Ar interval ,
the statistics are printed every
.Ar interval
-seconds until ^C is pressed. If no
+seconds until ^C is pressed.
+If no
.Ar pool Ns s
-are specified, statistics for every pool in the system is shown. If
+are specified, statistics for every pool in the system is shown.
+If
.Ar count
is specified, the command exits after
.Ar count
reports are printed.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
-Display a time stamp. Specify
+Display a time stamp.
+Specify
.Sy u
-for a printed representation of the internal representation of time. See
+for a printed representation of the internal representation of time.
+See
.Xr time 2 .
Specify
.Sy d
-for standard date format. See
+for standard date format.
+See
.Xr date 1 .
.It Fl v
-Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the
+Verbose statistics Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the
pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
.El
.It Xo
@@ -1198,25 +1296,31 @@ Treat exported or foreign devices as inactive.
.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
.Xc
-Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage. If no
+Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage.
+If no
.Ar pool Ns s
-are specified, all pools in the system are listed. When given an
+are specified, all pools in the system are listed.
+When given an
.Ar interval ,
the information is printed every
.Ar interval
-seconds until ^C is pressed. If
+seconds until ^C is pressed.
+If
.Ar count
is specified, the command exits after
.Ar count
reports are printed.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl H
-Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
-instead of arbitrary space.
+Scripted mode.
+Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab instead of arbitrary
+space.
.It Fl o Ar property
-Comma-separated list of properties to display. See the
+Comma-separated list of properties to display.
+See the
.Sx Properties
-section for a list of valid properties. The default list is
+section for a list of valid properties.
+The default list is
.Sy name , size , used , available , fragmentation , expandsize , capacity ,
.Sy dedupratio , health , altroot .
.It Fl p
@@ -1224,17 +1328,21 @@ Display numbers in parsable
.Pq exact
values.
.It Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
-Display a time stamp. Specify
+Display a time stamp.
+Specify
.Fl u
-for a printed representation of the internal representation of time. See
+for a printed representation of the internal representation of time.
+See
.Xr time 2 .
Specify
.Fl d
-for standard date format. See
+for standard date format.
+See
.Xr date 1 .
.It Fl v
-Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the
-pool, in addition to the pool-wise statistics.
+Verbose statistics.
+Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the pool, in addition to
+the pool-wise statistics.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -1242,14 +1350,15 @@ pool, in addition to the pool-wise statistics.
.Op Fl t
.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
.Xc
-Takes the specified physical device offline. While the
+Takes the specified physical device offline.
+While the
.Ar device
-is offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device. This command is
-not applicable to spares.
+is offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device.
+This command is not applicable to spares.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl t
-Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical device reverts to its previous
-state.
+Temporary.
+Upon reboot, the specified physical device reverts to its previous state.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -1257,21 +1366,22 @@ state.
.Op Fl e
.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
.Xc
-Brings the specified physical device online. This command is not applicable to
-spares.
+Brings the specified physical device online.
+This command is not applicable to spares.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl e
-Expand the device to use all available space. If the device is part of a mirror
-or raidz then all devices must be expanded before the new space will become
-available to the pool.
+Expand the device to use all available space.
+If the device is part of a mirror or raidz then all devices must be expanded
+before the new space will become available to the pool.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm reguid
.Ar pool
.Xc
-Generates a new unique identifier for the pool. You must ensure that all devices
-in this pool are online and healthy before performing this action.
+Generates a new unique identifier for the pool.
+You must ensure that all devices in this pool are online and healthy before
+performing this action.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm reopen
@@ -1283,12 +1393,16 @@ Reopen all the vdevs associated with the pool.
.Cm remove
.Ar pool Ar device Ns ...
.Xc
-Removes the specified device from the pool. This command currently only supports
-removing hot spares, cache, and log devices. A mirrored log device can be
-removed by specifying the top-level mirror for the log. Non-log devices that are
-part of a mirrored configuration can be removed using the
+Removes the specified device from the pool.
+This command currently only supports removing hot spares, cache, and log
+devices.
+A mirrored log device can be removed by specifying the top-level mirror for the
+log.
+Non-log devices that are part of a mirrored configuration can be removed using
+the
.Nm zpool Cm detach
-command. Non-redundant and raidz devices cannot be removed from a pool.
+command.
+Non-redundant and raidz devices cannot be removed from a pool.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm replace
@@ -1310,21 +1424,23 @@ must be greater than or equal to the minimum size of all the devices in a mirror
or raidz configuration.
.Pp
.Ar new_device
-is required if the pool is not redundant. If
+is required if the pool is not redundant.
+If
.Ar new_device
is not specified, it defaults to
.Ar old_device .
This form of replacement is useful after an existing disk has failed and has
-been physically replaced. In this case, the new disk may have the same
+been physically replaced.
+In this case, the new disk may have the same
.Pa /dev/dsk
-path as the old device, even though it is actually a different disk. ZFS
-recognizes this.
+path as the old device, even though it is actually a different disk.
+ZFS recognizes this.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar new_device ,
-even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
-manner.
+even if its appears to be in use.
+Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
@@ -1332,16 +1448,20 @@ manner.
.Op Fl s
.Ar pool Ns ...
.Xc
-Begins a scrub. The scrub examines all data in the specified pools to verify
-that it checksums correctly. For replicated
+Begins a scrub.
+The scrub examines all data in the specified pools to verify that it checksums
+correctly.
+For replicated
.Pq mirror or raidz
-devices, ZFS automatically repairs any damage discovered during the scrub. The
+devices, ZFS automatically repairs any damage discovered during the scrub.
+The
.Nm zpool Cm status
command reports the progress of the scrub and summarizes the results of the
scrub upon completion.
.Pp
-Scrubbing and resilvering are very similar operations. The difference is that
-resilvering only examines data that ZFS knows to be out of date
+Scrubbing and resilvering are very similar operations.
+The difference is that resilvering only examines data that ZFS knows to be out
+of date
.Po
for example, when attaching a new device to a mirror or replacing an existing
device
@@ -1350,10 +1470,12 @@ whereas scrubbing examines all data to discover silent errors due to hardware
faults or disk failure.
.Pp
Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS only allows
-one at a time. If a scrub is already in progress, the
+one at a time.
+If a scrub is already in progress, the
.Nm zpool Cm scrub
-command terminates it and starts a new scrub. If a resilver is in progress, ZFS
-does not allow a scrub to be started until the resilver completes.
+command terminates it and starts a new scrub.
+If a resilver is in progress, ZFS does not allow a scrub to be started until the
+resilver completes.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl s
Stop scrubbing.
@@ -1364,7 +1486,8 @@ Stop scrubbing.
.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar pool
.Xc
-Sets the given property on the specified pool. See the
+Sets the given property on the specified pool.
+See the
.Sx Properties
section for more information on what properties can be set and acceptable
values.
@@ -1382,14 +1505,15 @@ creating
.Ar newpool .
All vdevs in
.Ar pool
-must be mirrors. At the time of the split,
+must be mirrors.
+At the time of the split,
.Ar newpool
will be a replica of
.Ar pool .
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl n
-Do dry run, do not actually perform the split. Print out the expected
-configuration of
+Do dry run, do not actually perform the split.
+Print out the expected configuration of
.Ar newpool .
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property for
@@ -1414,17 +1538,18 @@ and automaticaly import it.
.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
.Xc
-Displays the detailed health status for the given pools. If no
+Displays the detailed health status for the given pools.
+If no
.Ar pool
-is specified, then the status of each pool in the system is displayed. For more
-information on pool and device health, see the
+is specified, then the status of each pool in the system is displayed.
+For more information on pool and device health, see the
.Sx Device Failure and Recovery
section.
.Pp
If a scrub or resilver is in progress, this command reports the percentage done
-and the estimated time to completion. Both of these are only approximate,
-because the amount of data in the pool and the other workloads on the system can
-change.
+and the estimated time to completion.
+Both of these are only approximate, because the amount of data in the pool and
+the other workloads on the system can change.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl D
Display a histogram of deduplication statistics, showing the allocated
@@ -1433,29 +1558,33 @@ and referenced
.Pq logically referenced in the pool
block counts and sizes by reference count.
.It Fl T Sy u Ns | Ns Sy d
-Display a time stamp. Specify
+Display a time stamp.
+Specify
.Fl u
-for a printed representation of the internal representation of time. See
+for a printed representation of the internal representation of time.
+See
.Xr time 2 .
Specify
.Fl d
-for standard date format. See
+for standard date format.
+See
.Xr date 1 .
.It Fl v
Displays verbose data error information, printing out a complete list of all
data errors since the last complete pool scrub.
.It Fl x
Only display status for pools that are exhibiting errors or are otherwise
-unavailable. Warnings about pools not using the latest on-disk format will not
-be included.
+unavailable.
+Warnings about pools not using the latest on-disk format will not be included.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm upgrade
.Xc
Displays pools which do not have all supported features enabled and pools
-formatted using a legacy ZFS version number. These pools can continue to be
-used, but some features may not be available. Use
+formatted using a legacy ZFS version number.
+These pools can continue to be used, but some features may not be available.
+Use
.Nm zpool Cm upgrade Fl a
to enable all features on all pools.
.It Xo
@@ -1463,7 +1592,8 @@ to enable all features on all pools.
.Cm upgrade
.Fl v
.Xc
-Displays legacy ZFS versions supported by the current software. See
+Displays legacy ZFS versions supported by the current software.
+ See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for a description of feature flags features supported by the current software.
.It Xo
@@ -1472,8 +1602,10 @@ for a description of feature flags features supported by the current software.
.Op Fl V Ar version
.Fl a Ns | Ns Ar pool Ns ...
.Xc
-Enables all supported features on the given pool. Once this is done, the pool
-will no longer be accessible on systems that do not support feature flags. See
+Enables all supported features on the given pool.
+Once this is done, the pool will no longer be accessible on systems that do not
+support feature flags.
+See
.Xr zpool-features 5
for details on compatibility with systems that support feature flags, but do not
support all features enabled on the pool.
@@ -1481,11 +1613,12 @@ support all features enabled on the pool.
.It Fl a
Enables all supported features on all pools.
.It Fl V Ar version
-Upgrade to the specified legacy version. If the
+Upgrade to the specified legacy version.
+If the
.Fl V
-flag is specified, no features will be enabled on the pool. This option can only
-be used to increase the version number up to the last supported legacy version
-number.
+flag is specified, no features will be enabled on the pool.
+This option can only be used to increase the version number up to the last
+supported legacy version number.
.El
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
@@ -1518,25 +1651,26 @@ The following command creates an unmirrored pool using two disk slices.
# zpool create tank /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s4
.Ed
.It Sy Example 4 No Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Files
-The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files. While not
-recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental purposes.
+The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files.
+While not recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental
+purposes.
.Bd -literal
# zpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
.Ed
.It Sy Example 5 No Adding a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool
.Em tank ,
-assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors. The additional space
-is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
+assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors.
+The additional space is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
.Bd -literal
# zpool add tank mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0
.Ed
.It Sy Example 6 No Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools
-The following command lists all available pools on the system. In this case,
-the pool
+The following command lists all available pools on the system.
+In this case, the pool
.Em zion
-is faulted due to a missing device. The results from this command are similar
-to the following:
+is faulted due to a missing device.
+The results from this command are similar to the following:
.Bd -literal
# zpool list
NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE FRAG EXPANDSZ CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
@@ -1561,8 +1695,8 @@ so that they can be relocated or later imported.
.It Sy Example 9 No Importing a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command displays available pools, and then imports the pool
.Em tank
-for use on the system. The results from this command are similar to the
-following:
+for use on the system.
+The results from this command are similar to the following:
.Bd -literal
# zpool import
pool: tank
@@ -1592,14 +1726,16 @@ The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
.Ed
.Pp
If one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the degraded
-state. The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
+state.
+The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
.Bd -literal
# zpool replace tank c0t0d0 c0t3d0
.Ed
.Pp
Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is automatically removed and is
-made available should another device fails. The hot spare can be permanently
-removed from the pool using the following command:
+made available should another device fails.
+The hot spare can be permanently removed from the pool using the following
+command:
.Bd -literal
# zpool remove tank c0t2d0
.Ed
@@ -1619,7 +1755,8 @@ pool:
.Pp
Once added, the cache devices gradually fill with content from main memory.
Depending on the size of your cache devices, it could take over an hour for
-them to fill. Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
+them to fill.
+Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
.Cm iostat
option as follows:
.Bd -literal
@@ -1659,9 +1796,9 @@ is:
The following command dipslays the detailed information for the pool
.Em data .
This pool is comprised of a single raidz vdev where one of its devices
-increased its capacity by 10GB. In this example, the pool will not be able to
-utilize this extra capacity until all the devices under the raidz vdev have
-been expanded.
+increased its capacity by 10GB.
+In this example, the pool will not be able to utilize this extra capacity until
+all the devices under the raidz vdev have been expanded.
.Bd -literal
# zpool list -v data
NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE FRAG EXPANDSZ CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
diff --git a/man/man4/ctf.4 b/man/man4/ctf.4
index 9e807abc4c09..66d52a0a0a9d 100644
--- a/man/man4/ctf.4
+++ b/man/man4/ctf.4
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@ data contained in each file has information about the layout and
sizes of C types, including intrinsic types, enumerations, structures,
typedefs, and unions, that are used by the corresponding
.Sy ELF
-object. The
+object.
+The
.Nm
data may also include information about the types of global objects and
the return type and arguments of functions in the symbol table.
@@ -53,8 +54,8 @@ file itself, it may also be referred to as a
.Lp
On illumos systems,
.Nm
-data is consumed by multiple programs. It can be used by the modular
-debugger,
+data is consumed by multiple programs.
+It can be used by the modular debugger,
.Xr mdb 1 ,
as well as by
.Xr dtrace 1M .
@@ -65,8 +66,8 @@ data can be obtained through
.Lp
The
.Nm
-file format is broken down into seven different sections. The first
-section is the
+file format is broken down into seven different sections.
+The first section is the
.Sy preamble
and
.Sy header ,
@@ -74,18 +75,22 @@ which describes the version of the
.Nm
file, links it has to other
.Nm
-files, and the sizes of the other sections. The next section is the
+files, and the sizes of the other sections.
+The next section is the
.Sy label
section,
which provides a way of identifying similar groups of
.Nm
-data across multiple files. This is followed by the
+data across multiple files.
+This is followed by the
.Sy object
information section, which describes the type of global
-symbols. The subsequent section is the
+symbols.
+The subsequent section is the
.Sy function
information section, which describes the return
-types and arguments of functions. The next section is the
+types and arguments of functions.
+The next section is the
.Sy type
information section, which describes
the format and layout of the C types themselves, and finally the last
@@ -106,29 +111,33 @@ A
file may contain all of the type information that it requires, or it
may optionally refer to another
.Nm
-file which holds the remaining types. When a
+file which holds the remaining types.
+When a
.Nm
file refers to another file, it is called the
.Sy child
and the file it refers to is called the
.Sy parent .
-A given file may only refer to one parent. This process is called
+A given file may only refer to one parent.
+This process is called
.Em uniquification
because it ensures each child only has type information that is
-unique to it. A common example of this is that most kernel modules in
-illumos are uniquified against the kernel module
+unique to it.
+A common example of this is that most kernel modules in illumos are uniquified
+against the kernel module
.Sy genunix
and the type information that comes from the
.Sy IP
-module. This means that a module only has types that are unique to
-itself and the most common types in the kernel are not duplicated.
+module.
+This means that a module only has types that are unique to itself and the most
+common types in the kernel are not duplicated.
.Sh FILE FORMAT
This documents version
.Em two
of the
.Nm
-file format. All applications and tools currently produce and operate on
-this version.
+file format.
+All applications and tools currently produce and operate on this version.
.Lp
The file format can be summarized with the following image, the
following sections will cover this in more detail.
@@ -235,26 +244,31 @@ This
.Sy preamble
defines the version of the
.Nm
-file which defines the format of the rest of the header. While the
-header may change in subsequent versions, the preamble will not change
+file which defines the format of the rest of the header.
+While the header may change in subsequent versions, the preamble will not change
across versions, though the interpretation of its flags may change from
-version to version. The
+version to version.
+The
.Em ctp_magic
member defines the magic number for the
.Nm
-file format. This must always be
+file format.
+This must always be
.Li 0xcff1 .
If another value is encountered, then the file should not be treated as
a
.Nm
-file. The
+file.
+The
.Em ctp_version
member defines the version of the
.Nm
-file. The current version is
+file.
+The current version is
.Li 2 .
-It is possible to encounter an unsupported version. In that case,
-software should not try to parse the format, as it may have changed.
+It is possible to encounter an unsupported version.
+In that case, software should not try to parse the format, as it may have
+changed.
Finally, the
.Em ctp_flags
member describes aspects of the file which modify its interpretation.
@@ -273,9 +287,10 @@ has been compressed through the
.Sy zlib
library and its
.Sy deflate
-algorithm. If this flag is not present, then the body has not been
-compressed and no special action is needed to interpret it. All offsets
-into the data as described by
+algorithm.
+If this flag is not present, then the body has not been compressed and no
+special action is needed to interpret it.
+All offsets into the data as described by
.Sy header ,
always refer to the
.Sy uncompressed
@@ -289,8 +304,8 @@ denotes whether whether or not this
.Nm
file is the child of another
.Nm
-file and also indicates the size of the remaining sections. The
-structure for the
+file and also indicates the size of the remaining sections.
+The structure for the
.Sy header ,
logically contains a copy of the
.Sy preamble
@@ -315,37 +330,40 @@ the next two members
.Em cth_parlablel
and
.Em cth_parname ,
-are used to identify the parent. The value of both members are offsets
-into the
+are used to identify the parent.
+The value of both members are offsets into the
.Sy string
-section which point to the start of a null-terminated string. For more
-information on the encoding of strings, see the subsection on
+section which point to the start of a null-terminated string.
+For more information on the encoding of strings, see the subsection on
.Sx String Identifiers .
If the value of either is zero, then there is no entry for that
-member. If the member
+member.
+If the member
.Em cth_parlabel
is set, then the
.Em ctf_parname
member must be set, otherwise it will not be possible to find the
-parent. If
+parent.
+If
.Em ctf_parname
is set, it is not necessary to define
.Em cth_parlabel ,
-as the parent may not have a label. For more information on labels
-and their interpretation, see
+as the parent may not have a label.
+For more information on labels and their interpretation, see
.Sx The Label Section .
.Lp
The remaining members (excepting
.Em cth_strlen )
-describe the beginning of the corresponding sections. These offsets are
-relative to the end of the
+describe the beginning of the corresponding sections.
+These offsets are relative to the end of the
.Sy header .
Therefore, something with an offset of 0 is at an offset of thirty-six
bytes relative to the start of the
.Nm
-file. The difference between members
-indicates the size of the section itself. Different offsets have
-different alignment requirements. The start of the
+file.
+The difference between members indicates the size of the section itself.
+Different offsets have different alignment requirements.
+The start of the
.Em cth_objotoff
and
.Em cth_funcoff
@@ -353,13 +371,14 @@ must be two byte aligned, while the sections
.Em cth_lbloff
and
.Em cth_typeoff
-must be four-byte aligned. The section
+must be four-byte aligned.
+The section
.Em cth_stroff
-has no alignment requirements. To calculate the size of a given section,
-excepting the
+has no alignment requirements.
+To calculate the size of a given section, excepting the
.Sy string
-section, one should subtract the offset of the section from the following one. For
-example, the size of the
+section, one should subtract the offset of the section from the following one.
+For example, the size of the
.Sy types
section can be calculated by subtracting
.Em cth_stroff
@@ -368,8 +387,8 @@ from
.Lp
Finally, the member
.Em cth_strlen
-describes the length of the string section itself. From it, you can also
-calculate the size of the entire
+describes the length of the string section itself.
+From it, you can also calculate the size of the entire
.Nm
file by adding together the size of the
.Sy ctf_header_t ,
@@ -380,9 +399,11 @@ and the size of the string section in
.Ss Type Identifiers
Through the
.Nm ctf
-data, types are referred to by identifiers. A given
+data, types are referred to by identifiers.
+A given
.Nm
-file supports up to 32767 (0x7fff) types. The first valid type identifier is 0x1.
+file supports up to 32767 (0x7fff) types.
+The first valid type identifier is 0x1.
When a given
.Nm
file is a child, indicated by a non-zero entry for the
@@ -403,18 +424,20 @@ Other consumers of
information may use larger or opaque identifiers.
.Ss String Identifiers
String identifiers are always encoded as four byte unsigned integers
-which are an offset into a string table. The
+which are an offset into a string table.
+The
.Nm
format supports two different string tables which have an identifier of
-zero or one. This identifier is stored in the high-order bit of the
-unsigned four byte offset. Therefore, the maximum supported offset into
-one of these tables is 0x7ffffffff.
+zero or one.
+This identifier is stored in the high-order bit of the unsigned four byte
+offset.
+Therefore, the maximum supported offset into one of these tables is 0x7ffffffff.
.Lp
Table identifier zero, always refers to the
.Sy string
-section in the CTF file itself. String table identifier one refers to an
-external string table which is the ELF string table for the ELF symbol
-table associated with the
+section in the CTF file itself.
+String table identifier one refers to an external string table which is the ELF
+string table for the ELF symbol table associated with the
.Nm
container.
.Ss Type Encoding
@@ -434,8 +457,8 @@ The length of the variable data
.Lp
The 16 bits that make up the encoding are broken down such that you have
five bits for the kind, one bit for indicating whether or not it is a
-root type, and 10 bits for the variable length. This is laid out as
-follows:
+root type, and 10 bits for the variable length.
+This is laid out as follows:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
+--------------------+
| kind | root | vlen |
@@ -443,12 +466,13 @@ follows:
15 11 10 9 0
.Ed
.Lp
-The current version of the file format defines 14 different kinds. The
-interpretation of these different kinds will be discussed in the section
+The current version of the file format defines 14 different kinds.
+The interpretation of these different kinds will be discussed in the section
.Sx The Type Section .
If a kind is encountered that is not listed below, then it is not a valid
.Nm
-file. The kinds are defined as follows:
+file.
+The kinds are defined as follows:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
#define CTF_K_UNKNOWN 0
#define CTF_K_INTEGER 1
@@ -467,14 +491,16 @@ file. The kinds are defined as follows:
.Ed
.Lp
Programs directly reference many types; however, other types are referenced
-indirectly because they are part of some other structure. These types that are
-referenced directly and used are called
+indirectly because they are part of some other structure.
+These types that are referenced directly and used are called
.Sy root
-types. Other types may be used indirectly, for example, a program may reference
-a structure directly, but not one of its members which has a type. That type is
-not considered a
+types.
+Other types may be used indirectly, for example, a program may reference
+a structure directly, but not one of its members which has a type.
+That type is not considered a
.Sy root
-type. If a type is a
+type.
+If a type is a
.Sy root
type, then it will have bit 10 set.
.Lp
@@ -499,16 +525,17 @@ When consuming
.Nm
data, it is often useful to know whether two different
.Nm
-containers come from the same source base and version. For example, when
-building illumos, there are many kernel modules that are built against a
-single collection of source code. A label is encoded into the
+containers come from the same source base and version.
+For example, when building illumos, there are many kernel modules that are built
+against a single collection of source code.
+A label is encoded into the
.Nm
-files that corresponds with the particular build. This ensures that if
-files on the system were to become mixed up from multiple releases, that
-they are not used together by tools, particularly when a child needs to
-refer to a type in the parent. Because they are linked used the type
-identifiers, if the wrong parent is used then the wrong type will be
-encountered.
+files that corresponds with the particular build.
+This ensures that if files on the system were to become mixed up from multiple
+releases, that they are not used together by tools, particularly when a child
+needs to refer to a type in the parent.
+Because they are linked used the type identifiers, if the wrong parent is used
+then the wrong type will be encountered.
.Lp
Each label is encoded in the file format using the following eight byte
structure:
@@ -530,21 +557,22 @@ section.
The type identifier encoded in the member
.Em ctl_typeidx
refers to the last type identifier that a label refers to in the current
-file. Labels only refer to types in the current file, if the
+file.
+Labels only refer to types in the current file, if the
.Nm
file is a child, then it will have the same label as its parent;
however, its label will only refer to its types, not its parents.
.Lp
It is also possible, though rather uncommon, for a
.Nm
-file to have multiple labels. Labels are placed one after another, every
-eight bytes. When multiple labels are present, types may only belong to
-a single label.
+file to have multiple labels.
+Labels are placed one after another, every eight bytes.
+When multiple labels are present, types may only belong to a single label.
.Ss The Object Section
The object section provides a mapping from ELF symbols of type
.Sy STT_OBJECT
-in the symbol table to a type identifier. Every entry in this section is
-a
+in the symbol table to a type identifier.
+Every entry in this section is a
.Sy uint16_t
which contains a type identifier as described in the section
.Sx Type Identifiers .
@@ -555,9 +583,10 @@ To walk the object section, you need to have a corresponding
.Sy symbol table
in the ELF object that contains the
.Nm
-data. Not every object is included in this section. Specifically, when
-walking the symbol table. An entry is skipped if it matches any of the
-following conditions:
+data.
+Not every object is included in this section.
+Specifically, when walking the symbol table.
+An entry is skipped if it matches any of the following conditions:
.Lp
.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
.It
@@ -628,40 +657,45 @@ walk_symbols(uint16_t *objtoff, Elf_Data *symdata, Elf_Data *strdata,
The function section of the
.Nm
file encodes the types of both the function's arguments and the function's
-return type. Similar to
+return type.
+Similar to
.Sx The Object Section ,
the function section encodes information for all symbols of type
.Sy STT_FUNCTION ,
-excepting those that fit specific criteria. Unlike with objects, because
-functions have a variable number of arguments, they start with a type encoding
-as defined in
+excepting those that fit specific criteria.
+Unlike with objects, because functions have a variable number of arguments, they
+start with a type encoding as defined in
.Sx Type Encoding ,
which is the size of a
.Sy uint16_t .
For functions which have no type information available, they are encoded as
.Li CTF_TYPE_INFO(CTF_K_UNKNOWN, 0, 0) .
-Functions with arguments are encoded differently. Here, the variable length is
-turned into the number of arguments in the function. If a function is a
+Functions with arguments are encoded differently.
+Here, the variable length is turned into the number of arguments in the
+function.
+If a function is a
.Sy varargs
-type function, then the number of arguments is increased by one. Functions with
-type information are encoded as:
+type function, then the number of arguments is increased by one.
+Functions with type information are encoded as:
.Li CTF_TYPE_INFO(CTF_K_FUNCTION, 0, nargs) .
.Lp
For functions that have no type information, nothing else is encoded, and the
-next function is encoded. For functions with type information, the next
+next function is encoded.
+For functions with type information, the next
.Sy uint16_t
-is encoded with the type identifier of the return type of the function. It is
-followed by each of the type identifiers of the arguments, if any exist, in the
-order that they appear in the function. Therefore, argument 0 is the first type
-identifier and so on. When a function has a final varargs argument, that is
-encoded with the type identifier of zero.
+is encoded with the type identifier of the return type of the function.
+It is followed by each of the type identifiers of the arguments, if any exist,
+in the order that they appear in the function.
+Therefore, argument 0 is the first type identifier and so on.
+When a function has a final varargs argument, that is encoded with the type
+identifier of zero.
.Lp
Like
.Sx The Object Section ,
-the function section is encoded in the order of the symbol table. It has
-similar, but slightly different considerations from objects. While iterating the
-symbol table, if any of the following conditions are true, then the entry is
-skipped and no corresponding entry is written:
+the function section is encoded in the order of the symbol table.
+It has similar, but slightly different considerations from objects.
+While iterating the symbol table, if any of the following conditions are true,
+then the entry is skipped and no corresponding entry is written:
.Lp
.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
.It
@@ -683,10 +717,11 @@ ELF.
.Ss The Type Section
The type section is the heart of the
.Nm
-data. It encodes all of the information about the types themselves. The base of
-the type information comes in two forms, a short form and a long form, each of
-which may be followed by a variable number of arguments. The following
-definitions describe the short and long forms:
+data.
+It encodes all of the information about the types themselves.
+The base of the type information comes in two forms, a short form and a long
+form, each of which may be followed by a variable number of arguments.
+The following definitions describe the short and long forms:
.Bd -literal
#define CTF_MAX_SIZE 0xfffe /* max size of a type in bytes */
#define CTF_LSIZE_SENT 0xffff /* sentinel for ctt_size */
@@ -720,14 +755,17 @@ Type sizes are stored in
.Sy bytes .
The basic small form uses a
.Sy ushort_t
-to store the number of bytes. If the number of bytes in a structure would exceed
-0xfffe, then the alternate form, the
+to store the number of bytes.
+If the number of bytes in a structure would exceed 0xfffe, then the alternate
+form, the
.Sy ctf_type_t ,
-is used instead. To indicate that the larger form is being used, the member
+is used instead.
+To indicate that the larger form is being used, the member
.Em ctt_size
is set to value of
.Sy CTF_LSIZE_SENT
-(0xffff). In general, when going through the type section, consumers use the
+(0xffff).
+In general, when going through the type section, consumers use the
.Sy ctf_type_t
structure, but pay attention to the value of the member
.Em ctt_size
@@ -739,17 +777,21 @@ Not all kinds of types use
.Sy ctt_size .
Those which do not, will always use the
.Sy ctf_stype_t
-structure. The individual sections for each kind have more information.
+structure.
+The individual sections for each kind have more information.
.Lp
-Types are written out in order. Therefore the first entry encountered has a type
-id of 0x1, or 0x8000 if a child. The member
+Types are written out in order.
+Therefore the first entry encountered has a type id of 0x1, or 0x8000 if a
+child.
+The member
.Em ctt_name
is encoded as described in the section
.Sx String Identifiers .
-The string that it points to is the name of the type. If the identifier points
-to an empty string (one that consists solely of a null terminator) then the type
-does not have a name, this is common with anonymous structures and unions that
-only have a typedef to name them, as well as, pointers and qualifiers.
+The string that it points to is the name of the type.
+If the identifier points to an empty string (one that consists solely of a null
+terminator) then the type does not have a name, this is common with anonymous
+structures and unions that only have a typedef to name them, as well as,
+pointers and qualifiers.
.Lp
The next member, the
.Em ctt_info ,
@@ -757,18 +799,21 @@ is encoded as described in the section
.Sx Type Encoding .
The types kind tells us how to interpret the remaining data in the
.Sy ctf_type_t
-and any variable length data that may exist. The rest of this section will be
-broken down into the interpretation of the various kinds.
+and any variable length data that may exist.
+The rest of this section will be broken down into the interpretation of the
+various kinds.
.Ss Encoding of Integers
Integers, which are of type
.Sy CTF_K_INTEGER ,
-have no variable length arguments. Instead, they are followed by a four byte
+have no variable length arguments.
+Instead, they are followed by a four byte
.Sy uint_t
-which describes their encoding. All integers must be encoded with a variable
-length of zero. The
+which describes their encoding.
+All integers must be encoded with a variable length of zero.
+The
.Em ctt_size
-member describes the length of the integer in bytes. In general, integer sizes
-will be rounded up to the closest power of two.
+member describes the length of the integer in bytes.
+In general, integer sizes will be rounded up to the closest power of two.
.Lp
The integer encoding contains three different pieces of information:
.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
@@ -804,33 +849,37 @@ The following flags are defined for the encoding at this time:
.Lp
By default, an integer is considered to be unsigned, unless it has the
.Sy CTF_INT_SIGNED
-flag set. If the flag
+flag set.
+If the flag
.Sy CTF_INT_CHAR
is set, that indicates that the integer is of a type that stores character
data, for example the intrinsic C type
.Sy char
would have the
.Sy CTF_INT_CHAR
-flag set. If the flag
+flag set.
+If the flag
.Sy CTF_INT_BOOL
-is set, that indicates that the integer represents a boolean type. For example,
-the intrinsic C type
+is set, that indicates that the integer represents a boolean type.
+For example, the intrinsic C type
.Sy _Bool
would have the
.Sy CTF_INT_BOOL
-flag set. Finally, the flag
+flag set.
+Finally, the flag
.Sy CTF_INT_VARARGS
indicates that the integer is used as part of a variable number of arguments.
This encoding is rather uncommon.
.Ss Encoding of Floats
Floats, which are of type
.Sy CTF_K_FLOAT ,
-are similar to their integer counterparts. They have no variable length
-arguments and are followed by a four byte encoding which describes the kind of
-float that exists. The
+are similar to their integer counterparts.
+They have no variable length arguments and are followed by a four byte encoding
+which describes the kind of float that exists.
+The
.Em ctt_size
-member is the size, in bytes, of the float. The float encoding has three
-different pieces of information inside of it:
+member is the size, in bytes, of the float.
+The float encoding has three different pieces of information inside of it:
.Lp
.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
.It
@@ -856,10 +905,11 @@ This encoding can be expressed through the following macros:
.Ed
.Lp
Where as the encoding for integers was a series of flags, the encoding for
-floats maps to a specific kind of float. It is not a flag-based value. The kinds of floats
-correspond to both their size, and the encoding. This covers all of the basic C
-intrinsic floating point types. The following are the different kinds of floats
-represented in the encoding:
+floats maps to a specific kind of float.
+It is not a flag-based value.
+The kinds of floats correspond to both their size, and the encoding.
+This covers all of the basic C intrinsic floating point types.
+The following are the different kinds of floats represented in the encoding:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
#define CTF_FP_SINGLE 1 /* IEEE 32-bit float encoding */
#define CTF_FP_DOUBLE 2 /* IEEE 64-bit float encoding */
@@ -877,12 +927,14 @@ represented in the encoding:
.Ss Encoding of Arrays
Arrays, which are of type
.Sy CTF_K_ARRAY ,
-have no variable length arguments. They are followed by a structure which
-describes the number of elements in the array, the type identifier of the
-elements in the array, and the type identifier of the index of the array. With
-arrays, the
+have no variable length arguments.
+They are followed by a structure which describes the number of elements in the
+array, the type identifier of the elements in the array, and the type identifier
+of the index of the array.
+With arrays, the
.Em ctt_size
-member is set to zero. The structure that follows an array is defined as:
+member is set to zero.
+The structure that follows an array is defined as:
.Bd -literal
typedef struct ctf_array {
ushort_t cta_contents; /* reference to type of array contents */
@@ -901,14 +953,15 @@ are type identifiers which are encoded as per the section
.Sx Type Identifiers .
The member
.Em cta_nelems
-is a simple four byte unsigned count of the number of elements. This count may
-be zero when encountering C99's flexible array members.
+is a simple four byte unsigned count of the number of elements.
+This count may be zero when encountering C99's flexible array members.
.Ss Encoding of Functions
Function types, which are of type
.Sy CTF_K_FUNCTION ,
-use the variable length list to be the number of arguments in the function. When
-the function has a final member which is a varargs, then the argument count is
-incremented by one to account for the variable argument. Here, the
+use the variable length list to be the number of arguments in the function.
+When the function has a final member which is a varargs, then the argument count
+is incremented by one to account for the variable argument.
+Here, the
.Em ctt_type
member is encoded with the type identifier of the return type of the function.
Note that the
@@ -916,31 +969,36 @@ Note that the
member is not used here.
.Lp
The variable argument list contains the type identifiers for the arguments of
-the function, if any. Each one is represented by a
+the function, if any.
+Each one is represented by a
.Sy uint16_t
and encoded according to the
.Sx Type Identifiers
-section. If the function's last argument is of type varargs, then it is also
-written out, but the type identifier is zero. This is included in the count of
-the function's arguments.
+section.
+If the function's last argument is of type varargs, then it is also written out,
+but the type identifier is zero.
+This is included in the count of the function's arguments.
.Ss Encoding of Structures and Unions
Structures and Unions, which are encoded with
.Sy CTF_K_STRUCT
and
.Sy CTF_K_UNION
-respectively, are very similar constructs in C. The main difference
-between them is the fact that every member of a structure follows one another,
-where as in a union, all members share the same memory. They are also very
-similar in terms of their encoding in
+respectively, are very similar constructs in C.
+The main difference between them is the fact that every member of a structure
+follows one another, where as in a union, all members share the same memory.
+They are also very similar in terms of their encoding in
.Nm .
The variable length argument for structures and unions represents the number of
-members that they have. The value of the member
+members that they have.
+The value of the member
.Em ctt_size
-is the size of the structure and union. There are two different structures which
-are used to encode members in the variable list. When the size of a structure or
-union is greater than or equal to the large member threshold, 8192, then a
-different structure is used to encode the member, all members are encoded using
-the same structure. The structure for members is as follows:
+is the size of the structure and union.
+There are two different structures which are used to encode members in the
+variable list.
+When the size of a structure or union is greater than or equal to the large
+member threshold, 8192, then a different structure is used to encode the member,
+all members are encoded using the same structure.
+The structure for members is as follows:
.Bd -literal
typedef struct ctf_member {
uint_t ctm_name; /* reference to name in string table */
@@ -961,44 +1019,52 @@ Both the
.Em ctm_name
and
.Em ctlm_name
-refer to the name of the member. The name is encoded as an offset into the
-string table as described by the section
+refer to the name of the member.
+The name is encoded as an offset into the string table as described by the
+section
.Sx String Identifiers .
The members
.Sy ctm_type
and
.Sy ctlm_type
-both refer to the type of the member. They are encoded as per the section
+both refer to the type of the member.
+They are encoded as per the section
.Sx Type Identifiers .
.Lp
The last piece of information that is present is the offset which describes the
-offset in memory that the member begins at. For unions, this value will always
-be zero because the start of unions in memory is always zero. For structures,
-this is the offset in
+offset in memory that the member begins at.
+For unions, this value will always be zero because the start of unions in memory
+is always zero.
+For structures, this is the offset in
.Sy bits
-that the member begins at. Note that a compiler may lay out a type with padding.
+that the member begins at.
+Note that a compiler may lay out a type with padding.
This means that the difference in offset between two consecutive members may be
-larger than the size of the member. When the size of the overall structure is
-strictly less than 8192 bytes, the normal structure,
+larger than the size of the member.
+When the size of the overall structure is strictly less than 8192 bytes, the
+normal structure,
.Sy ctf_member_t ,
is used and the offset in bits is stored in the member
.Em ctm_offset .
However, when the size of the structure is greater than or equal to 8192 bytes,
-then the number of bits is split into two 32-bit quantities. One member,
+then the number of bits is split into two 32-bit quantities.
+One member,
.Em ctlm_offsethi ,
represents the upper 32 bits of the offset, while the other member,
.Em ctlm_offsetlo ,
-represents the lower 32 bits of the offset. These can be joined together to get
-a 64-bit sized offset in bits by shifting the member
+represents the lower 32 bits of the offset.
+These can be joined together to get a 64-bit sized offset in bits by shifting
+the member
.Em ctlm_offsethi
to the left by thirty two and then doing a binary or of
.Em ctlm_offsetlo .
.Ss Encoding of Enumerations
Enumerations, noted by the type
.Sy CTF_K_ENUM ,
-are similar to structures. Enumerations use the variable list to note the number
-of values that the enumeration contains, which we'll term enumerators. In C, an
-enumeration is always equivalent to the intrinsic type
+are similar to structures.
+Enumerations use the variable list to note the number of values that the
+enumeration contains, which we'll term enumerators.
+In C, an enumeration is always equivalent to the intrinsic type
.Sy int ,
thus the value of the member
.Em ctt_size
@@ -1032,25 +1098,27 @@ Forward references, types of kind
.Sy CTF_K_FORWARD ,
in a
.Nm
-file refer to types which may not have a definition at all, only a name. If
-the
+file refer to types which may not have a definition at all, only a name.
+If the
.Nm
file is a child, then it may be that the forward is resolved to an
actual type in the parent, otherwise the definition may be in another
.Nm
-container or may not be known at all. The only member of the
+container or may not be known at all.
+The only member of the
.Sy ctf_type_t
that matters for a forward declaration is the
.Em ctt_name
which points to the name of the forward reference in the string table as
-described earlier. There is no other information recorded for forward
-references.
+described earlier.
+There is no other information recorded for forward references.
.Ss Encoding of Pointers, Typedefs, Volatile, Const, and Restrict
Pointers, typedefs, volatile, const, and restrict are all similar in
.Nm .
-They all refer to another type. In the case of typedefs, they provide an
-alternate name, while volatile, const, and restrict change how the type is
-interpreted in the C programming language. This covers the
+They all refer to another type.
+In the case of typedefs, they provide an alternate name, while volatile, const,
+and restrict change how the type is interpreted in the C programming language.
+This covers the
.Nm
kinds
.Sy CTF_K_POINTER ,
@@ -1066,43 +1134,49 @@ to refer to the base type that they modify.
.Ss Encoding of Unknown Types
Types with the kind
.Sy CTF_K_UNKNOWN
-are used to indicate gaps in the type identifier space. These entries consume an
-identifier, but do not define anything. Nothing should refer to these gap
-identifiers.
+are used to indicate gaps in the type identifier space.
+These entries consume an identifier, but do not define anything.
+Nothing should refer to these gap identifiers.
.Ss Dependencies Between Types
-C types can be imagined as a directed, cyclic, graph. Structures and unions may
-refer to each other in a way that creates a cyclic dependency. In cases such as
-these, the entire type section must be read in and processed. Consumers must
-not assume that every type can be laid out in dependency order; they
-cannot.
+C types can be imagined as a directed, cyclic, graph.
+Structures and unions may refer to each other in a way that creates a cyclic
+dependency.
+In cases such as these, the entire type section must be read in and processed.
+Consumers must not assume that every type can be laid out in dependency order;
+they cannot.
.Ss The String Section
The last section of the
.Nm
file is the
.Sy string
-section. This section encodes all of the strings that appear throughout
-the other sections. It is laid out as a series of characters followed by
-a null terminator. Generally, all names are written out in ASCII, as
-most C compilers do not allow and characters to appear in identifiers
-outside of a subset of ASCII. However, any extended characters sets
-should be written out as a series of UTF-8 bytes.
+section.
+This section encodes all of the strings that appear throughout the other
+sections.
+It is laid out as a series of characters followed by a null terminator.
+Generally, all names are written out in ASCII, as most C compilers do not allow
+and characters to appear in identifiers outside of a subset of ASCII.
+However, any extended characters sets should be written out as a series of UTF-8
+bytes.
.Lp
The first entry in the section, at offset zero, is a single null
-terminator to reference the empty string. Following that, each C string
-should be written out, including the null terminator. Offsets that refer
-to something in this section should refer to the first byte which begins
-a string. Beyond the first byte in the section being the null
-terminator, the order of strings is unimportant.
+terminator to reference the empty string.
+Following that, each C string should be written out, including the null
+terminator.
+Offsets that refer to something in this section should refer to the first byte
+which begins a string.
+Beyond the first byte in the section being the null terminator, the order of
+strings is unimportant.
.Sh Data Encoding and ELF Considerations
.Nm
data is generally included in ELF objects which specify information to
-identify the architecture and endianness of the file. A
+identify the architecture and endianness of the file.
+A
.Nm
-container inside such an object must match the endianness of the ELF
-object. Aside from the question of the endian encoding of data, there
-should be no other differences between architectures. While many of the
-types in this document refer to non-fixed size C integral types, they
-are equivalent in the models
+container inside such an object must match the endianness of the ELF object.
+Aside from the question of the endian encoding of data, there should be no other
+differences between architectures.
+While many of the types in this document refer to non-fixed size C integral
+types, they are equivalent in the models
.Sy ILP32
and
.Sy LP64 .
@@ -1118,15 +1192,16 @@ When placing a
container inside of an ELF object, there are certain conventions that are
expected for the purposes of tooling being able to find the
.Nm
-data. In particular, a given ELF object should only contain a single
+data.
+In particular, a given ELF object should only contain a single
.Nm
-section. Multiple containers should be merged together into a single
-one.
+section.
+Multiple containers should be merged together into a single one.
.Lp
The
.Nm
-file should be included in its own ELF section. The section's name
-must be
+file should be included in its own ELF section.
+The section's name must be
.Ql .SUNW_ctf .
The type of the section must be
.Sy SHT_PROGBITS .