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authorSergey Kandaurov <pluknet@FreeBSD.org>2014-08-27 18:49:41 +0000
committerSergey Kandaurov <pluknet@FreeBSD.org>2014-08-27 18:49:41 +0000
commit9c3022b6773b00ab56d27870065e730da50c25f2 (patch)
tree0821967008df0105348c10c0199e66af302e6a09
parent5557748abd53380bdf1b525e32962e490b5f8cac (diff)
downloadsrc-9c3022b6773b00ab56d27870065e730da50c25f2.tar.gz
src-9c3022b6773b00ab56d27870065e730da50c25f2.zip
Vendor import of tzdata2014f.vendor/tzdata/tzdata2014f
- Russia time zone changes. - New zones: Asia/Chita and Asia/Srednekolymsk. - Lots of changes wrt. time zone abbreviations and historical data. - New zone tab data format. Obtained from: ftp://ftp.iana.org/tz/releases/
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/tzdata/dist/; revision=270725 svn path=/vendor/tzdata/tzdata2014f/; revision=270726; tag=vendor/tzdata/tzdata2014f
-rw-r--r--africa320
-rw-r--r--antarctica118
-rw-r--r--asia718
-rw-r--r--australasia832
-rw-r--r--backward8
-rw-r--r--etcetera3
-rw-r--r--europe930
-rw-r--r--factory1
-rw-r--r--iso3166.tab12
-rw-r--r--leap-seconds.list158
-rw-r--r--northamerica378
-rw-r--r--pacificnew1
-rw-r--r--southamerica385
-rw-r--r--systemv1
-rwxr-xr-xyearistype.sh4
-rw-r--r--zone.tab63
-rw-r--r--zone1970.tab369
17 files changed, 2316 insertions, 1985 deletions
diff --git a/africa b/africa
index 90f773578f2c..4ace7e9557fa 100644
--- a/africa
+++ b/africa
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -35,13 +34,13 @@
# Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
# for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
# but Mark R V Murray reports that
-# `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
-# `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
-# `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
-# the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
-# He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
+# 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
+# 'CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
+# 'WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
+# the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa".
+# He has heard of "Western Sahara Time" for +0:00 but can find no reference.
#
-# To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
+# To make things confusing, 'WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
# I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
# and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
# This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
@@ -54,7 +53,7 @@
# 2:00 SAST South Africa Standard Time
# and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
# 1:00 WAT West Africa Time
-# I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
+# I realize that this leads to 'WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
# for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
# until we get more information.
#
@@ -131,9 +130,7 @@ Zone Africa/Gaborone 1:43:40 - LMT 1885
2:00 - CAT
# Burkina Faso
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Ouagadougou -0:06:04 - LMT 1912
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Burundi
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -161,7 +158,7 @@ Zone Africa/Bangui 1:14:20 - LMT 1912
# Chad
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 - LMT 1912
+Zone Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 - LMT 1912 # N'Djamena
1:00 - WAT 1979 Oct 14
1:00 1:00 WAST 1980 Mar 8
1:00 - WAT
@@ -183,10 +180,20 @@ Zone Africa/Lubumbashi 1:49:52 - LMT 1897 Nov 9
Zone Africa/Brazzaville 1:01:08 - LMT 1912
1:00 - WAT
-# Cote D'Ivoire
+# Côte D'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Abidjan -0:16:08 - LMT 1912
0:00 - GMT
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako # Mali
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul # Gambia
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry # Guinea
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar # Senegal
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown # Sierra Leone
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome # Togo
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott # Mauritania
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou # Burkina Faso
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Sao_Tome # São Tomé and Príncipe
+Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena # St Helena
# Djibouti
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -231,13 +238,9 @@ Rule Egypt 1990 1994 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
# Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
#
# Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
-# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168">
# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
-# </a>
# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
-# </a>
Rule Egypt 1995 2010 - Apr lastFri 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Egypt 1995 2005 - Sep lastThu 24:00 0 -
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
@@ -249,7 +252,7 @@ Rule Egypt 2006 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 -
# From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
# I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
# saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
# http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
@@ -288,15 +291,9 @@ Rule Egypt 2007 only - Sep Thu>=1 24:00 0 -
#
# timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
#
-# [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263">
-# https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
-# </a>
-# [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53">
-# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
-# </a>
-# [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/">
-# http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
-# </a>
+# [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
+# [2] http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
+# [3] http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
# In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
@@ -306,14 +303,10 @@ Rule Egypt 2007 only - Sep Thu>=1 24:00 0 -
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
# We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
# Information and Decision Support Center:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
-# </a>
#
# The Middle East News Agency
-# <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx">
# http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
-# </a>
# also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
# today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
# Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
@@ -321,19 +314,14 @@ Rule Egypt 2007 only - Sep Thu>=1 24:00 0 -
# (at least today).
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
-# According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
+# According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
# decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
# Ramadan.
#
# Arabic translation:
-# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again"
-# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again">
+# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again"
# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
-# </a>
# From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07):
# Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15
@@ -433,10 +421,15 @@ Zone Africa/Asmara 2:35:32 - LMT 1870
3:00 - EAT
# Ethiopia
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
-# between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
-# We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-31):
+# Like the Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania, many Ethiopians keep a
+# 12-hour clock starting at our 06:00, so their "8 o'clock" is our
+# 02:00 or 14:00. Keep this in mind when you ask the time in Amharic.
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time
+# zones between 1870 and 1890, that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in
+# 1890, and that they switched to 3:00 on 1936-05-05. Perhaps 38E50
+# was for Adis Dera. Quite likely the Shanks data are wrong anyway.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa 2:34:48 - LMT 1870
2:35:20 - ADMT 1936 May 5 # Adis Dera MT
@@ -448,28 +441,24 @@ Zone Africa/Libreville 0:37:48 - LMT 1912
1:00 - WAT
# Gambia
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Banjul -1:06:36 - LMT 1912
- -1:06:36 - BMT 1935 # Banjul Mean Time
- -1:00 - WAT 1964
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Ghana
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
-# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Sep 1 0:00 0:20 GHST
-Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Dec 31 0:00 0 GMT
+# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";
+# Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942;
+# and September 1 to January 1 is given by:
+# Scott Keltie J, Epstein M (eds), The Statesman's Year-Book,
+# 57th ed. Macmillan, London (1920), OCLC 609408015, pp xxviii.
+# For lack of better info, assume DST was observed from 1920 to 1942.
+Rule Ghana 1920 1942 - Sep 1 0:00 0:20 GHST
+Rule Ghana 1920 1942 - Dec 31 0:00 0 GMT
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Accra -0:00:52 - LMT 1918
0:00 Ghana %s
# Guinea
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Conakry -0:54:52 - LMT 1912
- 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
- -1:00 - WAT 1960
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Guinea-Bissau
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -577,18 +566,8 @@ Zone Africa/Blantyre 2:20:00 - LMT 1903 Mar
2:00 - CAT
# Mali
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Bamako -0:32:00 - LMT 1912
- 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
- -1:00 - WAT 1960 Jun 20
- 0:00 - GMT
-
# Mauritania
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Nouakchott -1:03:48 - LMT 1912
- 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
- -1:00 - WAT 1960 Nov 28
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Mauritius
@@ -612,9 +591,7 @@ Zone Africa/Nouakchott -1:03:48 - LMT 1912
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
# According to
-# <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216">
# http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
-# </a>
# (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
# than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31). The new start
# date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
@@ -633,18 +610,13 @@ Zone Africa/Nouakchott -1:03:48 - LMT 1912
# published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
#
# I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
-# de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
-# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.
-# ...
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html">
+# de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
+# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one....
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
-# </a>
# From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
# The Government of Mauritius weblink
-# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD">
# http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
-# </a>
# Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
#
# 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
@@ -654,33 +626,25 @@ Zone Africa/Nouakchott -1:03:48 - LMT 1912
# States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
# last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
# the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
-# year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
+# year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
# and end on 29 March 2009.
# From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
# THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
# beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
# morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
-# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf">
# http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
# According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
# DST the coming summer...
#
# Some sources, in French:
-# <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB">
# http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-">
# http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
-# </a>
#
# Our wrap-up:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
# The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
@@ -704,7 +668,7 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
3:00 - EAT
# Morocco
-# See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
+# See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
# Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
@@ -712,60 +676,43 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
#
# "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
# be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
-# Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
+# Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html">
# http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
-# </a>
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse:
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view">
# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
-# </a>
#
# Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
# spokesman.
# From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
# According to this article:
-# <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html">
# http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
-# </a>
-# (and republished here:
-# <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html">
-# http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html
-# </a>
-# )
-# the changes occurs at midnight:
+# (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>)
+# the changes occur at midnight:
#
-# saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be
-# intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday)
-# sunday night the 28th at midnight
+# Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be
+# interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday)
+# Sunday night the 28th at midnight
#
-# Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
-# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and
-# monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
-# june1st to sept 27th.
+# Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
+# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and
+# Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
+# June 1st to Sept 27th.
#
# The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
# published on the web.
#
# It's also confirmed here:
-# <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm">
# http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
-# </a>
-# on a government portal as being between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet
-# posted in english).
+# on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet
+# posted in English).
#
-# The following google query will generate many relevant hits:
-# <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search">
+# The following Google query will generate many relevant hits:
# http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
# Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
@@ -773,47 +720,32 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
# of September:
#
# One article about it (in French):
-# <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default">
# http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
-# </a>
#
# We have some further details posted here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
# Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
# to many sources, such as
-# <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html">
# http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312">
# http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
-# </a>
# (French)
#
# Our summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
# Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
-# Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
+# Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
#
# Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967)
# concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
# Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
# advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
#
-# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf">
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
-# </a>
-#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
# Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
@@ -821,14 +753,10 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
# 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
#
# Example:
-# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html">
# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
-# </a>
# (French)
# Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
-# </a>
# From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
# ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
@@ -838,34 +766,20 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
# The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
# I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
# +212.537.71.84.00
-# <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/">
# http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
-# </a>
# They said that
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view">
# http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
-# </a>
# is the official publication to look at.
# They said that the decision was already taken.
#
# More articles in the press
-# <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev">
-# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev
-# </a>
-# e.html
-# <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923">
+# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html
# http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim">
# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
-# anche-prochain-5538.html
-# </a>
# From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
# They have it written in English here:
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view">
# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
-# </a>
#
# It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
# 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
@@ -873,20 +787,16 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
# also been like that in the past.
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
-# According to Infom&eacute;diaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
-# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure l&eacute;gale:
-# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'&eacute;t&eacute;
-# <a href="http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9">
+# According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
+# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale:
+# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été
# http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
-# </a>
# Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
# the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
# last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
# except the month of Ramadan.
# or (brief)
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
# The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
@@ -897,17 +807,13 @@ Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
# From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
# Seen Morocco change again:
-# <a href="http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php">
# http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
-# </a>
-# "...&agrave; partir du dernier dimance d'avril et non fins mars,
-# comme annonc&eacute; pr&eacute;c&eacute;demment."
+# "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars,
+# comme annoncé précédemment."
# From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
# The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
-# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288">
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
-# </a>
#
# Google translation, lightly edited:
# Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
@@ -1052,7 +958,7 @@ Zone Africa/Casablanca -0:30:20 - LMT 1913 Oct 26
# Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
# since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
-Zone Africa/El_Aaiun -0:52:48 - LMT 1934 Jan
+Zone Africa/El_Aaiun -0:52:48 - LMT 1934 Jan # El Aaiún
-1:00 - WAT 1976 Apr 14
0:00 Morocco WE%sT
@@ -1102,15 +1008,17 @@ Zone Africa/Niamey 0:08:28 - LMT 1912
Zone Africa/Lagos 0:13:36 - LMT 1919 Sep
1:00 - WAT
-# Reunion
+# Réunion
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Reunion 3:41:52 - LMT 1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
- 4:00 - RET # Reunion Time
+ 4:00 - RET # Réunion Time
#
-# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
+# Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
+#
+# Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
# The following information about them is taken from
-# Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
-# no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
+# Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
+# in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
# We have no info about their time zone histories.
#
# Bassas da India - uninhabited
@@ -1125,28 +1033,17 @@ Zone Africa/Kigali 2:00:16 - LMT 1935 Jun
2:00 - CAT
# St Helena
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/St_Helena -0:22:48 - LMT 1890 # Jamestown
- -0:22:48 - JMT 1951 # Jamestown Mean Time
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
# Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
-# Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
+# Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
# Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
# on GMT, says the CIA
-# Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT
-
-# Sao Tome and Principe
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Sao_Tome 0:26:56 - LMT 1884
- -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 # Lisbon Mean Time
- 0:00 - GMT
+# Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
+# São Tomé and Príncipe
# Senegal
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Dakar -1:09:44 - LMT 1912
- -1:00 - WAT 1941 Jun
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Seychelles
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -1160,17 +1057,7 @@ Zone Indian/Mahe 3:41:48 - LMT 1906 Jun # Victoria
# Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
# Sierra Leone
-# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-# Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule SL 1935 1942 - Jun 1 0:00 0:40 SLST
-Rule SL 1935 1942 - Oct 1 0:00 0 WAT
-Rule SL 1957 1962 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 SLST
-Rule SL 1957 1962 - Sep 1 0:00 0 GMT
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Freetown -0:53:00 - LMT 1882
- -0:53:00 - FMT 1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
- -1:00 SL %s 1957
- 0:00 SL %s
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Somalia
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -1193,9 +1080,9 @@ Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 - LMT 1892 Feb 8
# Sudan
#
-# From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
-# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
-# </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
+# From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
+# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
+# also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
# Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
# Saturday.... This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
# Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
@@ -1226,14 +1113,12 @@ Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 - LMT 1931
3:00 - EAT
# Togo
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
- 0:00 - GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
# Tunisia
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
-# My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
+# My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
# this time in Tunisia. According to Yahoo France News
# <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
# and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
@@ -1242,7 +1127,7 @@ Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
# Saturday." (My translation)
#
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
-# LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
+# La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
# <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
# ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
# 1h standard time.
@@ -1256,18 +1141,12 @@ Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
# According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
# (Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546">
# http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp">
# http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
-# </a>
#
# We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
# We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
# Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
@@ -1275,20 +1154,17 @@ Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
# Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
#
# (in English)
-# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157">
# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
-# </a>
#
# (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1">
# http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
-# </a>
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18):
-# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact
-# that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time.
-# Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long."
-# So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18):
+# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is
+# due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period
+# concerned by summer time. Therefore, the standard time will be kept
+# unchanged the whole year long." So foregoing DST seems to be an exception
+# (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
# According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
@@ -1300,12 +1176,8 @@ Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
# coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
#
# (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1">
# http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
-# <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036">
# http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
diff --git a/antarctica b/antarctica
index 8f8e408d0094..912232a5e1bf 100644
--- a/antarctica
+++ b/antarctica
@@ -1,16 +1,13 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
# From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15):
# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see
-# <a href="http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/">
# COMNAP - Stations and Bases
-# </a>
+# <http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/>
# and
-# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm">
# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23)
-# </a>
+# <http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm>
# for information.
# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information.
#
@@ -55,19 +52,19 @@ Rule ChileAQ 2012 max - Sep Sun>=2 4:00u 1:00 S
# Argentina - year-round bases
# Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05
-# Esperanza, San Martin Land, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
-# Jubany, Potter Peninsula, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
-# Marambio, Seymour I, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
+# Carlini, Potter Cove, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
+# Esperanza, Hope Bay, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
+# Marambio, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
# Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22
-# San Martin, Debenham I, -6807-06708, since 1951-03-21
+# San Martín, Barry I, -6808-06706, since 1951-03-21
# (except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21)
# Australia - territories
# Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited)
# previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered
-# <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html">
# Margaret Turner reports
-# </a> (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST;
+# <http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html>
+# (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST;
# presumably this is when they have visitors.
#
# year-round bases
@@ -84,14 +81,10 @@ Rule ChileAQ 2012 max - Sep Sun>=2 4:00u 1:00 S
# The changes occurred on 2009-10-18 at 02:00 (local times).
#
# Government source: (Australian Antarctic Division)
-# <a href="http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079">
# http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079
-# </a>
#
# We have more background information here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division: ...
@@ -106,19 +99,17 @@ Rule ChileAQ 2012 max - Sep Sun>=2 4:00u 1:00 S
# - Mawson station stays on UTC+5.
#
# Background:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html
-# </a>
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/Casey 0 - zzz 1969
- 8:00 - WST 2009 Oct 18 2:00
- # Western (Aus) Standard Time
+ 8:00 - AWST 2009 Oct 18 2:00
+ # Australian Western Std Time
11:00 - CAST 2010 Mar 5 2:00
# Casey Time
- 8:00 - WST 2011 Oct 28 2:00
+ 8:00 - AWST 2011 Oct 28 2:00
11:00 - CAST 2012 Feb 21 17:00u
- 8:00 - WST
+ 8:00 - AWST
Zone Antarctica/Davis 0 - zzz 1957 Jan 13
7:00 - DAVT 1964 Nov # Davis Time
0 - zzz 1969 Feb
@@ -132,24 +123,27 @@ Zone Antarctica/Mawson 0 - zzz 1954 Feb 13
# Mawson Time
5:00 - MAWT
# References:
-# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html">
# Casey Weather (1998-02-26)
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html">
+# <http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html>
# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26)
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html">
+# <http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html>
# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25)
-# </a>
+# <http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html>
+
+# Belgium - year-round base
+# Princess Elisabeth, Queen Maud Land, -713412+0231200, since 2007
# Brazil - year-round base
-# Comandante Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4
+# Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4
+
+# Bulgaria - year-round base
+# St. Kliment Ohridski, Livingston Island, -623829-0602153, since 1988
# Chile - year-round bases and towns
# Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994
-# Presidente Eduadro Frei, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
-# General Bernardo O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
-# Capitan Arturo Prat, -6230-05941
+# Frei Montalva, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
+# O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
+# Prat, -6230-05941
# Villa Las Estrellas (a town), around the Frei base, since 1984-04-09
# These locations have always used Santiago time; use TZ='America/Santiago'.
@@ -157,31 +151,35 @@ Zone Antarctica/Mawson 0 - zzz 1954 Feb 13
# Great Wall, King George Island, -6213-05858, since 1985-02-20
# Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, -6922+07623, since 1989-02-26
-# France - year-round bases
+# France - year-round bases (also see "France & Italy")
#
# From Antoine Leca (1997-01-20):
# Time data are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP
# (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology).
-# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adelie bases
-# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adelie supplies came
+# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adélie bases
+# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adélie supplies came
# from Tasmania.
#
# French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants
#
-# Martin-de-Vivies Base, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
-# Alfred-Faure Base, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964
-# Port-aux-Francais, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
+# Alfred Faure, Possession Island, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964;
+# sealing & whaling stations operated variously 1802/1911+;
+# see Indian/Reunion.
+#
+# Martin-de-Viviès, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
+# Port-aux-Français, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
# whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956
#
# St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited
# fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Kerguelen 0 - zzz 1950 # Port-aux-Francais
+Zone Indian/Kerguelen 0 - zzz 1950 # Port-aux-Français
5:00 - TFT # ISO code TF Time
#
# year-round base in the main continent
-# Dumont-d'Urville, Ile des Petrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
+# Dumont d'Urville, Île des Pétrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
+# <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station> (2005-12-05)
#
# Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947.
# It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14.
@@ -191,20 +189,22 @@ Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 - zzz 1947
10:00 - PMT 1952 Jan 14 # Port-Martin Time
0 - zzz 1956 Nov
10:00 - DDUT # Dumont-d'Urville Time
-# Reference:
-# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station">
-# Dumont d'Urville Station (2005-12-05)
-# </a>
+
+# France & Italy - year-round base
+# Concordia, -750600+1232000, since 2005
# Germany - year-round base
-# Georg von Neumayer, -7039-00815
+# Neumayer III, -704080-0081602, since 2009
-# India - year-round base
-# Dakshin Gangotri, -7005+01200
+# India - year-round bases
+# Bharati, -692428+0761114, since 2012
+# Maitri, -704558+0114356, since 1989
+
+# Italy - year-round base (also see "France & Italy")
+# Zuchelli, Terra Nova Bay, -744140+1640647, since 1986
# Japan - year-round bases
-# Dome Fuji, -7719+03942
-# Syowa, -690022+0393524
+# Syowa (also known as Showa), -690022+0393524, since 1957
#
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06):
# In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time.
@@ -216,11 +216,11 @@ Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 - zzz 1947
Zone Antarctica/Syowa 0 - zzz 1957 Jan 29
3:00 - SYOT # Syowa Time
# See:
-# <a href="http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html">
# NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17)
-# </a>
+# <http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html>
# S Korea - year-round base
+# Jang Bogo, Terra Nova Bay, -743700+1641205 since 2014
# King Sejong, King George Island, -6213-05847, since 1988
# New Zealand - claims
@@ -269,6 +269,9 @@ Zone Antarctica/Troll 0 - zzz 2005 Feb 12
# Poland - year-round base
# Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977
+# Romania - year-bound base
+# Law-Racoviță, Larsemann Hills, -692319+0762251, since 1986
+
# Russia - year-round bases
# Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22
# Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02
@@ -278,8 +281,8 @@ Zone Antarctica/Troll 0 - zzz 2005 Feb 12
# year-round from 1960/61 to 1992
# Vostok, since 1957-12-16, temporarily closed 1994-02/1994-11
-# <a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP">
-# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15)</a>:
+# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15)
+# <http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP>:
# Vostok, which is one of the Russian stations, is set on the same
# time as Moscow, Russia.
#
@@ -294,7 +297,7 @@ Zone Antarctica/Troll 0 - zzz 2005 Feb 12
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-04):
# This seems to be hopelessly confusing, so I asked Lee Hotz about it
-# in person. He said that some Antartic locations set their local
+# in person. He said that some Antarctic locations set their local
# time so that noon is the warmest part of the day, and that this
# changes during the year and does not necessarily correspond to mean
# solar noon. So the Vostok time might have been whatever the clocks
@@ -306,9 +309,12 @@ Zone Antarctica/Vostok 0 - zzz 1957 Dec 16
# S Africa - year-round bases
# Marion Island, -4653+03752
-# Sanae, -7141-00250
+# SANAE IV, Vesleskarvet, Queen Maud Land, -714022-0025026, since 1997
+
+# Ukraine - year-round base
+# Vernadsky (formerly Faraday), Galindez Island, -651445-0641526, since 1954
-# UK
+# United Kingdom
#
# British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims
# South Orkney Islands
@@ -364,7 +370,7 @@ Zone Antarctica/Palmer 0 - zzz 1965
# but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12
# as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound,
# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year
-# at that time (1957). (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.)
+# at that time (1957). (Source: Siple's book 90 Degrees South.)
#
# From Susan Smith
# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html
diff --git a/asia b/asia
index 24566ca0f5ba..6130e5926efc 100644
--- a/asia
+++ b/asia
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -32,7 +31,7 @@
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
-# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
# std dst
@@ -47,13 +46,14 @@
# 7:00 WIB west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
# 8:00 WITA central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
# 8:00 CST China
-# 9:00 CJT Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)*
+# 8:00 JWST Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)*
+# 9:00 JCST Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)
# 9:00 WIT east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
# 9:00 JST JDT Japan
# 9:00 KST KDT Korea
-# 9:30 CST (Australian) Central Standard Time
+# 9:30 ACST Australian Central Standard Time
#
-# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
+# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
# From Guy Harris:
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
###############################################################################
-# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file.
+# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule EUAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EUAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ Zone Asia/Baku 3:19:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
# Bahrain
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah
+Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Manamah
4:00 - GST 1972 Jun
3:00 - AST
@@ -151,13 +151,8 @@ Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah
# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
#
# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
-# <a href="http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288">
# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
-# </a>
#
# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
# June
@@ -172,17 +167,11 @@ Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah
# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
#
# Some sources:
-# <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601">
# http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2">
# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
-# </a>
#
# Our wrap-up:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
-# </a>
# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
@@ -197,13 +186,8 @@ Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah
#
# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
-# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021">
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
@@ -212,22 +196,15 @@ Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah
# "continue for an indefinite period."
#
# One of many places where it is published:
-# <a href="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html">
# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
#
# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
-# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228">
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
-# </a>
-# and
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
-# </a>
#
# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
@@ -237,13 +214,8 @@ Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
-# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817">
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
-# </a>
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Jun 19 23:00 1:00 S
@@ -309,12 +281,12 @@ Zone Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# No they don't. See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52. Even though
# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
-# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China
-# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of
+# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China
+# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). I don't know about DST for it.
#
# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
-# painful to suck in another copy.. So, here is what I have for
+# painful to suck in another copy. So, here is what I have for
# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
#
# 1986 May 4 - Sept 14
@@ -324,15 +296,16 @@ Zone Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9
# CHINA 8 H AHEAD OF UTC ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
# CHINA 9 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 17 - SEP 10
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that China (except for Hong Kong and Macau)
-# has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, observing summer DST
-# from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's
-# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
-# Go with Shanks & Pottenger for now. I made up names for the other
-# pre-1980 time zones.
+# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
+# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
+# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
+# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but
+# this doesn't seem to be correct. They also write that China observed summer
+# DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so
+# go with them for DST rules as follows:
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
@@ -346,7 +319,7 @@ Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D
# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites. And yes, there are official
# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
# http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
# boundaries summarized below].... A few other exceptions were two
@@ -357,65 +330,97 @@ Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D
# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
-# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
-# I just now checked Google News for western news sources that talk
-# about China's single time zone, and couldn't find anything before 1986
-# talking about China being in one time zone. (That article was: Jim
-# Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
-# time--sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05. By the way, this
-# article confirms the tz database's data claiming that China began
-# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
-#
-# From Thomas S. Mullaney (2008-02-11):
-# I think you're combining two subjects that need to treated
-# separately: daylight savings (which, you're correct, wasn't
-# implemented until the 1980s) and the unified time zone centered near
-# Beijing (which was implemented in 1949). Briefly, there was also a
-# "Lhasa Time" in Tibet and "Urumqi Time" in Xinjiang. The first was
-# ceased, and the second eventually recognized (again, in the 1980s).
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
-# There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone in 1949
-# rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a
-# reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with
-# Shanks & Pottenger.
-
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area)
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
+#
+# (1)
+# Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
+# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
+# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
+# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003)
+# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
+# officially apparent solar time! However, Guo also says that the
+# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
+# been taken over by the PRC yet. It's plausible that apparent solar
+# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
+# to use UT+8. As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
+# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
+# could well have ignored any such mandate.
+#
+# (2)
+# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
+# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
+# [undated and unknown publication location]
+# It says several things:
+# * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
+# * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
+# the official calendar book of 1914.
+# * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
+# French docks in the 1890s, controled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
+# Obervatory and set to local mean time.
+# * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
+# * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
+# eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
+# became used by railways as well.
+# * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
+# five time zones (see below for details). This caught on
+# at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
+# * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7. In practice
+# this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
+# Japanese-occupied territory.
+# * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
+# * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
+# place (with some modifications) in March 1948. It's not clear
+# how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
+# * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
+#
+# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
+# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
+# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
+# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai." Guess that the
+# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8.
+#
+# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
+# this was based on what was apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
+# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
+# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
+# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
+# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
+#
+# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5
+# Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
-Zone Asia/Harbin 8:26:44 - LMT 1928 # or Haerbin
- 8:30 - CHAT 1932 Mar # Changbai Time
- 8:00 - CST 1940
- 9:00 - CHAT 1966 May
- 8:30 - CHAT 1980 May
- 8:00 PRC C%sT
-# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time")
+#
+# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8
+# Asia/Shanghai
# most of China
-# Milne gives 8:05:56.7; round to nearest.
-Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:57 - LMT 1928
- 8:00 Shang C%sT 1949
- 8:00 PRC C%sT
-# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area)
+# This currently represents most other zones as well,
+# as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970.
+# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
+# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century".
+#
+# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7
+# Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
-Zone Asia/Chongqing 7:06:20 - LMT 1928 # or Chungking
- 7:00 - LONT 1980 May # Long-shu Time
- 8:00 PRC C%sT
-# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time")
+#
+# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6
+# Asia/Urumqi
+# This currently represents Kunlun Time as well,
+# as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.
# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
# the Guangdong counties Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
-# east Xinjiang, including Urumqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
+# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
-Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi
- 6:00 - URUT 1980 May # Urumqi Time
- 8:00 PRC C%sT
-# Kunlun Time
+#
+# Kunlun Time UT+5.5
+# Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)
# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
@@ -432,9 +437,9 @@ Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi
# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
# hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
-# local governments such as the Urumqi city government use both times in
+# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
-# "Urumqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
+# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
#
# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
@@ -446,21 +451,6 @@ Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi
# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
# others moving their clocks ahead.)
-#
-# ...an example of an official website using of Urumqi time.
-#
-# The first few lines of the Google translation of
-# <a href="http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39">
-# http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39
-# </a>
-# (retrieved 2009-10-13)
-# > Urumqi fire seven people are missing the alleged losses of at least
-# > 500 million yuan
-# >
-# > (Reporter Dong Liu) the day before 20:20 or so (Urumqi Time 18:20),
-# > Urumqi City Department of International Plaza Luther Qiantang River
-# > burst fire. As of yesterday, 18:30, Urumqi City Fire officers and men
-# > have worked continuously for 22 hours...
# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
@@ -471,7 +461,7 @@ Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi
# 3. Urumqi...
# 4. Kashgar...
# ...
-# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Urumqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
+# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
#
@@ -483,10 +473,55 @@ Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi
# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
-Zone Asia/Kashgar 5:03:56 - LMT 1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar
- 5:30 - KAST 1940 # Kashgar Time
- 5:00 - KAST 1980 May
+# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
+# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
+# http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
+
+# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
+# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
+# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
+# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
+# Cochrane. Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
+# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
+# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
+# and Beijing Time. There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
+# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
+# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other. The only
+# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
+# having the same time as Beijing.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but
+# this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
+# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
+# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
+# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
+#
+# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized. E.g., see
+# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
+# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
+# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
+# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dyansty,
+# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
+# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
+# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
+# quite a trick. Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
+# XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
+# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
+# guess) as the transition from LMT. Ignore the usage of UT+8 before
+# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and
+# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
+# UT+8 mandate back then.
+
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
+Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:43 - LMT 1901
+ 8:00 Shang C%sT 1949
8:00 PRC C%sT
+# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
+# / Wulumuqi. (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
+Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928
+ 6:00 - XJT
# Hong Kong (Xianggang)
@@ -501,15 +536,11 @@ Zone Asia/Kashgar 5:03:56 - LMT 1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar
# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
# obtained from
-# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# </a>.
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
# Here are the dates given at
-# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# </a>
# as of 2009-10-28:
# Year Period
# 1941 1 Apr to 30 Sep
@@ -589,35 +620,113 @@ Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:42 - LMT 1904 Oct 30
# Taiwan
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it
-# was still controlled by Japan. This is hard to believe, but we don't
-# have any other information.
-
# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
-# According to Taiwan's CWB,
-# <a href="http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm">
+# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
-# </a>
# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
-# From Arthur David Olson (2010-04-07):
-# Here's Google's translation of the table at the bottom of the "summert.htm" page:
-# Decade Name Start and end date
-# Republic of China 34 years to 40 years (AD 1945-1951 years) Summer Time May 1 to September 30
-# 41 years of the Republic of China (AD 1952) Daylight Saving Time March 1 to October 31
-# Republic of China 42 years to 43 years (AD 1953-1954 years) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to October 31
-# In the 44 years to 45 years (AD 1955-1956 years) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 46 years to 48 years (AD 1957-1959) Summer Time April 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 49 years to 50 years (AD 1960-1961) Summer Time June 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 51 years to 62 years (AD 1962-1973 years) Stop Summer Time
-# Republic of China 63 years to 64 years (1974-1975 AD) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 65 years to 67 years (1976-1978 AD) Stop Daylight Saving Time
-# Republic of China 68 years (AD 1979) Daylight Saving Time July 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China since 69 years (AD 1980) Stop Daylight Saving Time
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
+# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
+# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
+# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
+# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
+# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
+# found on Wikisource:
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
+# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
+# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
+# declared officially.
+#
+# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
+# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
+# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
+# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
+# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
+# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
+# (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
+# be found on Wikisource:
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
+#
+# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
+
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
+# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9
+# back to UTC+8 after WW2. I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945. In a document
+# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
+# zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21. And in another
+# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
+# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time". From these two
+# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21. And
+# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
+# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
+# that:
+#
+# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
+# the time at 135E (GMT+9)
+#
+# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
+# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
+# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
+# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
+#
+# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
+# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
+# Time.
+#
+# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
+# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
+# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
+# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
+# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
+# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
+
+# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
+# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
+# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan. It's Taiwan Governor-General
+# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
+# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
+# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
+# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21. I think this bulletin is much more
+# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
+# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
+# would be a good one.
+# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
+# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
+
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
+# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
+# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
+#
+# Original Bulletin:
+# <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF>
+# <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0> (cont.)
+#
+# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
+# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
+#
+# <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431>
+#
+# Here is a brief translation:
+#
+# The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
+# midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
+# adption till Oct 31 midnight.
+#
+# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
+# be found from historical government announcement database.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
+# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01
+# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
+Rule Taiwan 1946 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Taiwan 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
+Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
+Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1952 only - Mar 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1952 1954 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1953 1959 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
@@ -625,11 +734,14 @@ Rule Taiwan 1955 1961 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1960 1961 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
-Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 S
+Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 # or Taibei or T'ai-pei
+# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
+Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 Jan 1
+ 8:00 - JWST 1937 Oct 1
+ 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 21 01:00
8:00 Taiwan C%sT
# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
@@ -698,7 +810,7 @@ Link Asia/Nicosia Europe/Nicosia
# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow. As a result it
# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
# ahead. The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
-# Mikhail Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
+# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
# of integration into Europe.
# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
@@ -711,10 +823,11 @@ Link Asia/Nicosia Europe/Nicosia
# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
+# Milne says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7; round to nearest.)
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:16 - LMT 1880
- 2:59:16 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
+Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:06 - LMT 1880
+ 2:59:06 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
3:00 - TBIT 1957 Mar # Tbilisi Time
4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
3:00 1:00 TBIST 1991 Apr 9 # independence
@@ -730,10 +843,9 @@ Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:16 - LMT 1880
# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
-# From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
-# <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm">
+# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
# East Timor may be late for its millennium
-# </a> (1999-12-26/31):
+# <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
@@ -743,9 +855,9 @@ Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:16 - LMT 1880
# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
-# <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html">
# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
-# (2000-08-16)</a>:
+# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
+# (2000-08-16):
# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour. The time change,
# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
@@ -787,7 +899,7 @@ Zone Asia/Kolkata 5:53:28 - LMT 1880 # Kolkata
# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
-# Regimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Editions
+# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
# from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
# (Hollandia). For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
@@ -838,7 +950,7 @@ Zone Asia/Makassar 7:57:36 - LMT 1920
# Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov
9:00 - WIT 1944 Sep 1
- 9:30 - CST 1964
+ 9:30 - ACST 1964
9:00 - WIT
# Iran
@@ -904,7 +1016,7 @@ Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov
# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
#
-# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Norgaard Welen:
+# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
# daylight saving time ...
# http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
@@ -995,17 +1107,11 @@ Zone Asia/Tehran 3:25:44 - LMT 1916
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
# news sources (in Arabic):
-# <a href="http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html">
# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10">
# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
-# </a>
#
# We have published a short article in English about the change:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
-# </a>
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Iraq 1982 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
@@ -1014,7 +1120,7 @@ Rule Iraq 1983 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iraq 1984 1985 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iraq 1985 1990 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 S
Rule Iraq 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 D
-# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo.
+# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
#
Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Apr 1 3:00s 1:00 D
@@ -1258,12 +1364,12 @@ Zone Asia/Jerusalem 2:20:54 - LMT 1880
# Japan
-# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris.
+# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
-# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued
-# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.''
+# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
+# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times
# <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>:
@@ -1290,7 +1396,7 @@ Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
-# Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0.
+# Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.
# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
@@ -1298,10 +1404,10 @@ Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
-# which stands for the time on E 135 degree.
+# which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.
# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
# standard time". And the same ordinance also established "western standard
-# time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree.... But "western standard
+# time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E.... But "western standard
# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937). In the ordinance No.
# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
# standard....
@@ -1309,27 +1415,33 @@ Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
-# Shanks & Pottenger claim JST in use since 1896, and that a few
-# places (e.g. Ishigaki) use +0800; go with Suzuki. Guess that all
-# ordinances took effect on Jan 1.
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
+# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
+# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
+#
+# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
+# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
+# Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u
- 9:00 - JST 1896
- 9:00 - CJT 1938
+ 9:00 - JST 1896 Jan 1
+ 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 Japan J%sT
# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
# Jordan
#
-# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html">
-# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
+# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
+# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
# all year round.
#
-# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html">
-# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
+# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
+# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
# by one hour. This is the latest government decision and it's final!
# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
@@ -1349,9 +1461,7 @@ Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
-# <a href="http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279">
# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
-# </a>
#
# Google's translation:
#
@@ -1442,9 +1552,8 @@ Zone Asia/Amman 2:23:44 - LMT 1931
# - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
# - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.
-# <a href="http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm">
-# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 (2005-03-21):
-# </a>
+# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11
+# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
@@ -1558,19 +1667,29 @@ Rule ROK 1960 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S
Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 0:00 1:00 D
Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 0 S
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-01):
+# The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger, except that I
+# guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
+# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
+# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1890
8:30 - KST 1904 Dec
- 9:00 - KST 1928
+ 9:00 - JCST 1928
8:30 - KST 1932
+ 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
+ 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 8
9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21
8:00 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10
8:30 - KST 1968 Oct
9:00 ROK K%sT
Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1890
8:30 - KST 1904 Dec
- 9:00 - KST 1928
+ 9:00 - JCST 1928
8:30 - KST 1932
+ 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
+ 9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 24
9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21
8:00 - KST 1961 Aug 10
9:00 - KST
@@ -1579,14 +1698,6 @@ Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1890
# Kuwait
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-# From the Arab Times (2007-03-14):
-# The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded
-# by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in
-# Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba.
-# <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>.
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
-# We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen,
-# so for now we assume no DST.
Zone Asia/Kuwait 3:11:56 - LMT 1950
3:00 - AST
@@ -1667,15 +1778,14 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
# Mongolia
# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
-# usno1995 and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World (2005-03)
-# both say that it has just one.
+# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
+# (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
-# <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm">
# General Information Mongolia
-# </a> (1999-09)
+# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
-# Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
+# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
# eight hours."
@@ -1686,7 +1796,7 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
# of implementation may have been different....
# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
-# Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij.
+# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
@@ -1700,10 +1810,10 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
# there are three time zones.
#
-# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-ulgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
-# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khovsgol, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Tov,
-# Bayankhongor, Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Omnogovi
-# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sukhbaatar
+# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
+# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
+# Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
+# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
#
# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
@@ -1720,7 +1830,7 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
-# Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykanen (2005-05-16) reports that
+# Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
@@ -1729,7 +1839,7 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
-# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sukhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
+# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
@@ -1745,29 +1855,23 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
# database on this, e.g.:
#
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx">
# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
-# </a>
#
# both say GMT+08:00.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
# schedule here:
-# <a href="http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112">
# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
-# </a>
# (click the English flag for English)
#
-# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbatar arrive
+# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
-# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khvod takes 2 hours in the Eastern
-# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbatar and Khvod are
+# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
+# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
-# Ulaanbatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
+# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
@@ -1783,7 +1887,7 @@ Rule Mongol 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25. Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
#
# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
-# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sukhbaatar) took place
+# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
# the country. That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
@@ -1837,7 +1941,7 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
-# Jesper Norgaard found this URL:
+# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
@@ -1874,38 +1978,26 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months.
# ...."
#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4">
# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
-# for another 2 months--plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
+# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
# instead of August 31.
#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html">
# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
# official working."
-# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280">
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
-# </a>
#
# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
@@ -1913,15 +2005,8 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
# April 08, 2009
# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
-# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1">
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
-# </a>
-#
-# or
-#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
-# </a>
#
# ....
# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
@@ -1934,9 +2019,7 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
# this regard."
-# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168">
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
@@ -1944,13 +2027,8 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# 1, 2009.
#
# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
-# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2">
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
# Alexander Krivenyshev wrote:
@@ -1959,9 +2037,7 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# > 1, 2009.
#
# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
-# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742">
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
-# </a>
# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
# Monday."
@@ -1973,11 +2049,9 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
#
# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
-# </a>
-# From Christoph Goehre (2009-10-01):
+# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
@@ -1993,14 +2067,10 @@ Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
#
# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
-# <a href="http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041">
# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
-# </a>
#
# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
-# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2">
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
-# </a>
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Apr Sun>=2 0:01 1:00 S
@@ -2082,10 +2152,9 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
-# Daoud Kuttab writes in
-# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html">
-# Holiday havoc
-# </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
+# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
+# <http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html>
+# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
@@ -2098,7 +2167,7 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
# the Ramadan. Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
-# earlier--the same goes for Jordan.
+# earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
@@ -2117,7 +2186,7 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
# because of the Ramadan.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
@@ -2134,16 +2203,9 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
#
-# <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001">
# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087">
# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
@@ -2151,24 +2213,17 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
#
# (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850">
# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
-# </a>
#
-# or
# (English translation)
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
#
# One news source:
-# <a href="http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158">
# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
-# </a>
# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
@@ -2177,9 +2232,7 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
#
# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
# end date, we will keep this page updated:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
@@ -2189,51 +2242,35 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
#
# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
# (from Palestinian National Authority):
-# <a href="http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html>
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
#
-# <a href="http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697">
# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
-# </a>
# (in Arabic)
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
# noon though:
#
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178">
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
-# </a>
# (Ma'an News Agency)
# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
# According to several sources, including
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795">
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
-# </a>
# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
# Gaza and the West Bank.
# Some more background info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
@@ -2241,13 +2278,9 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
# Ramadan.
#
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217">
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
-# </a>
# Additional info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
@@ -2257,14 +2290,9 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
# ...
-# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650">
# http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
-# </a>
-# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
+# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
@@ -2272,26 +2300,18 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
#
# Many sources, including:
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808">
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
# Some of many sources in Arabic:
-# <a href="http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638">
# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
-# </a>
#
-# <a href="http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html">
# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
-# </a>
#
# Our brief summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
# The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
@@ -2370,10 +2390,11 @@ Zone Asia/Hebron 2:20:23 - LMT 1900 Oct
# no information
# Philippines
-# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the
+# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
-# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01. Robert H. van Gent has a
-# transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>.
+# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
+# History of the International Date Line
+# <http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm>.
# The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger.
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
@@ -2383,7 +2404,7 @@ Zone Asia/Hebron 2:20:23 - LMT 1900 Oct
# <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>.
# For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details.
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
@@ -2410,8 +2431,29 @@ Zone Asia/Qatar 3:26:08 - LMT 1920 # Al Dawhah / Doha
3:00 - AST
# Saudi Arabia
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
+# Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
+# standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it
+# has never been made official. Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
+# modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
+# observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
+# time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
+# o'clock for "Arab" time).
+#
+# The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
+# we can do. The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
+# Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
+# a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
+# Jidda, on March 14, 1947". Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
+# earlier date.
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
+# time zones; the other zone, at UTC+4, was in the far eastern part of
+# the country. Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
+#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1950
+Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1947 Mar 14
3:00 - AST
# Singapore
@@ -2442,20 +2484,18 @@ Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:25 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
-# (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24,
+# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
-# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
-# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.''
+# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
+# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
#
# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
-# by Shamindra in
-# <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net">
-# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26)
-# </a>:
+# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
+# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
@@ -2475,7 +2515,7 @@ Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:25 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
# twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
# agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
#
-# I recollect before the recent change the government annoucemments
+# I recollect before the recent change the government announcements
# mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
# Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
#
@@ -2485,7 +2525,7 @@ Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:25 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
# item....
#
# Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
-# adminsitrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
+# administrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
# nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
# known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
# slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
@@ -2557,7 +2597,7 @@ Rule Syria 2006 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 -
# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
Rule Syria 2007 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
-# From Jesper Norgard (2007-10-27):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
# not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
@@ -2566,7 +2606,7 @@ Rule Syria 2007 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
-# Jesper Norgaard Welen wrote:
+# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
#
# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
@@ -2595,16 +2635,15 @@ Rule Syria 2007 only - Nov Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
# Agency (SANA)...
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm">
# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
-# </a>...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
+# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
-# My buest guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
+# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
# compilers can't handle or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
@@ -2617,37 +2656,27 @@ Rule Syria 2007 only - Nov Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
# clocks back 60 minutes).
#
-# <a href="http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm">
# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
# two examples:
#
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm">
# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
-# </a>
# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
-# <a href="http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209">
# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
-# </a>
# (Arabic, gov-site)
#
# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
#
# Our summary
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm">
# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
@@ -2658,23 +2687,17 @@ Rule Syria 2007 only - Nov Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
-# <a href="http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421">
# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
#
# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm">
# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
-# </a>
#
# Our brief summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
@@ -2730,7 +2753,8 @@ Zone Asia/Samarkand 4:27:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992
5:00 - UZT
-Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
+# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
+Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:11 - LMT 1924 May 2
5:00 - TAST 1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00
5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
@@ -2746,8 +2770,8 @@ Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
# and Pottenger.
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
-# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Min City";
-# we use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
+# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
+# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
diff --git a/australasia b/australasia
index 2a8297b01faa..4911e8db6d16 100644
--- a/australasia
+++ b/australasia
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -13,13 +12,13 @@
# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 -
-Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 -
-Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 -
-Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 -
-Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 -
-Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
-Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -
+Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 D
+Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 S
+Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 D
+Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 S
+Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 D
+Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 S
+Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 D
# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that
# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
@@ -27,26 +26,26 @@ Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# Northern Territory
Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 9:00 - CST 1899 May
- 9:30 Aus CST
+ 9:00 - ACST 1899 May
+ 9:30 Aus AC%sT
# Western Australia
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
+Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec
- 8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul
- 8:00 AW WST
+ 8:00 Aus AW%sT 1943 Jul
+ 8:00 AW AW%sT
Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec
- 8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul
- 8:45 AW CWST
+ 8:45 Aus ACW%sT 1943 Jul
+ 8:45 AW ACW%sT
# Queensland
#
@@ -62,42 +61,42 @@ Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec
# so use Lindeman.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895
- 10:00 Aus EST 1971
- 10:00 AQ EST
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971
+ 10:00 AQ AE%sT
Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895
- 10:00 Aus EST 1971
- 10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul
- 10:00 Holiday EST
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971
+ 10:00 AQ AE%sT 1992 Jul
+ 10:00 Holiday AE%sT
# South Australia
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1991 only - Mar 3 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1992 only - Mar 22 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1993 only - Mar 7 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1994 only - Mar 20 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 2006 only - Apr 2 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
+Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1991 only - Mar 3 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1992 only - Mar 22 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1993 only - Mar 7 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1994 only - Mar 20 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 2006 only - Apr 2 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 9:00 - CST 1899 May
- 9:30 Aus CST 1971
- 9:30 AS CST
+ 9:00 - ACST 1899 May
+ 9:30 Aus AC%sT 1971
+ 9:30 AS AC%sT
# Tasmania
#
@@ -106,106 +105,106 @@ Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep
- 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
- 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
- 10:00 Aus EST 1967
- 10:00 AT EST
+ 10:00 - AEST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
+ 10:00 1:00 AEDT 1917 Feb
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1967
+ 10:00 AT AE%sT
Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep
- 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
- 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
- 10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul
- 10:00 AT EST
+ 10:00 - AEST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
+ 10:00 1:00 AEDT 1917 Feb
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971 Jul
+ 10:00 AT AE%sT
# Victoria
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
+Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 10:00 Aus EST 1971
- 10:00 AV EST
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971
+ 10:00 AV AE%sT
# New South Wales
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
-Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
+Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
+Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 10:00 Aus EST 1971
- 10:00 AN EST
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971
+ 10:00 AN AE%sT
Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23
- 9:00 - CST 1899 May
- 9:30 Aus CST 1971
- 9:30 AN CST 2000
- 9:30 AS CST
+ 10:00 - AEST 1896 Aug 23
+ 9:00 - ACST 1899 May
+ 9:30 Aus AC%sT 1971
+ 9:30 AN AC%sT 2000
+ 9:30 AS AC%sT
# Lord Howe Island
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -
-Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
-Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 -
-Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
-Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
-Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
-Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
-Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -
+Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
+Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 D
+Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 D
+Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 D
+Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 D
+Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 D
+Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
+Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 D
Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 10:00 - EST 1981 Mar
- 10:30 LH LHST
+ 10:00 - AEST 1981 Mar
+ 10:30 LH LH%sT
# Australian miscellany
#
@@ -233,16 +232,16 @@ Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
#
# From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
# The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
-# will produce a binary file with an EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
+# will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
# this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
# pre-2013 versions of localtime.
Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0 - zzz 1899 Nov
- 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
- 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
- 10:00 Aus EST 1919 Apr 1 0:00s
+ 10:00 - AEST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
+ 10:00 1:00 AEDT 1917 Feb
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1919 Apr 1 0:00s
0 - zzz 1948 Mar 25
- 10:00 Aus EST 1967
- 10:00 AT EST 2010 Apr 4 3:00
+ 10:00 Aus AE%sT 1967
+ 10:00 AT AE%sT 2010 Apr 4 3:00
11:00 - MIST # Macquarie I Standard Time
# Christmas
@@ -267,20 +266,13 @@ Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
# from November 29th 2009 to April 25th 2010.
#
# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
-# <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
# amendments:
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
@@ -289,35 +281,24 @@ Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
#
# Official source:
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
-# </a>
#
# A bit more background info here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
-# </a>
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
# Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
# assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
#
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
-# www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# </a>
+# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
# which says
# Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
# advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
@@ -327,9 +308,7 @@ Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
# Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
# Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
#
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# </a>
# states:
#
# The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
@@ -446,7 +425,7 @@ Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13
+Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
11:00 NC NC%sT
@@ -487,13 +466,14 @@ Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1
12:00 NZ NZ%sT
-Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1
+Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
+ 12:15 - CHAST 1946 Jan 1
12:45 Chatham CHA%sT
Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
# Auckland Is
-# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
+# uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
# and scientific personnel have wintered
# Campbell I
@@ -549,12 +529,11 @@ Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown
# American Samoa
Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
-11:22:48 - LMT 1911
- -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
-11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
-11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
-11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
-# Samoa
+# Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
@@ -565,135 +544,74 @@ Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
# Sunday of April 2011."
#
# Background info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
-# </a>
#
# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
# contain any dates:
-# <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
-# </a>
# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
# Please see
-# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
-# </a>,
# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
-# I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
-# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
-# www.mcil.gov.ws
-# </a>
+# [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
#
-# PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
-#
-# Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
-# businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
-# saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
-#
-# The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
-# the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
-# then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
-# adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
-#
-# Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
-# INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
+# ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
+# or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
+# measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
+# (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
-# From David Zuelke (2011-05-09):
+# From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
# Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
#
-# <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963">
# http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
-# </a>
-# From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17):
-# I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law
-# Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she
-# confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather
-# than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But
-# the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa
-# changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13:
-#
-# International Date Line Bill 2011
-#
-# AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make
-# consequential amendments to the position of the International Date
-# Line, and for related purposes.
-#
-# BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament
-# assembled as follows:
-#
-# 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the
-# International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act
-# commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3)
-# Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State.
-#
-# [snip]
-#
-# 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any
-# other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the
-# time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time.
-#
-# 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa
-# standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated
-# Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's
-# time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and
-# instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to
-# Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this
-# Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that
-# it defines Samoa standard time....
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
+# The International Date Line Act 2011
+# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
+# changed Samoa from UTC-11 to UTC+13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
+# Thursday 29th December 2011". The International Date Line was adjusted
+# accordingly.
# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
-# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html">
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
-# </a>
#
# here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
#
# DST
-# Year End Time Start Time
-# 2011 - - - - - - 24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
-# 2012 01 April 4:00am to 3:00am - - - - - -
+# Year End Time Start Time
+# 2011 - - - - - - 24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
+# 2012 01 April 4:00am to 3:00am - - - - - -
#
# Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
# Thursday 29th December 2011 23:59:59 Hours
# Saturday 31st December 2011 00:00:00 Hours
#
-# Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03):
-# Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012
-# seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on
-# a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below.
-#
-# From Nicky (2012-09-10):
+# From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
# Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
-# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013.
-#
-# Please find link below for more information.
+# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
#
-# That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well
-# which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the
-# future, so for now, we will guess this will continue.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
+# That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
+# Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
-# Western Samoa
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule WS 2010 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 1 D
+Rule WS 2011 only - Apr Sat>=1 4:00 0 S
+Rule WS 2011 only - Sep lastSat 3:00 1 D
+Rule WS 2012 max - Apr Sun>=1 4:00 0 S
Rule WS 2012 max - Sep lastSun 3:00 1 D
-Rule WS 2012 max - Apr Sun>=1 4:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
-11:26:56 - LMT 1911
- -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
- -11:00 - WST 2010 Sep 26
- -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Apr 2 4:00
- -11:00 - WST 2011 Sep 24 3:00
- -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Dec 30
- 13:00 1:00 WSDT 2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00
+ -11:30 - WSST 1950
+ -11:00 WS S%sT 2011 Dec 29 24:00 # S=Samoa
13:00 WS WS%sT
# Solomon Is
@@ -872,159 +790,182 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
-# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
-# std dst
-# LMT Local Mean Time
-# 8:00 WST WST Western Australia
-# 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
-# 9:00 JST Japan
-# 9:30 CST CST Central Australia
-# 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia
-# 10:00 ChST Chamorro
-# 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe*
-# 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
-# 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
-# 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham*
-# -11:00 SST Samoa
-# -10:00 HST Hawaii
-# - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*
-#
-# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
-# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
+# std dst
+# LMT Local Mean Time
+# 8:00 AWST AWDT Western Australia
+# 8:45 ACWST ACWDT Central Western Australia*
+# 9:00 JST Japan
+# 9:30 ACST ACDT Central Australia
+# 10:00 AEST AEDT Eastern Australia
+# 10:00 ChST Chamorro
+# 10:30 LHST LHDT Lord Howe*
+# 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
+# 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
+# 12:15 CHAST Chatham through 1945*
+# 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham 1946-present*
+# 13:00 WSST WSDT (western) Samoa 2011-present*
+# -11:30 WSST Western Samoa through 1950*
+# -11:00 SST Samoa
+# -10:00 HST Hawaii
+# - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*
+#
+# See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
+# See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
###############################################################################
# Australia
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
+# region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
+# For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
+# Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
+# Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
+# very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
+# Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
+# Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
+# about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
+# Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
+# http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm
+
# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
-# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
-# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
+# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
+# summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
-# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
-# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
+# <http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving>
+# covers New South Wales in particular.
# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
-# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
-# It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
-# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
+# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
+# It is called 'summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
+# and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
# abbreviation does _not_ change...
# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
-# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
+# the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
# time'.
# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
-# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
-# or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the
+# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
+# or 'Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the
# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers
# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
-# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
+# prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
-# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
-# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
-# CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
-# WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
-# EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
-
-# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
-# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
-# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
-# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
-# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
-# versus "AEST" etc.:
-#
-# I see the following points of dispute:
-#
-# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
-#
-# Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
-# Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
-# operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity
-# (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
-# Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
-# In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
-# abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
-# think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
-#
-# On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
-# abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is
-# particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
-# time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
-#
-# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
-#
-# Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
-# many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about
-# which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
-# Time, for example.
-#
-# Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
-# refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
-# tiebreaker.
-#
-# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
-# Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
-# the word "Australian"?
-#
-# My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
-# common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
-# popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
-# often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
-# following count of page hits:
-#
-# 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
-# 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
-# 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
-# 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
-#
-# Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
-# particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
-# say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
-# Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
-#
-# For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
-# ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
-# many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here
-# are the hit counts anyway:
-#
-# 161,304 "EST" and domain:au
-# 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
-# 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
-# 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
-#
-# 14,538 "CST" and domain:au
-# 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
-# 176 "ACST" and domain:au
-# 29 "ACDT" and domain:au
-#
-# 7,539 "WST" and domain:au
-# 68 "AWST" and domain:au
-#
-# This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
-# practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
-# the ambiguities involved.
-#
-# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
-#
-# If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
-# against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
-# saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
-# understood in Australia.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+#
+# Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
+# file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
+# Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
+# However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
+# practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
+# about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
+# For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
+# what matters is the abbreviation. It's difficult to survey the web
+# directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
+# strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
+# abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
+# following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
+#
+# 10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
+# 10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
+# 10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
+# 13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
+# 18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
+# 28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
+# 39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
+# 53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
+# 54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
+# 182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
+#
+# 17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
+# 46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
+#
+# I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
+# they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits. I also looked for pages
+# mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
+# there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
+#
+# 156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
+# 226 "western standard time" WST site:au
+#
+# I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
+# listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
+# and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
+# All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT". The papers
+# surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
+# The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
+# The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
+#
+# I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
+# like "AEDT" are new. A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
+# found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
+# dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
+# fully indexed. The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
+# like "AEDT". The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
+# column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
+# (1993-01-24, p 16). The style was the typical usage but was not
+# strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
+# (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
+# WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
+# about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
+# territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
+# party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
+#
+# I also surveyed federal government sources. They did not agree:
+#
+# The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
+# http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
+# (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
+# AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
+#
+# Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
+# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
+# EST CST WST EDT CDT
+#
+# Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
+# http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
+# EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
+#
+# Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
+# http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
+# AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
+#
+# Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
+# http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
+# EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
+#
+# The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
+# and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
+# Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
+# 311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
+# "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
+# appear in reports of events with international implications.
+#
+# From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
+# Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
+# some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
+# the minority. The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
+# seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
+# the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
+# it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A". The current
+# version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
+# "AEDT" for Australian time zones.
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
-# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
+# and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
@@ -1034,17 +975,14 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# relevant entries in this database.
#
# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
-# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
-# </a>
+# <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html>
# ACT
-# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
-# </a>
+# <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html>
# SA
-# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
# Standard Time Act, 1898
-# </a>
+# <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html>
# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
@@ -1062,7 +1000,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
# allude to it.
# But not Queensland
-# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
+# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html
# Northern Territory
@@ -1109,9 +1047,9 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
# it matches what was used in the past.
-# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
-# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
+# <http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm>
+# (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
# Queensland
@@ -1152,7 +1090,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
-# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
+# from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
# WA are trialing DST for three years.
# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
@@ -1316,7 +1254,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
# who notes:
# In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
-# individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
+# individual states. Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
# [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
# use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
# legislation. This is very important to understand.
@@ -1325,47 +1263,42 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
# October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore,
-# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
# Two months more daylight saving
-# </a>
-# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
+# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26)
+# <http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html>]
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
# See the following official NSW source:
-# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
-# </a>
+# <http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ>
#
# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
# daylight saving next year. See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
-# </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
+# <http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm>
+# (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
#
# Victoria will following NSW. See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
-# Vic to extend daylight saving
-# </a> (1999-07-28).
+# Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
+# <http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm>
#
# However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
-# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
-# </a> (1999-07-19).
+# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
+# <http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm>
#
# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
-# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
-# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
+# <http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm>
+# (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
+# "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
-# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
+# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
#
# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
-# Broken Hill to be behind the times
-# </a> (1999-07-21).
+# Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
+# <http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm>
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
@@ -1381,7 +1314,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# Yancowinna
# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
-# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
+# 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
@@ -1438,9 +1371,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# summer (southern hemisphere).
#
# From
-# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
-# </a>
# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
@@ -1450,9 +1381,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
#
# We have a wrap-up here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
-# </a>
###############################################################################
# New Zealand
@@ -1461,7 +1390,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
-# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
+# source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
@@ -1503,6 +1432,19 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
+# Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
+# New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26)
+# <http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf>.
+# According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
+# parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
+# time in the Chatham Islands. The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
+# Zealand time. I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
+# For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
+# in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
+# LMT back when New Zealand was at UTC+11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
+# not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
+
###############################################################################
@@ -1522,7 +1464,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# From the BBC World Service in
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
-# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
+# The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
# intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
# of the new millennium.
@@ -1530,16 +1472,12 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
-# Johnston
-
-# Johnston data is from usno1995.
-
# Kiribati
# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
-# ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
+# "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
@@ -1554,8 +1492,8 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# N Mariana Is, Guam
-# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
-# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
+# Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
+# Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
# see Asia/Manila.
@@ -1569,17 +1507,16 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# Micronesia
# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
-# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
-# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
+# "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
+# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
#
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
-# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
-# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
-# </a> (1999-01-26)
+# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
+# <http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html>
# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
@@ -1625,26 +1562,33 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
-# Samoa
+# (Western) Samoa and American Samoa
# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
-# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
-# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
-# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
-
+# "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
+# ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
+# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."
+
+# Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UTC-11:30
+# in 1911, and to UTC-11 in 1950. many earlier sources give UTC-11
+# for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
+# circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
+# Assume American Samoa switched to UTC-11 in 1911, not 1950,
+# and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
+# day in 2011. Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
+# Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.
# Tonga
# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
-# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
-# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
+# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
+# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
-# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
-# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
-# </a>:
+# How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins'
+# <http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm>:
# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its
@@ -1653,8 +1597,8 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
#
-# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
-# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
+# Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
+# Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
#
# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
@@ -1680,9 +1624,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
#
# I was given this link by John Letts:
-# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
-# </a>
#
# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
@@ -1690,9 +1632,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# (12 + 1 hour DST).
# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
-# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
-# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
-# </a>:
+# According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
# third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on
@@ -1710,7 +1650,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
-# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
+# (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)
# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
@@ -1730,7 +1670,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
#
-# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the
+# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ... The time was all the
# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we
# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
@@ -1775,7 +1715,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
# nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted
# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
-# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were
+# entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight. These zones were
# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
# independent merchant ships until World War II.
diff --git a/backward b/backward
index 06fb192eb179..36f6aba0f3fa 100644
--- a/backward
+++ b/backward
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -6,7 +5,7 @@
# and their old names. Many names changed in late 1993.
Link Africa/Asmara Africa/Asmera
-Link Africa/Bamako Africa/Timbuktu
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Timbuktu
Link America/Argentina/Catamarca America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia
Link America/Adak America/Atka
Link America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires America/Buenos_Aires
@@ -27,8 +26,11 @@ Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Virgin
Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/South_Pole
Link Asia/Ashgabat Asia/Ashkhabad
Link Asia/Kolkata Asia/Calcutta
-Link Asia/Chongqing Asia/Chungking
+Link Asia/Shanghai Asia/Chongqing
+Link Asia/Shanghai Asia/Chungking
Link Asia/Dhaka Asia/Dacca
+Link Asia/Shanghai Asia/Harbin
+Link Asia/Urumqi Asia/Kashgar
Link Asia/Kathmandu Asia/Katmandu
Link Asia/Macau Asia/Macao
Link Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh Asia/Saigon
diff --git a/etcetera b/etcetera
index 9ba7f7bdd9b0..c2e25328d5d3 100644
--- a/etcetera
+++ b/etcetera
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -14,7 +13,7 @@ Zone Etc/UTC 0 - UTC
Zone Etc/UCT 0 - UCT
# The following link uses older naming conventions,
-# but it belongs here, not in the file `backward',
+# but it belongs here, not in the file 'backward',
# as functions like gmtime load the "GMT" file to handle leap seconds properly.
# We want this to work even on installations that omit the other older names.
Link Etc/GMT GMT
diff --git a/europe b/europe
index 7ae96ffc9311..3ab6b0f2b436 100644
--- a/europe
+++ b/europe
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -39,10 +38,10 @@
# may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
# Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
#
-# Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
-# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
+# Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
# History of Summer Time
-# </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
+# <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
+# (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
@@ -61,6 +60,7 @@
# 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
# 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)*
# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
+# 3:00 FET Further-eastern Europe*
# 3:00 MSK MSD MSM* Moscow
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
@@ -105,7 +105,7 @@
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
#
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
-# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
+# position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
#
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
@@ -137,8 +137,22 @@
# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much
# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
-# From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):
-# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
+# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
+# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
+# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
+# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
+# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
+# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
+# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
+# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See:
+# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
+# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
+# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
+# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
+# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
+#
+# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
@@ -151,7 +165,7 @@
# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
# subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith,
-# designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial,
+# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
@@ -160,9 +174,8 @@
# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
-# -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm">
+# <http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf>
# "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly
-# </a>
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
@@ -171,7 +184,6 @@
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
-#
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
@@ -217,22 +229,15 @@
# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
# and extending this list, which can be found in
# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/
-# <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">
# History of legal time in Britain
-# </a>
-# Rob Crowther (2012-01-04) reports that that URL no longer
-# exists, and the article can now be found at:
-# <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">
# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
-# </a>
# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
#
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
-# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
-# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
-# </a>.
+# <http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0>
+# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
#
@@ -272,8 +277,8 @@
# -- James Joyce, Ulysses
# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
-# Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include
-# various relating to legal time, for example:
+# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
+# These include various relating to legal time, for example:
#
# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
#
@@ -472,10 +477,9 @@ Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:
-# <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT">
# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
-# </a>
+# <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT>
# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
@@ -498,11 +502,11 @@ Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
#
# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
-# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the
+# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
# tz database itself, as seen below:
#
# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
@@ -584,14 +588,10 @@ Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
#
# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
-# <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583">
# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
-# </a>
#
# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
-# <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html">
# http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
@@ -611,10 +611,10 @@ Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT
# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
# The official German names ... are
#
-# Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
-# Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
+# Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
+# Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
#
-# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
+# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
#
@@ -708,18 +708,9 @@ Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr
# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
#
# Sources (Russian language):
-# 1.
-# <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html">
# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
-# </a>
-# 2.
-# <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/">
# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
-# </a>
-# 3.
-# <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html">
# http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
-# </a>
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
@@ -732,14 +723,14 @@ Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time
+ 3:00 - FET
# Belgium
#
# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
# Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
-# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
+# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
# (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
# pp 8-9.
# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
@@ -805,8 +796,8 @@ Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
#
# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
-# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
-# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
+# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
+# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
@@ -851,7 +842,7 @@ Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
@@ -861,7 +852,7 @@ Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
#
# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
-# in subsequenet decrees with the law
+# in subsequent decrees with the law
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
#
# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have
@@ -876,7 +867,7 @@ Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
# was suspended on that night):
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
@@ -904,7 +895,7 @@ Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
-Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
+Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
0:00 - WET 1981
0:00 EU WE%sT
#
@@ -916,11 +907,11 @@ Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
# and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU
-# rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab
+# rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
# rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.
-# From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing
+# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
#
@@ -955,16 +946,16 @@ Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
#
# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
-# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab).
+# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
#
-# The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it
+# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
#
# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
# maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of
-# this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be
+# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time. This area might be
# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
@@ -973,8 +964,8 @@ Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
-# the 1995 map as like Godthab.
-# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.
+# the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
+# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
@@ -1019,17 +1010,16 @@ Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
# summer time next spring."
# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
-# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
-# </a>
+# <http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390>
# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
-# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
+# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
#
# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
-# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
+# From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
@@ -1047,7 +1037,7 @@ Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
# Now we are using again EU rules.
#
-# From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28):
+# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -1081,35 +1071,45 @@ Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
# Finnish) at
-#
-# <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf">
# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
-# </a>
#
# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
#
# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
-#
-# <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401">
# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
-# </a>
#
# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
# exist tonight."
+# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
+# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
+# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
+# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
+# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
+# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
+# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
+# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
+# Go with Oja over Shanks.
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 2 24:00 1:00 S
+Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 4 1:00 0 -
Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
+
+# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
+# round to nearest.
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
- 1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
+Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 - LMT 1878 May 31
+ 1:39:49 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983
2:00 EU EE%sT
-# Aaland Is
+# Åland Is
Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
@@ -1117,14 +1117,14 @@ Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
#
-# Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions
+# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
#
-# Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur,
+# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
# Paris, 1991
#
-# Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie,
-# Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987
+# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
+# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
#
@@ -1165,16 +1165,16 @@ Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
-# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,
-# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La
-# Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
+# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
+# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
+# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
-# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,
+# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
-# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
+# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M
@@ -1212,15 +1212,13 @@ Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
-# From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23):
+# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
-# <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/">
-# General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>.
+# <http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/>
+# General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
-# <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf">
# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
-# </a>
# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
@@ -1251,13 +1249,13 @@ Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 EU CE%sT
# From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
-# Busingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
+# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
# Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
# (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
# DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
# which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
#
-# Source for the time in Busingen 1980:
+# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
# http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
@@ -1313,15 +1311,20 @@ Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Hungary
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
+# Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
+# Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
+# National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
+# http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
+# This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
+# & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1919 only - Nov 24 3:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
-Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S
@@ -1337,7 +1340,7 @@ Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
- 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 8
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
1:00 EU CE%sT
@@ -1415,9 +1418,8 @@ Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
# F. Pollastri
-# <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html">
# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
-# </a>
+# <http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html>
# ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
#
@@ -1525,13 +1527,13 @@ Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
-# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
-# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
+# 29-Feb-2000 (#79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
+# in Latvian for subscribers only).
-# <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html">
-# From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
-# </a>
+# From RFE/RL Newsline
+# <http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html>
+# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
@@ -1546,13 +1548,16 @@ Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+
+# Milne says Riga time was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
- 1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
- 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
- 1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
- 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
- 1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11
+Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:28 - LMT 1880
+ 1:36:28 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
+ 1:36:28 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
+ 1:36:28 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:36:28 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
+ 1:36:28 - RMT 1926 May 11
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
@@ -1591,7 +1596,7 @@ Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
-# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
+# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
# to be valid here starting from October 31,
@@ -1600,9 +1605,9 @@ Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
# already done by Estonia.
-# From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">
-# Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
-# </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
+# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
+# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
+# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
@@ -1696,7 +1701,7 @@ Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
# But [two people] separately reported via
-# Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
+# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
@@ -1705,13 +1710,8 @@ Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
# to the Winter Time).
#
# News (in Russian):
-# <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html">
# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
-# </a>
-#
-# <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html">
# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
-# </a>
#
# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
@@ -1729,9 +1729,7 @@ Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
# News from Moldova (in russian):
-# <a href="http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html">
# http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
-# </a>
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -1862,14 +1860,14 @@ Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
# time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared
# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
-# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and
-# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation
+# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
+# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>). The law/regulation
# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
-# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been
+# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
-# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by
+# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
# since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
@@ -1884,7 +1882,7 @@ Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
-# frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
+# frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly
# the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
@@ -1904,6 +1902,10 @@ Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
# Poland
+
+# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
+# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
@@ -1914,9 +1916,9 @@ Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
-# Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
+# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
# <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1>
-# Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
+# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
# He also gives these further references:
# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
@@ -2053,8 +2055,8 @@ Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
# Romania
#
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
-# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
-# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
+# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
+# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
# 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
# the same year as Bulgaria.
@@ -2078,25 +2080,21 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
2:00 EU EE%sT
+
# Russia
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
# Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011
# (Government document
-# <a href="http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/">
# http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
-# </a>
# in Russian)
# there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
# All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
# by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
-# </a>
# From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
# Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
-# <a href="http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966">
# http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
# They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
@@ -2105,16 +2103,12 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
# changed in September 2011:
#
# One source is
-# < a href="http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/>
# http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
-# </a>
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
# 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
#
# Another source is
-# <a href="http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html">
# http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
-# </a>
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
# Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
# contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
@@ -2122,28 +2116,45 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
# does not contain any "effective date" information.
#
# Another source is
-# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7">
# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
-# </a>
# which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011...
# Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
# but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
#
# The Wikipedia article refers to
-# <a href="http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896">
# http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
-# </a>
# which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
#
# Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
# "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
-# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to get
-# September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias Conradi notes).
+# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
+# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
+# Conradi notes).
#
# None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
#
# Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
+# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
+# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
+# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
+# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones. The new
+# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
+# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
+# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
+# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
+# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
+#
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
+# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
+# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
+# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
+# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
+# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this:
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
+
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
@@ -2170,9 +2181,9 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
#
# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
-# News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
+# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
-# the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began
+# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
#
# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
@@ -2183,52 +2194,166 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
# since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are
# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
-#
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
+# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
+# are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
+# listing. The region codes listed come from
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
+# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
+# future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
+# divisions where available.
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-#
-# Kaliningradskaya oblast'.
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
+# 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast
+
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',
-# Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast',
-# Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',
-# Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,
-# Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,
-# Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya,
-# Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,
-# Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',
-# Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,
-# Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',
-# Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,
-# Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',
-# Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast',
-# Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,
-# Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',
-# Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,
-# Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
-# Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast',
-# Yaroslavskaya oblast'
-Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880
- 2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
- 2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 2:00 - EET
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Europe/Moscow covers...
+# 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of
+# 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of
+# 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of
+# 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic
+# 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of
+# 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic
+# 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of
+# 11 RU-KO Komi Republic
+# 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic
+# 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of
+# 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
+# 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of
+# 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic
+# 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic
+# 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai
+# 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai
+# 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast
+# 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast
+# 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast
+# 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast
+# 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast
+# 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast
+# 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast
+# 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast
+# 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast
+# 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast
+# 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast
+# 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast
+# 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast
+# 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast
+# 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
+# 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast
+# 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast
+# 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast
+# 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast
+# 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast
+# 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast
+# 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast
+# 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast
+# 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast
+# 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast
+# 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast
+# 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast
+# 77 RU-MOW Moscow
+# 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg
+# 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug
+
+# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
+# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
+# Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
+# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
+# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz E.L. New Counting of Time in Russia
+# since July 1, 1919, p. 18.) The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia
+# was defined by Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow
+# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
+# coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
+# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
+# 2:31:19 ...
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
+# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
+# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
+# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
+# Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
+
+Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880
+ 2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
+ 2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 4:00 - MSK
+ 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 3:00 - MSK
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Europe/Simferopol covers...
+# ** **** Crimea, Republic of
+# ** **** Sevastopol
+
+Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
+ 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
+ 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
+ 2:00 - EET 1992
+# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
#
-# Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast',
-# Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400
-# but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the
-# others? But we have no data.
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
+# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
+# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
+# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say
+# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it
+# changed in May.
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
+# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
+ 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
+ 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
+# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
+# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
+ 3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
+# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
+# http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
+# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
+# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
+# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00
+ 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 3:00 - MSK
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Europe/Volgograd covers...
+# 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast
+# 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast
+# 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast
+# 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09):
+# Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300.
+# Perhaps it switched after the others? But we have no data.
+
Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3
3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time
3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
@@ -2236,55 +2361,90 @@ Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3
4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
- 3:00 Russia VOL%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 4:00 - VOLT
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika
+ 3:00 Russia MSK 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 3:00 - MSK
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Europe/Samara covers...
+# 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic
+# 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast
+
Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21
4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27
4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
- 3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
4:00 - SAMT
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
+# 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of
+# 90 RU-PER Perm Krai
+# 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast
+# 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast
+# 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast
+# 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast
+# 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast
+# 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
+# 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug,
-# Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast',
-# Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast',
-# Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast',
-# Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.
-Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
+# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
+# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
+
+# Milne says Yekaterinburg time was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
+
+Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 6:00 - YEKT # Yekaterinburg Time
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.
+ 6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 5:00 - YEKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Omsk covers...
+# 04 RU-AL Altai Republic
+# 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai
+# 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast
+
Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
- 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
+ 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 7:00 - OMST
-#
+ 7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 6:00 - OMST
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Novosibirsk covers...
+# 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast
+# 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast
+
# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
-# Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.
+
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 7:00 - NOVT
+ 7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 6:00 - NOVT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
+# 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
@@ -2297,14 +2457,10 @@ Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
#
# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
-# <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv">
# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
-# </a>
# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
-# </a>
#
# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
@@ -2312,83 +2468,152 @@ Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
+# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
+# realigning itself with KRAT.
+
Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6
6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
- 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 7:00 - NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time
+ 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk T
+ 7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 7:00 - KRAT # Krasnoyarsk Time
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
+# 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic
+# 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of
+# 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai
#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Krasnoyarskij kraj,
-# Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,
-# Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
+# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
+
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 8:00 - KRAT
+ 8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 7:00 - KRAT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Irkutsk covers...
+# 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of
+# 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast
#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast',
-# Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.
-Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880
- 6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
+# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
+# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
+
+# Milne says Irkutsk time was 6:57:15.
+
+Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:15 - LMT 1880
+ 6:57:15 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 9:00 - IRKT
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
-# Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',
-# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'.
+ 9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 8:00 - IRKT
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005...
-# Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name.
-# YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj.
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij,
-# Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj,
-# Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij,
-# Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij,
-# Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij,
-# Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij.
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# Asia/Chita covers...
+# 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai
+#
+# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
+# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
+
+Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
+ 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
+ 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 8:00 - IRKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# Asia/Yakutsk covers...
+# 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast
+#
+# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-02 **** Aldansky District
+# 14-04 **** Amginsky District
+# 14-05 **** Anabarsky District
+# 14-06 **** Bulunsky District
+# 14-07 **** Verkhnevilyuysky District
+# 14-10 **** Vilyuysky District
+# 14-11 **** Gorny District
+# 14-12 **** Zhigansky District
+# 14-13 **** Kobyaysky District
+# 14-14 **** Lensky District
+# 14-15 **** Megino-Kangalassky District
+# 14-16 **** Mirninsky District
+# 14-18 **** Namsky District
+# 14-19 **** Neryungrinsky District
+# 14-21 **** Nyurbinsky District
+# 14-23 **** Olenyoksky District
+# 14-24 **** Olyokminsky District
+# 14-26 **** Suntarsky District
+# 14-27 **** Tattinsky District
+# 14-29 **** Ust-Aldansky District
+# 14-32 **** Khangalassky District
+# 14-33 **** Churapchinsky District
+# 14-34 **** Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
+# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
+# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 10:00 - YAKT
+ 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 9:00 - YAKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# Asia/Vladivostok covers...
+# 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai
+# 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai
+# 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast
#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
-# Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,
-# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
+# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District
+# 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, ... Ust'-Yanskij.
-Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
+# Milne says Vladivostok time was 8:47:33.5; round to nearest.
+
+Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:34 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 11:00 - VLAT
+ 11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 10:00 - VLAT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-28 **** Tomponsky District
+# 14-30 **** Ust-Maysky District
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
# in 2011.
-#
+
# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
# Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
# Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
# This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
-#
+
Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
@@ -2396,37 +2621,115 @@ Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
- 10:00 - YAKT
+ 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 9:00 - YAKT
-#
-# Sakhalinskaya oblast'.
-# The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Sakhalin covers...
+# 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast
+# ...with the exception of:
+# 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
+
+# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23
- 9:00 - CJT 1938
+ 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25
11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.
10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 11:00 - SAKT
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
-# Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
-# Probably also: Kuril Islands.
+ 11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 10:00 - SAKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# Asia/Magadan covers...
+# 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
+# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
+# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
+# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
+# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11. These regions will
+# need their own zone.
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij,
-# Nizhnekolymskij, ... Srednekolymskij.
Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
- 12:00 - MAGT
+ 12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 10:00 - MAGT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-01 **** Abyysky District
+# 14-03 **** Allaikhovsky District
+# 14-08 **** Verkhnekolymsky District
+# 14-17 **** Momsky District
+# 14-20 **** Nizhnekolymsky District
+# 14-25 **** Srednekolymsky District
+#
+# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
+# 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
+# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
+# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
+# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
+# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
+# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
+# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
+# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
+#
+# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
+# districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently
+# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
+# each! (Yikes!)
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
+# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
+#
+# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
+# fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
+# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
+# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of
+# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
+# in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
+# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
+# Go with Srednekolymsk.
+#
+# Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT
+# as the abbreviation. Use SRET instead.
+
+Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
+ 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-22 **** Oymyakonsky District
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
-# Ojmyakonskij and the Kuril Islands switched from
+# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
# Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
+#
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
+# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
+# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
+# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
+# UTC+12 since at least then, too.
+
Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1
@@ -2434,12 +2737,19 @@ Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
- 11:00 - VLAT
+ 11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
+ 10:00 - VLAT
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Kamchatka covers...
+# 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai
#
-# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
+# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
+# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
+
+# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
+# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
@@ -2447,8 +2757,12 @@ Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - PETT
-#
-# Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Anadyr covers...
+# 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
+
Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
@@ -2458,6 +2772,7 @@ Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - ANAT
+
# San Marino
# See Europe/Rome.
@@ -2468,9 +2783,9 @@ Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s
1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
-# Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of
+# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
-# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
+# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
1:00 EU CE%sT
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
@@ -2561,7 +2876,7 @@ Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
#
-# The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
+# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
@@ -2572,7 +2887,7 @@ Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
#
# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
-# forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
+# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
@@ -2580,7 +2895,7 @@ Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
# 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
#
-# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states
+# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
@@ -2590,7 +2905,7 @@ Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
-# the Sok-button).
+# the Sök-button).
#
# (2001-05-13):
#
@@ -2615,7 +2930,7 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
# From Howse:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
-# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
+# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -2631,7 +2946,7 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
# to be wrong. This is now verified.
#
# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
-# government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
+# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
# federal law collection)...
#
# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
@@ -2650,7 +2965,7 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
#
-# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de
+# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
@@ -2664,18 +2979,18 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
# most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
-# the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not
+# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
#
# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
# The Federal regulations say
# http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
-# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26'22.50".
+# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
# Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
# From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
-# the "Circulaire du conseil federal" (December 11 1893)
+# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
# <http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353> ...
# clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
# but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
@@ -2687,14 +3002,14 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
# We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
# except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book:
#
-# Jakob Messerli. Gleichmassig, punktlich, schnell: Zeiteinteilung und
+# Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
# Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
# ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
#
# suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
# agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the
# most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
-# "Bundesgesetz uber die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
+# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
# 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
# (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in
# practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
@@ -2716,7 +3031,7 @@ Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
-# ... The latest rules are available at -
+# ... The latest rules are available at:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
@@ -2741,8 +3056,7 @@ Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
-# From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10):
-#
+# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
@@ -2755,9 +3069,16 @@ Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
# Turkish Local election....
# http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
# ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-02-17):
-# Here is an English-language source:
-# http://www.worldbulletin.net/turkey/129016/turkey-switches-to-daylight-saving-time-march-31
+# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
+# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
+# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
+# change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
+# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
+# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not. See:
+# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
+# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
+# I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -2848,7 +3169,7 @@ Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
# Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
# approval from 266 deputies.
#
-# Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian)
+# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
#
# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
@@ -2914,7 +3235,7 @@ Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
-# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
+# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct
1:00 - CET 1940
@@ -2940,39 +3261,6 @@ Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2:00 EU EE%sT
-# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
-Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
- 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
- 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
- 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
- 2:00 - EET 1992
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
-# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
-# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
-# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say
-# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it
-# changed in May.
- 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
-# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
- 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
- 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
-# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
-# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
- 3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
-# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
-# http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
-# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
-# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
-# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
- 2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00
- 4:00 - MSK
# Vatican City
# See Europe/Rome.
@@ -3004,7 +3292,7 @@ Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
-# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
+# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
#
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
diff --git a/factory b/factory
index d29a5857f742..4304f7cf7bca 100644
--- a/factory
+++ b/factory
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
diff --git a/iso3166.tab b/iso3166.tab
index a1e4b42e4443..0b0b8426d474 100644
--- a/iso3166.tab
+++ b/iso3166.tab
@@ -3,21 +3,21 @@
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
#
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-05-27):
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
+# This file contains a table of two-letter country codes. Columns are
+# separated by a single tab. Lines beginning with '#' are comments.
+# Although all text currently uses ASCII encoding, this is planned to
+# change to UTF-8 soon. The columns of the table are as follows:
#
-# This file contains a table with the following columns:
# 1. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, current as of
-# ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-15 (2013-05-10). See: Updates on ISO 3166
+# ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-16 (2013-07-11). See: Updates on ISO 3166
# http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/country_codes/updates_on_iso_3166.htm
# 2. The usual English name for the coded region,
# chosen so that alphabetic sorting of subsets produces helpful lists.
# This is not the same as the English name in the ISO 3166 tables.
#
-# Columns are separated by a single tab.
# The table is sorted by country code.
#
-# Lines beginning with `#' are comments.
-#
# This table is intended as an aid for users, to help them select time
# zone data appropriate for their practical needs. It is not intended
# to take or endorse any position on legal or territorial claims.
diff --git a/leap-seconds.list b/leap-seconds.list
index 7df3de60484d..0980e7bd838d 100644
--- a/leap-seconds.list
+++ b/leap-seconds.list
@@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
#
# In the following text, the symbol '#' introduces
-# a comment, which continues from that symbol until
+# a comment, which continues from that symbol until
# the end of the line. A plain comment line has a
# whitespace character following the comment indicator.
-# There are also special comment lines defined below.
-# A special comment will always have a non-whitespace
+# There are also special comment lines defined below.
+# A special comment will always have a non-whitespace
# character in column 2.
#
# A blank line should be ignored.
@@ -15,17 +15,22 @@
# are transmitted by almost all time services.
#
# The first column shows an epoch as a number of seconds
-# since 1900.0 and the second column shows the number of
-# seconds that must be added to UTC to compute TAI for
-# any timestamp at or after that epoch. The value on
-# each line is valid from the indicated initial instant
-# until the epoch given on the next one or indefinitely
-# into the future if there is no next line.
+# since 1 January 1900, 00:00:00 (1900.0 is also used to
+# indicate the same epoch.) Both of these time stamp formats
+# ignore the complexities of the time scales that were
+# used before the current definition of UTC at the start
+# of 1972. (See note 3 below.)
+# The second column shows the number of seconds that
+# must be added to UTC to compute TAI for any timestamp
+# at or after that epoch. The value on each line is
+# valid from the indicated initial instant until the
+# epoch given on the next one or indefinitely into the
+# future if there is no next line.
# (The comment on each line shows the representation of
-# the corresponding initial epoch in the usual
+# the corresponding initial epoch in the usual
# day-month-year format. The epoch always begins at
# 00:00:00 UTC on the indicated day. See Note 5 below.)
-#
+#
# Important notes:
#
# 1. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is often referred to
@@ -33,7 +38,7 @@
# longer used, and the use of GMT to designate UTC is
# discouraged.
#
-# 2. The UTC time scale is realized by many national
+# 2. The UTC time scale is realized by many national
# laboratories and timing centers. Each laboratory
# identifies its realization with its name: Thus
# UTC(NIST), UTC(USNO), etc. The differences among
@@ -44,10 +49,10 @@
# by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
# (BIPM). See www.bipm.fr for more information.
#
-# 3. The current defintion of the relationship between UTC
-# and TAI dates from 1 January 1972. A number of different
-# time scales were in use before than epoch, and it can be
-# quite difficult to compute precise timestamps and time
+# 3. The current definition of the relationship between UTC
+# and TAI dates from 1 January 1972. A number of different
+# time scales were in use before that epoch, and it can be
+# quite difficult to compute precise timestamps and time
# intervals in those "prehistoric" days. For more information,
# consult:
#
@@ -58,36 +63,34 @@
# of Time," Proc. of the IEEE, Vol. 79, pp. 894-905,
# July, 1991.
#
-# 4. The insertion of leap seconds into UTC is currently the
-# responsibility of the International Earth Rotation Service,
-# which is located at the Paris Observatory:
-#
-# Central Bureau of IERS
-# 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire
-# 75014 Paris, France.
+# 4. The decision to insert a leap second into UTC is currently
+# the responsibility of the International Earth Rotation and
+# Reference Systems Service. (The name was changed from the
+# International Earth Rotation Service, but the acronym IERS
+# is still used.)
#
-# Leap seconds are announced by the IERS in its Bulletin C
+# Leap seconds are announced by the IERS in its Bulletin C.
#
-# See hpiers.obspm.fr or www.iers.org for more details.
+# See www.iers.org for more details.
#
-# All national laboratories and timing centers use the
-# data from the BIPM and the IERS to construct their
-# local realizations of UTC.
+# Every national laboratory and timing center uses the
+# data from the BIPM and the IERS to construct UTC(lab),
+# their local realization of UTC.
#
# Although the definition also includes the possibility
-# of dropping seconds ("negative" leap seconds), this has
-# never been done and is unlikely to be necessary in the
+# of dropping seconds ("negative" leap seconds), this has
+# never been done and is unlikely to be necessary in the
# foreseeable future.
#
# 5. If your system keeps time as the number of seconds since
# some epoch (e.g., NTP timestamps), then the algorithm for
# assigning a UTC time stamp to an event that happens during a positive
-# leap second is not well defined. The official name of that leap
-# second is 23:59:60, but there is no way of representing that time
-# in these systems.
-# Many systems of this type effectively stop the system clock for
-# one second during the leap second and use a time that is equivalent
-# to 23:59:59 UTC twice. For these systems, the corresponding TAI
+# leap second is not well defined. The official name of that leap
+# second is 23:59:60, but there is no way of representing that time
+# in these systems.
+# Many systems of this type effectively stop the system clock for
+# one second during the leap second and use a time that is equivalent
+# to 23:59:59 UTC twice. For these systems, the corresponding TAI
# timestamp would be obtained by advancing to the next entry in the
# following table when the time equivalent to 23:59:59 UTC
# is used for the second time. Thus the leap second which
@@ -102,7 +105,7 @@
#
# If your system realizes the leap second by repeating 00:00:00 UTC twice
# (this is possible but not usual), then the advance to the next entry
-# in the table must occur the second time that a time equivlent to
+# in the table must occur the second time that a time equivalent to
# 00:00:00 UTC is used. Thus, using the same example as above:
#
# ...
@@ -112,13 +115,16 @@
# ...
#
# in both cases the use of timestamps based on TAI produces a smooth
-# time scale with no discontinuity in the time interval.
-#
-# This complexity would not be needed for negative leap seconds (if they
-# are ever used). The UTC time would skip 23:59:59 and advance from
-# 23:59:58 to 00:00:00 in that case. The TAI offset would decrease by
-# 1 second at the same instant. This is a much easier situation to deal
-# with, since the difficulty of unambiguously representing the epoch
+# time scale with no discontinuity in the time interval. However,
+# although the long-term behavior of the time scale is correct in both
+# methods, the second method is technically not correct because it adds
+# the extra second to the wrong day.
+#
+# This complexity would not be needed for negative leap seconds (if they
+# are ever used). The UTC time would skip 23:59:59 and advance from
+# 23:59:58 to 00:00:00 in that case. The TAI offset would decrease by
+# 1 second at the same instant. This is a much easier situation to deal
+# with, since the difficulty of unambiguously representing the epoch
# during the leap second does not arise.
#
# Questions or comments to:
@@ -126,66 +132,68 @@
# Time and Frequency Division
# NIST
# Boulder, Colorado
-# jlevine@boulder.nist.gov
+# Judah.Levine@nist.gov
#
# Last Update of leap second values: 11 January 2012
#
-# The following line shows this last update date in NTP timestamp
+# The following line shows this last update date in NTP timestamp
# format. This is the date on which the most recent change to
# the leap second data was added to the file. This line can
-# be identified by the unique pair of characters in the first two
+# be identified by the unique pair of characters in the first two
# columns as shown below.
#
#$ 3535228800
#
# The NTP timestamps are in units of seconds since the NTP epoch,
-# which is 1900.0. The Modified Julian Day number corresponding
-# to the NTP time stamp, X, can be computed as
+# which is 1 January 1900, 00:00:00. The Modified Julian Day number
+# corresponding to the NTP time stamp, X, can be computed as
#
# X/86400 + 15020
#
-# where the first term converts seconds to days and the second
-# term adds the MJD corresponding to 1900.0. The integer portion
-# of the result is the integer MJD for that day, and any remainder
-# is the time of day, expressed as the fraction of the day since 0
-# hours UTC. The conversion from day fraction to seconds or to
-# hours, minutes, and seconds may involve rounding or truncation,
-# depending on the method used in the computation.
+# where the first term converts seconds to days and the second
+# term adds the MJD corresponding to the time origin defined above.
+# The integer portion of the result is the integer MJD for that
+# day, and any remainder is the time of day, expressed as the
+# fraction of the day since 0 hours UTC. The conversion from day
+# fraction to seconds or to hours, minutes, and seconds may involve
+# rounding or truncation, depending on the method used in the
+# computation.
#
-# The data in this file will be updated periodically as new leap
+# The data in this file will be updated periodically as new leap
# seconds are announced. In addition to being entered on the line
-# above, the update time (in NTP format) will be added to the basic
+# above, the update time (in NTP format) will be added to the basic
# file name leap-seconds to form the name leap-seconds.<NTP TIME>.
-# In addition, the generic name leap-seconds.list will always point to
+# In addition, the generic name leap-seconds.list will always point to
# the most recent version of the file.
#
# This update procedure will be performed only when a new leap second
-# is announced.
+# is announced.
#
# The following entry specifies the expiration date of the data
-# in this file in units of seconds since 1900.0. This expiration date
-# will be changed at least twice per year whether or not a new leap
-# second is announced. These semi-annual changes will be made no
-# later than 1 June and 1 December of each year to indicate what
-# action (if any) is to be taken on 30 June and 31 December,
+# in this file in units of seconds since the origin at the instant
+# 1 January 1900, 00:00:00. This expiration date will be changed
+# at least twice per year whether or not a new leap second is
+# announced. These semi-annual changes will be made no later
+# than 1 June and 1 December of each year to indicate what
+# action (if any) is to be taken on 30 June and 31 December,
# respectively. (These are the customary effective dates for new
# leap seconds.) This expiration date will be identified by a
# unique pair of characters in columns 1 and 2 as shown below.
-# In the unlikely event that a leap second is announced with an
+# In the unlikely event that a leap second is announced with an
# effective date other than 30 June or 31 December, then this
# file will be edited to include that leap second as soon as it is
# announced or at least one month before the effective date
-# (whichever is later).
-# If an announcement by the IERS specifies that no leap second is
-# scheduled, then only the expiration date of the file will
+# (whichever is later).
+# If an announcement by the IERS specifies that no leap second is
+# scheduled, then only the expiration date of the file will
# be advanced to show that the information in the file is still
-# current -- the update time stamp, the data and the name of the file
+# current -- the update time stamp, the data and the name of the file
# will not change.
#
-# Updated through IERS Bulletin C46
-# File expires on: 28 June 2014
+# Updated through IERS Bulletin C48
+# File expires on: 28 June 2015
#
-#@ 3612902400
+#@ 3644438400
#
2272060800 10 # 1 Jan 1972
2287785600 11 # 1 Jul 1972
@@ -222,10 +230,10 @@
# computed. Note that the hash computation
# ignores comments and whitespace characters
# in data lines. It includes the NTP values
-# of both the last modification time and the
+# of both the last modification time and the
# expiration time of the file, but not the
# white space on those lines.
# the hash line is also ignored in the
# computation.
#
-#h 1151a8f e85a5069 9000fcdb 3d5e5365 1d505b37
+#h a4862ccd c6f43c6 964f3604 85944a26 b5cfad4e
diff --git a/northamerica b/northamerica
index 9660a46d22a9..7074d319ec65 100644
--- a/northamerica
+++ b/northamerica
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -55,13 +54,13 @@
# to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
# them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
#
-# -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
+# -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
# Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
#
# For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
-# Robert Garland's <a href="http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html">
-# Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
-# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927)</a>.
+# Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
+# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927)
+# <http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html>.
#
# Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
# However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
@@ -81,10 +80,10 @@
# Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
# In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
# An AltaVista search turned up
-# <a href="http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html">:
+# <http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html>:
# "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
# Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.' Peace is wonderful."
-# </a> (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
+# (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
# From Joseph Gallant citing
# George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
@@ -182,7 +181,7 @@ Zone PST8PDT -8:00 US P%sT
# USA ALASKA STD 9 H BEHIND UTC MOST OF ALASKA (AKST)
# USA ALASKA STD 8 H BEHIND UTC APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
# USA ALEUTIAN 10 H BEHIND UTC ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
-# USA - " - 9 H BEHIND UTC APR 3 - OCT 30
+# USA " 9 H BEHIND UTC APR 3 - OCT 30
# USA HAWAII 10 H BEHIND UTC
# USA BERING 11 H BEHIND UTC SAMOA, MIDWAY
@@ -235,19 +234,19 @@ Zone PST8PDT -8:00 US P%sT
# The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
#
# H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
-# (a) Amendment- Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
+# (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
# U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
-# (1) by striking 'first Sunday of April' and inserting 'second
-# Sunday of March'; and
-# (2) by striking 'last Sunday of October' and inserting 'first
+# (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second
+# Sunday of March"; and
+# (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first
# Sunday of November'.
-# (b) Effective Date- Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
+# (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
# date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
-# (c) Report to Congress- Not later than 9 months after the effective
+# (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective
# date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
# on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
# States.
-# (d) Right to Revert- Congress retains the right to revert the
+# (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the
# Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
# Department study is complete.
@@ -349,18 +348,15 @@ Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
# ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
# mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
# daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
-# <a href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm">
# http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html">
# http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
-# </a>
# From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
# ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
# it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
# largest city in Mercer County). Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
-# at 4715'51" north, 10146'40" west, which yields an offset of 6h47'07".
+# at 47 degrees 15' 51" N, 101 degrees 46' 40" W, which yields an offset
+# of 6h47'07".
Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
-7:00 US M%sT 2010 Nov 7 2:00
@@ -425,15 +421,18 @@ Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
# was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.) However, there
# were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps
# it's best to simply use the official transition.
-#
-# From Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31):
-# The author lives in Alaska and many of the references listed are only
-# available to Alaskan residents.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
+# One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and
+# daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall:
+# "Welcome to Juneau. Please turn your watch back to the 19th century."
+# See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01.
+# http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html
#
-# <a href="http://www.alaskahistoricalsociety.org/index.cfm?section=discover%20alaska&page=Glimpses%20of%20the%20Past&viewpost=2&ContentId=98">
-# http://www.alaskahistoricalsociety.org/index.cfm?section=discover%20alaska&page=Glimpses%20of%20the%20Past&viewpost=2&ContentId=98
-# </a>
+# Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source:
+# Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response.
+# Alaska History 2001;16(1-2).
+# http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
# Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
@@ -459,12 +458,10 @@ Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
# I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
# Community office (using contact information available at
-# <a href="http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla">
# http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
-# </a>).
# It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
# the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
-# that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no--they were on their
+# that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their
# own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
# did not inquire about practices in the past.
@@ -497,7 +494,7 @@ Zone America/Metlakatla 15:13:42 - LMT 1867 Oct 18
-8:00 US P%sT 1946
-8:00 - PST 1969
-8:00 US P%sT 1983 Oct 30 2:00
- -8:00 - MeST
+ -8:00 - PST
Zone America/Yakutat 14:41:05 - LMT 1867 Oct 18
-9:18:55 - LMT 1900 Aug 20 12:00
-9:00 - YST 1942
@@ -560,9 +557,7 @@ Zone America/Adak 12:13:21 - LMT 1867 Oct 18
# "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
# of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
# the article is available at
-# <a href="http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf">
# http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
-# </a>
# and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
# 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
# saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
@@ -610,9 +605,9 @@ Link Pacific/Honolulu Pacific/Johnston
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
#
# The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
-# <a href="http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm">
-# Daylight Saving Time web page (2002-01-23)</a> maintained by the
-# Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
+# Daylight Saving Time web page
+# <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23)
+# maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
# Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
# time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
# personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
@@ -661,16 +656,15 @@ Zone America/Boise -7:44:49 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
# Indiana
#
# For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
-# <a href="http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html">
-# What time is it in Indiana?
-# </a> (2006-03-01)
+# What time is it in Indiana? (2006-03-01)
+# <http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html>
#
# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
# Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
# with the following exceptions:
#
# - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
-# Vandenburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
+# Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
#
# - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
#
@@ -692,19 +686,16 @@ Zone America/Boise -7:44:49 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
# http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html says that Indiana will use DST starting 2006.
-# From Nathan Stratton Treadway (2006-03-30):
-# http://www.dot.gov/affairs/dot0406.htm [3705 B]
-# From Deborah Goldsmith (2006-01-18):
-# http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/pdf95/382329_web.pdf [2.9 MB]
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-01-20):
-# It says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26):
+# https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana
+# says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
# Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
# Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
-# this rule is 2:OO a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
+# this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
# changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
-# Strictly speaking, this means the affected counties will change their
-# clocks twice that night, but this obviously is in error. The intent
-# is that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
+# Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their
+# clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error. The intent
+# was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
# From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
# The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
@@ -876,10 +867,9 @@ Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
#
# Wayne County, Kentucky
#
-# From
-# <a href="http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml">
-# Lake Cumberland LIFE
-# </a> (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
+# From Lake Cumberland LIFE
+# <http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml>
+# (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
# Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
# the Central to the Eastern time zone.... The Wayne County government made
# the same request in December. And while Russell County officials have not
@@ -896,9 +886,8 @@ Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
# The final rule was published in the
-# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22">
-# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), page 50154-50158.
-# </a>
+# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158.
+# <http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22>
#
Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
-6:00 US C%sT 1946
@@ -923,9 +912,8 @@ Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
# See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
# West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
# 1999-10-31. See the
-# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15">
-# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), page 56705-56707.
-# </a>
+# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707.
+# <http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15>
# However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
# on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
# hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
@@ -1030,11 +1018,11 @@ Zone America/Menominee -5:50:27 - LMT 1885 Sep 18 12:00
# Canada
-# From Alain LaBont<e'> (1994-11-14):
+# From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14):
# I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
# for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
#
-# UTC Standard time Daylight savings time
+# UTC Standard time Daylight saving time
# offset French English French English
# -2:30 - - HAT NDT
# -3 - - HAA ADT
@@ -1047,7 +1035,7 @@ Zone America/Menominee -5:50:27 - LMT 1885 Sep 18 12:00
# -9 HNY YST - -
#
# HN: Heure Normale ST: Standard Time
-# HA: Heure Avanc<e'>e DT: Daylight saving Time
+# HA: Heure Avancée DT: Daylight saving Time
#
# A: de l'Atlantique Atlantic
# C: du Centre Central
@@ -1111,15 +1099,15 @@ Zone America/Menominee -5:50:27 - LMT 1885 Sep 18 12:00
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
# H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
-# <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp">
# "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
-# </a> contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
+# <http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp>
+# contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
# time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
#
-# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has <a
-# href="http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/time_services/daylight_saving_e.php">
+# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has
# information about standard and daylight saving time zones in Canada.
-# </a> (updated periodically).
+# <http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/time_services/daylight_saving_e.php>
+# (updated periodically).
# Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
# From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
@@ -1128,9 +1116,7 @@ Zone America/Menominee -5:50:27 - LMT 1885 Sep 18 12:00
# From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
# In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
-# <a href="http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260">
# http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
-# </a>
# she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
# The quote includes these two statements:
# 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
@@ -1198,9 +1184,7 @@ Rule StJohns 1960 1986 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
# Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
# now occurs at 2:00AM.
# ...
-# <a href="http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm">
# http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
-# </a>
# ...
# MICHAEL PELLEY | Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
# Office of the Chief Information Officer
@@ -1356,7 +1340,7 @@ Zone America/Moncton -4:19:08 - LMT 1883 Dec 9
# meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
# Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
# The Quebec department of justice writes in
-# "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Cote-Nord"
+# "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord"
# http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm
# that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon
# observes Atlantic standard time all year round.
@@ -1364,7 +1348,6 @@ Zone America/Moncton -4:19:08 - LMT 1883 Dec 9
# says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
# For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
# Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
-# for post-1970 data America/Puerto_Rico.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Mont 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 1:00 D
@@ -1425,7 +1408,7 @@ Zone America/Montreal -4:54:16 - LMT 1884
# have already done so. In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
# 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
# hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
-# only two weeks -- I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
+# only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
# presumably that should be -07-06. (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
# earlier in June).
#
@@ -1435,10 +1418,8 @@ Zone America/Montreal -4:54:16 - LMT 1884
# Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
# says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
# but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
-# He also writes that the
-# <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html">
-# Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
-# </a>
+# He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
+# <http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html>
# says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
# Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
# concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
@@ -1517,9 +1498,7 @@ Zone America/Montreal -4:54:16 - LMT 1884
# The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
# volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
# was available at
-# <a href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S">
# http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
-# </a>
#
# It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
#
@@ -1537,19 +1516,19 @@ Zone America/Montreal -4:54:16 - LMT 1884
# Quebec In the following places:
# Montreal Lachine
# Quebec Mont-Royal
-# Levis Iberville
-# St. Lambert Cap de la Madeleine
+# Lévis Iberville
+# St. Lambert Cap de la Madelèine
# Verdun Loretteville
# Westmount Richmond
-# Outremont St. Jerome
+# Outremont St. Jérôme
# Longueuil Greenfield Park
# Arvida Waterloo
# Chambly-Canton Beaulieu
# Melbourne La Tuque
-# St. Theophile Buckingham
+# St. Théophile Buckingham
# Ontario Used generally in the cities and towns along
# the southerly part of the province. Not
-# used in the northwesterlhy part.
+# used in the northwesterly part.
# Manitoba Not used.
# Saskatchewan In Regina only.
# Alberta Not used.
@@ -1653,7 +1632,7 @@ Zone America/Atikokan -6:06:28 - LMT 1895
# the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
# Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
# following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
-# I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had =
+# I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had
# been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
# Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
# the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
@@ -1831,9 +1810,7 @@ Zone America/Edmonton -7:33:52 - LMT 1906 Sep
# Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
# keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
# manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
-# <a href="http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260">
# http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
-# </a>
# According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
# i.e. Creston has been stuck on UTC-7 for 93 years.
# Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
@@ -1844,9 +1821,7 @@ Zone America/Edmonton -7:33:52 - LMT 1906 Sep
# as plausible as any other date (in June). She also said that after writing the
# article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the subject
# of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
-# <a href="http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56">
# http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
-# </a>
# Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
# 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
@@ -1865,9 +1840,7 @@ Zone America/Edmonton -7:33:52 - LMT 1906 Sep
# There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
# (UTC-7) forever.
# The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
-# <a href="http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html">
# http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
-# </a>
# During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
# In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
@@ -1921,18 +1894,17 @@ Zone America/Creston -7:46:04 - LMT 1884
# From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
# Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
-# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html">
# Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
-# </a>
+# <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html>
#
# From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
# We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
# to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
-# <a href="http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html">
# Basic Facts: The New Territory
-# </a> (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
+# <http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html>
+# (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
# and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST. We don't know when
# Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
@@ -1960,8 +1932,8 @@ Zone America/Creston -7:46:04 - LMT 1884
# the current state of affairs.
# From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
-# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html">
-# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)</a>:
+# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)
+# <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html>:
# Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
# central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
# for municipal offices and schools.... Igloolik [was similar but then]
@@ -1979,10 +1951,8 @@ Zone America/Creston -7:46:04 - LMT 1884
# Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
# required to use daylight savings.
-# From
-# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html">
-# Nunavut now has two time zones
-# </a> (2000-11-10):
+# From <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html>
+# Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10):
# The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
# Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
# one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
@@ -2073,9 +2043,7 @@ Zone America/Creston -7:46:04 - LMT 1884
# used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
# businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
# Aziz:
-# <a href="http://www.uphere.ca/node/493">
# http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
-# </a>
#
# I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
# Eastern Standard Time.
@@ -2165,9 +2133,8 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
# The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
# Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
-# <a href="http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/">
# history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
-# </a>.
+# <http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/>.
#
# Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
# (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
@@ -2212,9 +2179,8 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
# For an English translation of the decree, see
-# <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html">
-# "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04).
-# </a>
+# "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04)
+# <http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html>.
# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
# The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
@@ -2226,7 +2192,7 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
# Arizona year round.
-# From Jesper Norgaard, translating
+# From Jesper Nørgaard, translating
# <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
# In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
# Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
@@ -2247,23 +2213,22 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
# story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
# http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
-# ... Mexico City Mayor Lopez Obrador "...is threatening to keep
+# ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep
# Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
-# the rest of the country..." In particular, Lopez Obrador would abolish
+# the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish
# observation of Daylight Saving Time.
-# <a href="http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre">
# Official statute published by the Energy Department
-# </a> (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
-# and Sonora with no DST. This was reported by Jesper Norgaard (2001-02-03).
+# <http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre>
+# (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
+# and Sonora with no DST. This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03).
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
#
-# <a href="http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html">
+# <http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html>
# James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
-# </a>
# * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
-# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador decreed that
+# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that
# the Federal District will not adopt DST.
# * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
# * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
@@ -2271,7 +2236,7 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
#
# For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
-# From Jesper Norgaard (2001-04-01):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01):
# I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
# saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
# that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
@@ -2280,7 +2245,7 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
# Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
# September 30, 2001.
-# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
+# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
# Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
# From Reuters (2001-09-04):
@@ -2292,7 +2257,7 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
# subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
# ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
# that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
# http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
@@ -2306,48 +2271,36 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# > the United States.
# Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
# 2010, some border regions will be the same:
-# <a href="http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/">
# http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939">
# http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
-# </a>
# (Spanish)
#
# Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
-# <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf">
# http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
-# </a>
# (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
#
# There is also a list of the votes here:
-# <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html">
# http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
-# </a>
#
# Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
# The page
-# <a href="http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010">
# http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
-# </a>
# includes this text:
# En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
-# Ju&aacute;rez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acu&ntilde;a y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
-# An&aacute;huac en Nuevo Le&oacute;n; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
-# Tamaulipas, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute; efecto
-# desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a las dos
+# Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
+# Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
+# Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto
+# desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos
# horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
# En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
-# fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la l&iacute;nea
-# internacional y la l&iacute;nea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
-# kil&oacute;metros, as&iacute; como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
-# interior del pa&iacute;s, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute;
-# efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a
+# fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea
+# internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
+# kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
+# interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá
+# efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
# las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
@@ -2366,23 +2319,23 @@ Rule Mexico 2001 only - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
Rule Mexico 2002 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Mexico 2002 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-# Quintana Roo
+# Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún
Zone America/Cancun -5:47:04 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:12:56
-6:00 - CST 1981 Dec 23
-5:00 Mexico E%sT 1998 Aug 2 2:00
-6:00 Mexico C%sT
-# Campeche, Yucatan
+# Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
Zone America/Merida -5:58:28 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:01:32
-6:00 - CST 1981 Dec 23
-5:00 - EST 1982 Dec 2
-6:00 Mexico C%sT
-# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (near US border)
+# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border)
Zone America/Matamoros -6:40:00 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
-6:00 - CST 1988
-6:00 US C%sT 1989
-6:00 Mexico C%sT 2010
-6:00 US C%sT
-# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
+# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
Zone America/Monterrey -6:41:16 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
-6:00 - CST 1988
-6:00 US C%sT 1989
@@ -2434,42 +2387,33 @@ Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
-7:00 - MST
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
-# According to news, Bah&iacute;a de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
+# According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
# changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
# share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
#
# (Spanish)
-# Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
-# pa&iacute;s, a partir de este domingo
-# <a href="http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748">
+# Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
+# país, a partir de este domingo
# http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
-# </a>
#
-# Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
-# Pa&iacute;s
-# <a href="http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50">
-# http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50"
-# </a>
+# Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
+# País
+# http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50
#
# (English)
-# Puerto Vallarta and Bah&iacute;a de Banderas: One Time Zone
-# <a href="http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml">
+# Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone
# http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
-# </a>
-#
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
-# </a>
#
# "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
-# will allow Bah&iacute;a de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
+# will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
# zone ..."
# Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
# Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
+# Mazatlán
Zone America/Mazatlan -7:05:40 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
-7:00 - MST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
-6:00 - CST 1930 Nov 15
@@ -2481,6 +2425,7 @@ Zone America/Mazatlan -7:05:40 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
-8:00 - PST 1970
-7:00 Mexico M%sT
+# Bahía de Banderas
Zone America/Bahia_Banderas -7:01:00 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
-7:00 - MST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
-6:00 - CST 1930 Nov 15
@@ -2537,7 +2482,7 @@ Zone America/Santa_Isabel -7:39:28 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:20:32
# America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
# through 1995. This was as per Shanks (1999). But Shanks & Pottenger say
# Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975. Guy Harris reports
-# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicale, San Felipe and
+# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and
# Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
# DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then. This concerns
# data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
@@ -2550,7 +2495,7 @@ Zone America/Santa_Isabel -7:39:28 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:20:32
###############################################################################
# Anguilla
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
# Antigua and Barbuda
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -2630,7 +2575,7 @@ Zone America/Cayman -5:25:32 - LMT 1890 # Georgetown
# Costa Rica
-# Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San Jose mean time; round to nearest.
+# Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule CR 1979 1980 - Feb lastSun 0:00 1:00 D
@@ -2640,10 +2585,10 @@ Rule CR 1991 1992 - Jan Sat>=15 0:00 1:00 D
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule CR 1991 only - Jul 1 0:00 0 S
Rule CR 1992 only - Mar 15 0:00 0 S
-# There are too many San Joses elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
+# There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
- -5:36:13 - SJMT 1921 Jan 15 # San Jose Mean Time
+Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San José
+ -5:36:13 - SJMT 1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time
-6:00 CR C%sT
# Coco
# no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
@@ -2662,8 +2607,8 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
# "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
# Time today." (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
-# sleep on 1999-03-28--when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
-# to DST--and one more hour on 1999-04-04--when the announcers will have
+# sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
+# to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have
# returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11):
@@ -2685,16 +2630,16 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# adjustment in Cuba. We will stay in daylight saving time:
# http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
# An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
# the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
# http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
# "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
-# watches should be set back one hour -- going back to 00:00 hours -- returning
+# watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning
# to the normal schedule....
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
-# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html, dated yesterday,
+# <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday,
# says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
# For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
# except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
@@ -2708,10 +2653,10 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
# http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
#
-# From Alex Kryvenishev (2007-10-25):
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25):
# Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
#
-# [Regira] el Horario Normal desde el [proximo] domingo 28 de octubre
+# Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
#
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
@@ -2719,23 +2664,18 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
# I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
# Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
-# <a href="http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj">
# http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
-# </a>, a Cuban information station, and heard
+# a Cuban information station, and heard
# the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
# indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
# It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
# It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
-# <a href="http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm">
# http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
-# </a>
#
# Some more background information is posted here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
-# </a>
#
# The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
# while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
@@ -2745,18 +2685,14 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# change some historic records as well.
#
# One example:
-# <a href="http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm">
# http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
-# </a>
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
# The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
# web site, the Granma. Please check out
-# <a href="http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html">
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
-# </a>
#
-# Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsens information, the change
+# Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change
# will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
@@ -2767,18 +2703,14 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
# not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
# (in Spanish)
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
# I listened over the Internet to
-# <a href="http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj">
# http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
-# </a>
# this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
-# the time was announced as "diez cinco"--the same time as here, indicating
+# the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating
# that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
@@ -2787,42 +2719,30 @@ Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 - LMT 1890 # San Jose
# changed at all).
#
# Source:
-# <a href="http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html">
# http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
-# </a>
#
# Our info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
-# </a>
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
# Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
# tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
#
# One source (Spanish)
-# <a href="http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html">
# http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
-# </a>
#
# Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
-# </a>
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
# According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
# 31 and April 1.
#
# Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
-# <a href="http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril">
# http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
-# </a>
#
# Our info on it:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
-# </a>
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
# Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
@@ -2878,7 +2798,7 @@ Zone America/Havana -5:29:28 - LMT 1890
-5:00 Cuba C%sT
# Dominica
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
# Dominican Republic
@@ -2928,15 +2848,15 @@ Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 - LMT 1921 # San Salvador
# Grenada
# Guadeloupe
-# St Barthelemy
+# St Barthélemy
# St Martin (French part)
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
# Guatemala
#
# From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
# Diario Co Latino, at
-# http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079,
+# <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>,
# says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
# decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
# impact of the elevated cost of oil.... Daylight saving time will last from
@@ -2961,11 +2881,10 @@ Zone America/Guatemala -6:02:04 - LMT 1918 Oct 5
# Haiti
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
-# Risto O. Nykanen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
-# I searched for confirmation, and I found a
-# <a href="http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc"> press release
+# Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
+# I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release
# on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
-# </a>. Translated from French, it says:
+# <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>. Translated from French, it says:
#
# "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
# and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
@@ -3042,7 +2961,7 @@ Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 - LMT 1890
# <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
# of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
# It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
# 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
@@ -3092,7 +3011,7 @@ Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 - LMT 1890 # Fort-de-France
-4:00 - AST
# Montserrat
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
# Nicaragua
#
@@ -3117,25 +3036,25 @@ Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 - LMT 1890 # Fort-de-France
# http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
# and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last
# time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
-# during the Arnoldo Aleman administration."...
+# during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."...
# The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
# since December 1998. I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
# changes in 2000. Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
# the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
# Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
# (2005-09-26)
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
# http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
# (my informal translation)
-# By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolanos, Nicaragua
+# By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua
# advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
-# morning, and will stay that way until 30.th. of september.
+# morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September.
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
# My informal translation runs:
# The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
@@ -3162,7 +3081,7 @@ Zone America/Managua -5:45:08 - LMT 1890
# Panama
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Panama -5:18:08 - LMT 1890
- -5:19:36 - CMT 1908 Apr 22 # Colon Mean Time
+ -5:19:36 - CMT 1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time
-5:00 - EST
# Puerto Rico
@@ -3175,7 +3094,7 @@ Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 - LMT 1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan
# St Kitts-Nevis
# St Lucia
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
# St Pierre and Miquelon
# There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'.
@@ -3186,7 +3105,7 @@ Zone America/Miquelon -3:44:40 - LMT 1911 May 15 # St Pierre
-3:00 Canada PM%sT
# St Vincent and the Grenadines
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
# Turks and Caicos
#
@@ -3221,4 +3140,9 @@ Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 - LMT 1890
# British Virgin Is
# Virgin Is
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
+
+
+# Local Variables:
+# coding: utf-8
+# End:
diff --git a/pacificnew b/pacificnew
index bccd852109b4..734943486be0 100644
--- a/pacificnew
+++ b/pacificnew
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
diff --git a/southamerica b/southamerica
index 5391055aaf1b..de1f15e86dd2 100644
--- a/southamerica
+++ b/southamerica
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
@@ -30,24 +29,24 @@
# I suggest the use of _Summer time_ instead of the more cumbersome
# _daylight-saving time_. _Summer time_ seems to be in general use
# in Europe and South America.
-# -- E O Cutler, _New York Times_ (1937-02-14), quoted in
+# -- E O Cutler, _New York Times_ (1937-02-14), quoted in
# H L Mencken, _The American Language: Supplement I_ (1960), p 466
#
# Earlier editions of these tables also used the North American style
# for time zones in Brazil, but this was incorrect, as Brazilians say
-# "summer time". Reinaldo Goulart, a Sao Paulo businessman active in
+# "summer time". Reinaldo Goulart, a São Paulo businessman active in
# the railroad sector, writes (1999-07-06):
# The subject of time zones is currently a matter of discussion/debate in
-# Brazil. Let's say that "the Brasilia time" is considered the
-# "official time" because Brasilia is the capital city.
-# The other three time zones are called "Brasilia time "minus one" or
+# Brazil. Let's say that "the Brasília time" is considered the
+# "official time" because Brasília is the capital city.
+# The other three time zones are called "Brasília time "minus one" or
# "plus one" or "plus two". As far as I know there is no such
# name/designation as "Eastern Time" or "Central Time".
# So I invented the following (English-language) abbreviations for now.
# Corrections are welcome!
# std dst
# -2:00 FNT FNST Fernando de Noronha
-# -3:00 BRT BRST Brasilia
+# -3:00 BRT BRST Brasília
# -4:00 AMT AMST Amazon
# -5:00 ACT ACST Acre
@@ -61,7 +60,7 @@
# Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976.
# Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974. Switches at midnight.
-# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-199):
+# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-19):
# ARGENTINA 3 H BEHIND UTC
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
@@ -95,7 +94,7 @@ Rule Arg 1988 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
# These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A.,
# obtaining the data from the:
-# Talleres de Hidrografia Naval Argentina
+# Talleres de Hidrografía Naval Argentina
# (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute)
Rule Arg 1989 1993 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
Rule Arg 1989 1992 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -117,13 +116,13 @@ Rule Arg 1999 only - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Arg 2000 only - Mar 3 0:00 0 -
#
# From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01):
-# We just checked with our Sao Paulo office and they say the government of
+# We just checked with our São Paulo office and they say the government of
# Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST.
# So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times.
#
-# From Fabian L. Arce Jofre (2000-04-04):
+# From Fabián L. Arce Jofré (2000-04-04):
# The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando
-# de la Rua on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
+# de la Rúa on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
# in the winter time, rather than less. The change took effect on March 3.
#
# From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06):
@@ -156,15 +155,13 @@ Rule Arg 2000 only - Mar 3 0:00 0 -
# that Argentina will use DST next year as well, from October to
# March, although exact rules are not given.
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
# The last hurdle of Argentina DST is over, the proposal was approved in
-# the lower chamber too (Deputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
+# the lower chamber too (Diputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
# By the way thanks to Mariano Absatz and Daniel Mario Vega for the link to
# the original scanned proposal, where the dates and the zero hours are
# clear and unambiguous...This is the article about final approval:
-# <a href="http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996">
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996
-# </a>
#
# From Paul Eggert (2007-12-22):
# For dates after mid-2008, the following rules are my guesses and
@@ -174,13 +171,8 @@ Rule Arg 2000 only - Mar 3 0:00 0 -
# As per message from Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz (Nicaragua),
# Argentina will start DST on Sunday October 19, 2008.
#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)">
# http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)
-# </a>
# From Rodrigo Severo (2008-10-06):
# Here is some info available at a Gentoo bug related to TZ on Argentina's DST:
@@ -189,48 +181,37 @@ Rule Arg 2000 only - Mar 3 0:00 0 -
# Hi, there is a problem with timezone-data-2008e and maybe with
# timezone-data-2008f
# Argentinian law [Number] 25.155 is no longer valid.
-# <a href="http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm">
# http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm
-# </a>
# The new one is law [Number] 26.350
-# <a href="http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm">
# http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm
-# </a>
# So there is no summer time in Argentina for now.
# From Mariano Absatz (2008-10-20):
# Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST in Argentina
# From 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15
-# <a href="http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01">
# http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01
-# </a>
#
-# Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer 2008/2009:
-# Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La Pampa, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz
-# and Tierra del Fuego
-# <a href="http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01">
+
+# Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer
+# 2008/2009: Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La
+# Pampa, Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego
# http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01
-# </a>
#
# Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the Province of Jujuy saying
# it will not apply DST either (even when it was not included in Decree 1705/2008)
-# <a href="http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc">
# http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc
-# </a>
# From fullinet (2009-10-18):
# As announced in
-# <a hef="http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356">
# http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356
-# </a>
# (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora" (english: "No hour change")
#
-# "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvio no modificar la hora
-# oficial, decision que estaba en estudio para su implementacion el
-# domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificacion se anuncio
-# que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorologicas, no necesita
-# la modificacion del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con
-# crecimiento en la produccion y distribucion energetica."
+# "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvió no modificar la hora
+# oficial, decisión que estaba en estudio para su implementación el
+# domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificación se anunció
+# que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorológicas, no necesita
+# la modificación del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con
+# crecimiento en la producción y distribución energética."
Rule Arg 2007 only - Dec 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Arg 2008 2009 - Mar Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
@@ -245,9 +226,9 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# now we'll assume it's for this year only.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# <a href="http://www.spicasc.net/horvera.html">
# Hora de verano para la Republica Argentina (2003-06-08)
-# </a> says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31
+# <http://www.spicasc.net/horvera.html>
+# says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31
# to 1920-05-01 was -4:16:48.25. Go with this more-precise value
# over Shanks & Pottenger.
#
@@ -262,10 +243,10 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# time in October 17th.
#
# Catamarca, Chubut, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz,
-# Tierra del Fuego, Tucuman.
+# Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán.
#
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-14):
-# ... this weekend, the Province of Tucuman decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00
+# ... this weekend, the Province of Tucumán decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00
# yesterday midnight (that is, at 24:00 Saturday 12th), since the people's
# annoyance with the change is much higher than the power savings obtained....
#
@@ -300,28 +281,19 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# Here are articles that Argentina Province San Luis is planning to end DST
# as earlier as upcoming Monday January 21, 2008 or February 2008:
#
-# Provincia argentina retrasa reloj y marca diferencia con resto del pais
+# Provincia argentina retrasa reloj y marca diferencia con resto del país
# (Argentine Province delayed clock and mark difference with the rest of the
# country)
-# <a href="http://cl.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200801171849_EFE_ET4373&idtel">
# http://cl.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200801171849_EFE_ET4373&idtel
-# </a>
#
# Es inminente que en San Luis atrasen una hora los relojes
# (It is imminent in San Luis clocks one hour delay)
-# <a href="http://www.lagaceta.com.ar/vernotae.asp?id_nota=253414">
-# http://www.lagaceta.com.ar/vernotae.asp?id_nota=253414
-# </a>
-#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_argentina02.html">
+# http://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/253414/Economia/Es-inminente-que-en-San-Luis-atrasen-una-hora-los-relojes.html
# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_argentina02.html
-# </a>
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-01-18):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-18):
# The page of the San Luis provincial government
-# <a href="http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=0&id=22812">
# http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=0&id=22812
-# </a>
# confirms what Alex Krivenyshev has earlier sent to the tz
# emailing list about that San Luis plans to return to standard
# time much earlier than the rest of the country. It also
@@ -334,15 +306,13 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# independent changes in the southamerica file of San Luis in
# 1990 and 1991 which has not been confirmed).
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-01-25):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-25):
# Unfortunately the below page has become defunct, about the San Luis
# time change. Perhaps because it now is part of a group of pages "Most
# important pages of 2008."
#
# You can use
-# <a href="http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=8141&id=22834">
# http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=8141&id=22834
-# </a>
# instead it seems. Or use "Buscador" from the main page of the San Luis
# government, and fill in "huso" and click OK, and you will get 3 pages
# from which the first one is identical to the above.
@@ -376,14 +346,9 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# to utc-04:00 until the second Saturday in October...
#
# The press release is at
-# <a href="http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/SL/Paginas/NoticiaDetalle.asp?TemaId=1&InfoPrensaId=3102">
# http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/SL/Paginas/NoticiaDetalle.asp?TemaId=1&InfoPrensaId=3102
-# </a>
-# (I couldn't find the decree, but
-# <a href="http://www.sanluis.gov.ar">
-# www.sanluis.gov.ar
-# <a/>
-# is the official page for the Province Government).
+# (I couldn't find the decree, but www.sanluis.gov.ar
+# is the official page for the Province Government.)
#
# There's also a note in only one of the major national papers ...
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/nota.asp?nota_id=1107912
@@ -400,9 +365,7 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# ...the Province of San Luis is a case in itself.
#
# The Law at
-# <a href="http://www.diputadossanluis.gov.ar/diputadosasp/paginas/verNorma.asp?NormaID=276>"
# http://www.diputadossanluis.gov.ar/diputadosasp/paginas/verNorma.asp?NormaID=276
-# </a>
# is ambiguous because establishes a calendar from the 2nd Sunday in
# October at 0:00 thru the 2nd Saturday in March at 24:00 and the
# complement of that starting on the 2nd Sunday of March at 0:00 and
@@ -433,17 +396,13 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-09):
# According to news reports from El Diario de la Republica Province San
# Luis, Argentina (standard time UTC-04) will keep Daylight Saving Time
-# after April 11, 2010--will continue to have same time as rest of
+# after April 11, 2010 - will continue to have same time as rest of
# Argentina (UTC-3) (no DST).
#
-# Confirmaron la pr&oacute;rroga del huso horario de verano (Spanish)
-# <a href="http://www.eldiariodelarepublica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29383&Itemid=9">
+# Confirmaron la prórroga del huso horario de verano (Spanish)
# http://www.eldiariodelarepublica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29383&Itemid=9
-# </a>
# or (some English translation):
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html
-# </a>
# From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12):
# yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling
@@ -463,20 +422,20 @@ Rule Arg 2008 only - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
# setting for time stamps past 2038.
# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
-# Milne says Cordoba time was -4:16:48.2. Round to the nearest second.
+# Milne says Córdoba time was -4:16:48.2. Round to the nearest second.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
#
# Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF),
Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
- -4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May # Cordoba Mean Time
+ -4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May # Córdoba Mean Time
-4:00 - ART 1930 Dec
-4:00 Arg AR%sT 1969 Oct 5
-3:00 Arg AR%sT 1999 Oct 3
-4:00 Arg AR%sT 2000 Mar 3
-3:00 Arg AR%sT
#
-# Cordoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Rios (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
+# Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
# Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE)
#
# Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified:
@@ -496,7 +455,7 @@ Zone America/Argentina/Cordoba -4:16:48 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
-4:00 Arg AR%sT 2000 Mar 3
-3:00 Arg AR%sT
#
-# Salta (SA), La Pampa (LP), Neuquen (NQ), Rio Negro (RN)
+# Salta (SA), La Pampa (LP), Neuquén (NQ), Rio Negro (RN)
Zone America/Argentina/Salta -4:21:40 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
-4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May
-4:00 - ART 1930 Dec
@@ -508,7 +467,7 @@ Zone America/Argentina/Salta -4:21:40 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
-3:00 Arg AR%sT 2008 Oct 18
-3:00 - ART
#
-# Tucuman (TM)
+# Tucumán (TM)
Zone America/Argentina/Tucuman -4:20:52 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
-4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May
-4:00 - ART 1930 Dec
@@ -620,7 +579,7 @@ Zone America/Argentina/San_Luis -4:25:24 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
#
# Santa Cruz (SC)
Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
- -4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May # Cordoba Mean Time
+ -4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May # Córdoba Mean Time
-4:00 - ART 1930 Dec
-4:00 Arg AR%sT 1969 Oct 5
-3:00 Arg AR%sT 1999 Oct 3
@@ -630,9 +589,9 @@ Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
-3:00 Arg AR%sT 2008 Oct 18
-3:00 - ART
#
-# Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (TF)
+# Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF)
Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
- -4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May # Cordoba Mean Time
+ -4:16:48 - CMT 1920 May # Córdoba Mean Time
-4:00 - ART 1930 Dec
-4:00 Arg AR%sT 1969 Oct 5
-3:00 Arg AR%sT 1999 Oct 3
@@ -663,13 +622,13 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# From IATA SSIM (1996-02):
# _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS),
-# Santa Catarina (SC), Parana (PR), Sao Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
-# Espirito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goias (GO),
+# Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
+# Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO),
# Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL].
# [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.]
# From Gwillim Law (1996-10-07):
-# Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goias until 1989), and other
+# Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goiás until 1989), and other
# sources of time zone information lead me to believe that AL, SE, and TO were
# always in BR1, and so the only change was whether or not they observed DST....
# The earliest issue of the SSIM I have is 2/91. Each issue from then until
@@ -683,16 +642,14 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# However, some conclusions can be drawn from another IATA manual: the Airline
# Coding Directory, which lists close to 400 airports in Brazil. For each
# airport it gives a time zone which is coded to the SSIM. From that
-# information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapa (AP), Ceara (CE),
-# Maranhao (MA), Paraiba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piaui (PI), and Rio Grande do
-# Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Para (PA) are all in BR1 without DST.
+# information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapá (AP), Ceará (CE),
+# Maranhão (MA), Paraíba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), and Rio Grande do
+# Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Pará (PA) are all in BR1 without DST.
# From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27):
-# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html">
-# Brazilian official page
-# </a>
+# Brazilian official page <http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html>
-# From Jesper Norgaard (2000-11-03):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard (2000-11-03):
# [For an official list of which regions in Brazil use which time zones, see:]
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbrhv.htm
@@ -725,13 +682,13 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# From Paul Schulze (2008-06-24):
# ...by law number 11.662 of April 24, 2008 (published in the "Diario
-# Oficial da Uniao"...) in Brazil there are changes in the timezones,
+# Oficial da União"...) in Brazil there are changes in the timezones,
# effective today (00:00am at June 24, 2008) as follows:
#
# a) The timezone UTC+5 is e[x]tinguished, with all the Acre state and the
# part of the Amazonas state that had this timezone now being put to the
# timezone UTC+4
-# b) The whole Para state now is put at timezone UTC+3, instead of just
+# b) The whole Pará state now is put at timezone UTC+3, instead of just
# part of it, as was before.
#
# This change follows a proposal of senator Tiao Viana of Acre state, that
@@ -744,13 +701,11 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# From Rodrigo Severo (2008-06-24):
# Just correcting the URL:
-# <a href="https://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=do&secao=1&pagina=1&data=25/04/2008">
# https://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=do&secao=1&pagina=1&data=25/04/2008
-# </a>
#
# As a result of the above Decree I believe the America/Rio_Branco
# timezone shall be modified from UTC-5 to UTC-4 and a new timezone shall
-# be created to represent the...west side of the Para State. I
+# be created to represent the...west side of the Pará State. I
# suggest this new timezone be called Santarem as the most
# important/populated city in the affected area.
#
@@ -759,19 +714,16 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-24):
# This is a quick reference page for New and Old Brazil Time Zones map.
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/brazil-time-new-old.php">
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/brazil-time-new-old.php
-# </a>
#
-# - 4 time zones replaced by 3 time zones-eliminating time zone UTC- 05
-# (state Acre and the part of the Amazonas will be UTC/GMT- 04) - western
-# part of Par state is moving to one timezone UTC- 03 (from UTC -04).
+# - 4 time zones replaced by 3 time zones - eliminating time zone UTC-05
+# (state Acre and the part of the Amazonas will be UTC/GMT-04) - western
+# part of Par state is moving to one timezone UTC-03 (from UTC-04).
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-10):
# The official decrees referenced below are mostly taken from
-# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html">
-# Decretos sobre o Horario de Verao no Brasil
-# </a>.
+# Decretos sobre o Horário de Verão no Brasil
+# <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html>.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-29):
# As announced by the government and many newspapers in Brazil late
@@ -783,25 +735,17 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# It has not yet been posted to http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
#
# An official page about it:
-# <a href="http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do?newsId=16722">
# http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do?newsId=16722
-# </a>
# Note that this link does not always work directly, but must be accessed
# by going to
-# <a href="http://www.mme.gov.br/first">
# http://www.mme.gov.br/first
-# </a>
#
# One example link that works directly:
-# <a href="http://jornale.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13530&Itemid=54">
# http://jornale.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13530&Itemid=54
# (Portuguese)
-# </a>
#
# We have a written a short article about it as well:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-dst-2008-2009.html">
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-dst-2008-2009.html
-# </a>
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-04):
# State Bahia will return to Daylight savings time this year after 8 years off.
@@ -809,17 +753,12 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# television station in Salvador.
# In Portuguese:
-# <a href="http://g1.globo.com/bahia/noticia/2011/10/governador-jaques-wagner-confirma-horario-de-verao-na-bahia.html">
# http://g1.globo.com/bahia/noticia/2011/10/governador-jaques-wagner-confirma-horario-de-verao-na-bahia.html
-# </a> and
-# <a href="http://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI5390887-EI8139,00-Bahia+volta+a+ter+horario+de+verao+apos+oito+anos.html">
# http://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI5390887-EI8139,00-Bahia+volta+a+ter+horario+de+verao+apos+oito+anos.html
-# </a>
# From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-07):
# There is news in the media, however there is still no decree about it.
-# I just send a e-mail to Zulmira Brandao at
-# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/">http://pcdsh01.on.br/</a> the
+# I just send a e-mail to Zulmira Brandao at http://pcdsh01.on.br/ the
# official agency about time in Brazil, and she confirmed that the old rule is
# still in force.
@@ -831,9 +770,7 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
#
# DECRETO No- 7.584, DE 13 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011
# Link :
-# <a href="http://www.in.gov.br/visualiza/index.jsp?data=13/10/2011&jornal=1000&pagina=6&totalArquivos=6">
# http://www.in.gov.br/visualiza/index.jsp?data=13/10/2011&jornal=1000&pagina=6&totalArquivos=6
-# </a>
# From Kelley Cook (2012-10-16):
# The governor of state of Bahia in Brazil announced on Thursday that
@@ -861,42 +798,42 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# For now, assume western Amazonas will change as well.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm">20,466</a> (1931-10-01)
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm">21,896</a> (1932-01-10)
+# Decree 20,466 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm> (1931-10-01)
+# Decree 21,896 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm> (1932-01-10)
Rule Brazil 1931 only - Oct 3 11:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1932 1933 - Apr 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Brazil 1932 only - Oct 3 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm">23,195</a> (1933-10-10)
+# Decree 23,195 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm> (1933-10-10)
# revoked DST.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm">27,496</a> (1949-11-24)
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm">27,998</a> (1950-04-13)
+# Decree 27,496 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm> (1949-11-24)
+# Decree 27,998 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm> (1950-04-13)
Rule Brazil 1949 1952 - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1950 only - Apr 16 1:00 0 -
Rule Brazil 1951 1952 - Apr 1 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm">32,308</a> (1953-02-24)
+# Decree 32,308 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm> (1953-02-24)
Rule Brazil 1953 only - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm">34,724</a> (1953-11-30)
+# Decree 34,724 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm> (1953-11-30)
# revoked DST.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm">52,700</a> (1963-10-18)
+# Decree 52,700 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm> (1963-10-18)
# established DST from 1963-10-23 00:00 to 1964-02-29 00:00
# in SP, RJ, GB, MG, ES, due to the prolongation of the drought.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm">53,071</a> (1963-12-03)
+# Decree 53,071 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm> (1963-12-03)
# extended the above decree to all of the national territory on 12-09.
Rule Brazil 1963 only - Dec 9 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm">53,604</a> (1964-02-25)
+# Decree 53,604 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm> (1964-02-25)
# extended summer time by one day to 1964-03-01 00:00 (start of school).
Rule Brazil 1964 only - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm">55,639</a> (1965-01-27)
+# Decree 55,639 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm> (1965-01-27)
Rule Brazil 1965 only - Jan 31 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1965 only - Mar 31 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm">57,303</a> (1965-11-22)
+# Decree 57,303 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm> (1965-11-22)
Rule Brazil 1965 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm">57,843</a> (1966-02-18)
+# Decree 57,843 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm> (1966-02-18)
Rule Brazil 1966 1968 - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Brazil 1966 1967 - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm">63,429</a> (1968-10-15)
+# Decree 63,429 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm> (1968-10-15)
# revoked DST.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm">91,698</a> (1985-09-27)
+# Decree 91,698 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm> (1985-09-27)
Rule Brazil 1985 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
# Decree 92,310 (1986-01-21)
# Decree 92,463 (1986-03-13)
@@ -904,42 +841,42 @@ Rule Brazil 1986 only - Mar 15 0:00 0 -
# Decree 93,316 (1986-10-01)
Rule Brazil 1986 only - Oct 25 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1987 only - Feb 14 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm">94,922</a> (1987-09-22)
+# Decree 94,922 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm> (1987-09-22)
Rule Brazil 1987 only - Oct 25 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1988 only - Feb 7 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm">96,676</a> (1988-09-12)
+# Decree 96,676 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm> (1988-09-12)
# except for the states of AC, AM, PA, RR, RO, and AP (then a territory)
Rule Brazil 1988 only - Oct 16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1989 only - Jan 29 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm">98,077</a> (1989-08-21)
+# Decree 98,077 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm> (1989-08-21)
# with the same exceptions
Rule Brazil 1989 only - Oct 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1990 only - Feb 11 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm">99,530</a> (1990-09-17)
+# Decree 99,530 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm> (1990-09-17)
# adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, GO, MS, DF.
# Decree 99,629 (1990-10-19) adds BA, MT.
Rule Brazil 1990 only - Oct 21 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1991 only - Feb 17 0:00 0 -
-# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm">Unnumbered decree</a> (1991-09-25)
+# Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm> (1991-09-25)
# adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, BA, GO, MT, MS, DF.
Rule Brazil 1991 only - Oct 20 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1992 only - Feb 9 0:00 0 -
-# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm">Unnumbered decree</a> (1992-10-16)
+# Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm> (1992-10-16)
# adopted by same states.
Rule Brazil 1992 only - Oct 25 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1993 only - Jan 31 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm">942</a> (1993-09-28)
+# Decree 942 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm> (1993-09-28)
# adopted by same states, plus AM.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm">1,252</a> (1994-09-22;
+# Decree 1,252 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm> (1994-09-22;
# web page corrected 2004-01-07) adopted by same states, minus AM.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm">1,636</a> (1995-09-14)
+# Decree 1,636 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm> (1995-09-14)
# adopted by same states, plus MT and TO.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm">1,674</a> (1995-10-13)
+# Decree 1,674 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm> (1995-10-13)
# adds AL, SE.
Rule Brazil 1993 1995 - Oct Sun>=11 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1994 1995 - Feb Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
Rule Brazil 1996 only - Feb 11 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm">2,000</a> (1996-09-04)
+# Decree 2,000 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm> (1996-09-04)
# adopted by same states, minus AL, SE.
Rule Brazil 1996 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1997 only - Feb 16 0:00 0 -
@@ -952,53 +889,51 @@ Rule Brazil 1997 only - Feb 16 0:00 0 -
#
# Decree 2,317 (1997-09-04), adopted by same states.
Rule Brazil 1997 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG">2,495</a>
+# Decree 2,495 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG>
# (1998-02-10)
Rule Brazil 1998 only - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg">2,780</a> (1998-09-11)
+# Decree 2,780 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg> (1998-09-11)
# adopted by the same states as before.
Rule Brazil 1998 only - Oct 11 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 1999 only - Feb 21 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif">3,150</a>
+# Decree 3,150 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif>
# (1999-08-23) adopted by same states.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif">3,188</a> (1999-09-30)
+# Decree 3,188 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif> (1999-09-30)
# adds SE, AL, PB, PE, RN, CE, PI, MA and RR.
Rule Brazil 1999 only - Oct 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 2000 only - Feb 27 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm">3,592</a> (2000-09-06)
+# Decree 3,592 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm> (2000-09-06)
# adopted by the same states as before.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg">3,630</a> (2000-10-13)
+# Decree 3,630 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg> (2000-10-13)
# repeals DST in PE and RR, effective 2000-10-15 00:00.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg">3,632</a> (2000-10-17)
+# Decree 3,632 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg> (2000-10-17)
# repeals DST in SE, AL, PB, RN, CE, PI and MA, effective 2000-10-22 00:00.
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif">3,916</a>
+# Decree 3,916 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif>
# (2001-09-13) reestablishes DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
Rule Brazil 2000 2001 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 2001 2006 - Feb Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
# Decree 4,399 (2002-10-01) repeals DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
-# <a href="http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm">4,399</a>
+# 4,399 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm>
Rule Brazil 2002 only - Nov 3 0:00 1:00 S
# Decree 4,844 (2003-09-24; corrected 2003-09-26) repeals DST in BA, MT, TO.
-# <a href="http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm">4,844</a>
+# 4,844 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm>
Rule Brazil 2003 only - Oct 19 0:00 1:00 S
# Decree 5,223 (2004-10-01) reestablishes DST in MT.
-# <a href="http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm">5,223</a>
+# 5,223 <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm>
Rule Brazil 2004 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif">5,539</a> (2005-09-19),
+# Decree 5,539 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif> (2005-09-19),
# adopted by the same states as before.
Rule Brazil 2005 only - Oct 16 0:00 1:00 S
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5920.gif">5,920</a> (2006-10-03),
+# Decree 5,920 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5920.gif> (2006-10-03),
# adopted by the same states as before.
Rule Brazil 2006 only - Nov 5 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Brazil 2007 only - Feb 25 0:00 0 -
-# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif">6,212</a> (2007-09-26),
+# Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26),
# adopted by the same states as before.
Rule Brazil 2007 only - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 1:00 S
# From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10):
# According to this decree
-# <a href="http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm">
# http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm
-# </a>
# [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the
# 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is
# the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday...
@@ -1033,29 +968,29 @@ Zone America/Noronha -2:09:40 - LMT 1914
-2:00 Brazil FN%sT 2002 Oct 1
-2:00 - FNT
# Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement.
-# These include Trindade and Martin Vaz (administratively part of ES),
-# Atol das Rocas (RN), and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo (PE).
+# These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES),
+# Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE).
# Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01;
# it also included the Penedos.
#
-# Amapa (AP), east Para (PA)
-# East Para includes Belem, Maraba, Serra Norte, and Sao Felix do Xingu.
-# The division between east and west Para is the river Xingu.
+# Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA)
+# East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu.
+# The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu.
# In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess,
-# the border with Amapa) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.
+# the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.
Zone America/Belem -3:13:56 - LMT 1914
-3:00 Brazil BR%sT 1988 Sep 12
-3:00 - BRT
#
-# west Para (PA)
-# West Para includes Altamira, Oribidos, Prainha, Oriximina, and Santarem.
+# west Pará (PA)
+# West Pará includes Altamira, Óbidos, Prainha, Oriximiná, and Santarém.
Zone America/Santarem -3:38:48 - LMT 1914
-4:00 Brazil AM%sT 1988 Sep 12
-4:00 - AMT 2008 Jun 24 00:00
-3:00 - BRT
#
-# Maranhao (MA), Piaui (PI), Ceara (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN),
-# Paraiba (PB)
+# Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN),
+# Paraíba (PB)
Zone America/Fortaleza -2:34:00 - LMT 1914
-3:00 Brazil BR%sT 1990 Sep 17
-3:00 - BRT 1999 Sep 30
@@ -1102,8 +1037,8 @@ Zone America/Bahia -2:34:04 - LMT 1914
-3:00 Brazil BR%sT 2012 Oct 21
-3:00 - BRT
#
-# Goias (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG),
-# Espirito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Sao Paulo (SP), Parana (PR),
+# Goiás (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG),
+# Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR),
# Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS)
Zone America/Sao_Paulo -3:06:28 - LMT 1914
-3:00 Brazil BR%sT 1963 Oct 23 00:00
@@ -1120,7 +1055,7 @@ Zone America/Cuiaba -3:44:20 - LMT 1914
-4:00 - AMT 2004 Oct 1
-4:00 Brazil AM%sT
#
-# Rondonia (RO)
+# Rondônia (RO)
Zone America/Porto_Velho -4:15:36 - LMT 1914
-4:00 Brazil AM%sT 1988 Sep 12
-4:00 - AMT
@@ -1132,7 +1067,7 @@ Zone America/Boa_Vista -4:02:40 - LMT 1914
-4:00 Brazil AM%sT 2000 Oct 15
-4:00 - AMT
#
-# east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutai, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto
+# east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutaí, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto
# The great circle line from Tabatinga to Porto Acre divides
# east from west Amazonas.
Zone America/Manaus -4:00:04 - LMT 1914
@@ -1142,7 +1077,7 @@ Zone America/Manaus -4:00:04 - LMT 1914
-4:00 - AMT
#
# west Amazonas (AM): Atalaia do Norte, Boca do Maoco, Benjamin Constant,
-# Eirunepe, Envira, Ipixuna
+# Eirunepé, Envira, Ipixuna
Zone America/Eirunepe -4:39:28 - LMT 1914
-5:00 Brazil AC%sT 1988 Sep 12
-5:00 - ACT 1993 Sep 28
@@ -1175,7 +1110,7 @@ Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 - LMT 1914
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2006-10-08):
# http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-08):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-08):
# I think that there are some obvious mistakes in the suggested link
# from Oscar van Vlijmen,... for instance entry 66 says that GMT-4
# ended 1990-09-12 while entry 67 only begins GMT-3 at 1990-09-15
@@ -1185,36 +1120,28 @@ Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 - LMT 1914
# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-27):
# The following data for Chile and America/Santiago are from
# <http://www.horaoficial.cl/horaof.htm> (2006-09-20), transcribed by
-# Jesper Norgaard Welen. The data for Pacific/Easter are from Shanks
+# Jesper Nørgaard Welen. The data for Pacific/Easter are from Shanks
# & Pottenger, except with DST transitions after 1932 cloned from
# America/Santiago. The pre-1980 Pacific/Easter data are dubious,
# but we have no other source.
-# From German Poo-Caaman~o (2008-03-03):
+# From Germán Poo-Caamaño (2008-03-03):
# Due to drought, Chile extends Daylight Time in three weeks. This
# is one-time change (Saturday 3/29 at 24:00 for America/Santiago
# and Saturday 3/29 at 22:00 for Pacific/Easter)
# The Supreme Decree is located at
-# <a href="http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/supremo316.pdf">
# http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/supremo316.pdf
-# </a>
# and the instructions for 2008 are located in:
-# <a href="http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm">
# http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm
-# </a>.
-# From Jose Miguel Garrido (2008-03-05):
+# From José Miguel Garrido (2008-03-05):
# ...
# You could see the announces of the change on
-# <a href="http://www.shoa.cl/noticias/2008/04hora/hora.htm">
# http://www.shoa.cl/noticias/2008/04hora/hora.htm
-# </a>.
# From Angel Chiang (2010-03-04):
# Subject: DST in Chile exceptionally extended to 3 April due to earthquake
-# <a href="http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewNoticia.aspx?idArticulo=30098">
# http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewNoticia.aspx?idArticulo=30098
-# </a>
# (in Spanish, last paragraph).
#
# This is breaking news. There should be more information available later.
@@ -1226,15 +1153,11 @@ Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 - LMT 1914
# It appears that the Chilean government has decided to postpone the
# change from summer time to winter time again, by three weeks to April
# 2nd:
-# <a href="http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/detalle/detallenoticias.asp?idnoticia=467651">
# http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/detalle/detallenoticias.asp?idnoticia=467651
-# </a>
#
# This is not yet reflected in the official "cambio de hora" site, but
# probably will be soon:
-# <a href="http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm">
# http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm
-# </a>
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-03-02):
# The emol.com article mentions a water shortage as the cause of the
@@ -1242,9 +1165,7 @@ Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 - LMT 1914
# From Glenn Eychaner (2011-03-28):
# The article:
-# <a href="http://diario.elmercurio.com/2011/03/28/_portada/_portada/noticias/7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E.htm?id=3D{7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E}">
# http://diario.elmercurio.com/2011/03/28/_portada/_portada/noticias/7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E.htm?id=3D{7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E}
-# </a>
#
# In English:
# Chile's clocks will go back an hour this year on the 7th of May instead
@@ -1275,7 +1196,7 @@ Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 - LMT 1914
# start date is 2013-09-08 00:00....
# http://www.gob.cl/informa/2013/02/15/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de-hora-para-el-ano-2013.htm
-# From Jose Miguel Garrido (2014-02-19):
+# From José Miguel Garrido (2014-02-19):
# Today appeared in the Diario Oficial a decree amending the time change
# dates to 2014.
# DST End: last Saturday of April 2014 (Sun 27 Apr 2014 03:00 UTC)
@@ -1341,13 +1262,13 @@ Zone Pacific/Easter -7:17:44 - LMT 1890
-7:00 Chile EAS%sT 1982 Mar 13 21:00 # Easter I Time
-6:00 Chile EAS%sT
#
-# Sala y Gomez Island is like Pacific/Easter.
-# Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernandez Is, San Ambrosio,
-# San Felix, and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
+# Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
+# Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
+# and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
# Colombia
-# Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogota time in 1899; round to nearest. He writes,
+# Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest. He writes,
# "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare."
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
@@ -1355,24 +1276,24 @@ Rule CO 1992 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule CO 1993 only - Apr 4 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Bogota -4:56:16 - LMT 1884 Mar 13
- -4:56:16 - BMT 1914 Nov 23 # Bogota Mean Time
+ -4:56:16 - BMT 1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time
-5:00 CO CO%sT # Colombia Time
# Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres
# no information; probably like America/Bogota
-# Curacao
+# Curaçao
-# Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curacao mean time; round to nearest.
+# Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at
# -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that
# Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from
# 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01. The former is dubious, since S&P also say
-# Saba Island has been like Curacao.
+# Saba Island has been like Curaçao.
# This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
#
-# By July 2007 Curacao and St Maarten are planned to become
+# By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become
# associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba;
# Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the
# Netherlands as Kingdom Islands. This won't affect their time zones
@@ -1385,7 +1306,7 @@ Zone America/Curacao -4:35:47 - LMT 1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
# use links for places with new iso3166 codes.
-# The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen charaters
+# The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters
# and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below.
Link America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes # Sint Maarten
@@ -1393,7 +1314,7 @@ Link America/Curacao America/Kralendijk # Caribbean Netherlands
# Ecuador
#
-# Milne says the Sentral and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
+# Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-04):
# Apparently Ecuador had a failed experiment with DST in 1992.
@@ -1407,7 +1328,7 @@ Zone America/Guayaquil -5:19:20 - LMT 1890
-5:00 - ECT # Ecuador Time
Zone Pacific/Galapagos -5:58:24 - LMT 1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
-5:00 - ECT 1986
- -6:00 - GALT # Galapagos Time
+ -6:00 - GALT # Galápagos Time
# Falklands
@@ -1416,7 +1337,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Galapagos -5:58:24 - LMT 1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
# the IATA gives 1996-09-08. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
# From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22)
-# via Jesper Norgaard:
+# via Jesper Nørgaard:
# ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15
# April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2
# September. It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2
@@ -1465,9 +1386,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Galapagos -5:58:24 - LMT 1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
# daylight saving time.
#
# One source:
-# <a href="http://www.falklandnews.com/public/story.cfm?get=5914&source=3">
# http://www.falklandnews.com/public/story.cfm?get=5914&source=3
-# </a>
#
# We have gotten this confirmed by a clerk of the legislative assembly:
# Normally the clocks revert to Local Mean Time (UTC/GMT -4 hours) on the
@@ -1532,8 +1451,8 @@ Zone America/Guyana -3:52:40 - LMT 1915 Mar # Georgetown
# Paraguay
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are from 01:00 -> 02:00,
-# and autumn transitions are from 00:00 -> 23:00. Go with pre-1999
+# Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00,
+# and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00. Go with pre-1999
# editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00.
#
# From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20):
@@ -1559,9 +1478,8 @@ Rule Para 1996 only - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
# (10-01).
#
# Translated by Gwillim Law (2001-02-27) from
-# <a href="http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm">
-# Noticias, a daily paper in Asuncion, Paraguay (2000-10-01)
-# </a>:
+# Noticias, a daily paper in Asunción, Paraguay (2000-10-01)
+# <http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm>:
# Starting at 0:00 today, the clock will be set forward 60 minutes, in
# fulfillment of Decree No. 7,273 of the Executive Power.... The time change
# system has been operating for several years. Formerly there was a separate
@@ -1582,21 +1500,18 @@ Rule Para 1998 2001 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
Rule Para 2002 2004 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
Rule Para 2002 2003 - Sep Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-01-02):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-01-02):
# There are several sources that claim that Paraguay made
# a timezone rule change in autumn 2004.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-01-05):
# Decree 1,867 (2004-03-05)
-# From Carlos Raul Perasso via Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-13)
+# From Carlos Raúl Perasso via Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-13)
# <http://www.presidencia.gov.py/decretos/D1867.pdf>
Rule Para 2004 2009 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Para 2005 2009 - Mar Sun>=8 0:00 0 -
-# From Carlos Raul Perasso (2010-02-18):
-# By decree number 3958 issued yesterday (
-# <a href="http://www.presidencia.gov.py/v1/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/decreto3958.pdf">
+# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2010-02-18):
+# By decree number 3958 issued yesterday
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/v1/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/decreto3958.pdf
-# </a>
-# )
# Paraguay changes its DST schedule, postponing the March rule to April and
# modifying the October date. The decree reads:
# ...
@@ -1612,25 +1527,25 @@ Rule Para 2010 2012 - Apr Sun>=8 0:00 0 -
# Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00....
# http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075
#
-# From Carlos Raul Perasso (2013-03-15):
+# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15):
# The change in Paraguay is now final. Decree number 10780
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf
-# From Carlos Raul Perasso (2014-02-28):
+# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28):
# Decree 1264 can be found at:
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf
Rule Para 2013 max - Mar Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Asuncion -3:50:40 - LMT 1890
- -3:50:40 - AMT 1931 Oct 10 # Asuncion Mean Time
+ -3:50:40 - AMT 1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time
-4:00 - PYT 1972 Oct # Paraguay Time
-3:00 - PYT 1974 Apr
-4:00 Para PY%sT
# Peru
#
-# <a href="news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net">
-# From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26):</a>
+# From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26)
+# <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>:
# When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over
# sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon.
#
@@ -1683,7 +1598,7 @@ Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot # St Martin (French part)
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat
-Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy
+Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts # St Kitts & Nevis
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas # Virgin Islands (US)
@@ -1756,7 +1671,7 @@ Rule Uruguay 2005 only - Mar 27 2:00 0 -
# 02:00 local time, official time in Uruguay will be at GMT -2.
Rule Uruguay 2005 only - Oct 9 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Uruguay 2006 only - Mar 12 2:00 0 -
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-09-06):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-06):
# http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_web/decretos/2006/09/CM%20210_08%2006%202006_00001.PDF
Rule Uruguay 2006 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Uruguay 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 0 -
@@ -1771,8 +1686,8 @@ Zone America/Montevideo -3:44:44 - LMT 1898 Jun 28
# From John Stainforth (2007-11-28):
# ... the change for Venezuela originally expected for 2007-12-31 has
# been brought forward to 2007-12-09. The official announcement was
-# published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la Republica Bolivariana
-# de Venezuela, numero 38.819" (official document for all laws or
+# published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana
+# de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or
# resolution publication)
# http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208
diff --git a/systemv b/systemv
index e651e8540d10..d9e2995756b0 100644
--- a/systemv
+++ b/systemv
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
-# <pre>
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
diff --git a/yearistype.sh b/yearistype.sh
index bdc6e583281d..dfdcdf0e2316 100755
--- a/yearistype.sh
+++ b/yearistype.sh
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
case $#-$1 in
2-|2-0*|2-*[!0-9]*)
- echo "$0: wild year - $1" >&2
+ echo "$0: wild year: $1" >&2
exit 1 ;;
esac
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ case $#-$2 in
*) exit 1 ;;
esac ;;
2-*)
- echo "$0: wild type - $2" >&2 ;;
+ echo "$0: wild type: $2" >&2 ;;
esac
echo "$0: usage is $0 year even|odd|uspres|nonpres|nonuspres" >&2
diff --git a/zone.tab b/zone.tab
index 923d6ac5be90..92b9c981e895 100644
--- a/zone.tab
+++ b/zone.tab
@@ -1,32 +1,20 @@
-# TZ zone descriptions
+# tz zone descriptions (deprecated version)
#
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
#
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-14):
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-31):
+# This file is intended as a backward-compatibility aid for older programs.
+# New programs should use zone1970.tab. This file is like zone1970.tab (see
+# zone1970.tab's comments), but with the following additional restrictions:
#
-# This file contains a table where each row stands for an area that is
-# the intersection of a region identified by a country code and of a
-# zone where civil clocks have agreed since 1970. The columns of the
-# table are as follows:
+# 1. This file contains only ASCII characters.
+# 2. The first data column contains exactly one country code.
#
-# 1. ISO 3166 2-character country code. See the file 'iso3166.tab'.
-# 2. Latitude and longitude of the area's principal location
-# in ISO 6709 sign-degrees-minutes-seconds format,
-# either +-DDMM+-DDDMM or +-DDMMSS+-DDDMMSS,
-# first latitude (+ is north), then longitude (+ is east).
-# 3. Zone name used in value of TZ environment variable.
-# Please see the 'Theory' file for how zone names are chosen.
-# If multiple zones overlap a country, each has a row in the
-# table, with column 1 being duplicated.
-# 4. Comments; present if and only if the country has multiple rows.
-#
-# Columns are separated by a single tab.
-# The table is sorted first by country, then an order within the country that
-# (1) makes some geographical sense, and
-# (2) puts the most populous areas first, where that does not contradict (1).
-#
-# Lines beginning with '#' are comments.
+# Because of (2), each row stands for an area that is the intersection
+# of a region identified by a country code and of a zone where civil
+# clocks have agreed since 1970; this is a narrower definition than
+# that of zone1970.tab.
#
# This table is intended as an aid for users, to help them select time
# zone data appropriate for their practical needs. It is not intended
@@ -128,7 +116,7 @@ CA +4901-08816 America/Nipigon Eastern Time - Ontario & Quebec - places that did
CA +4823-08915 America/Thunder_Bay Eastern Time - Thunder Bay, Ontario
CA +6344-06828 America/Iqaluit Eastern Time - east Nunavut - most locations
CA +6608-06544 America/Pangnirtung Eastern Time - Pangnirtung, Nunavut
-CA +744144-0944945 America/Resolute Central Standard Time - Resolute, Nunavut
+CA +744144-0944945 America/Resolute Central Time - Resolute, Nunavut
CA +484531-0913718 America/Atikokan Eastern Standard Time - Atikokan, Ontario and Southampton I, Nunavut
CA +624900-0920459 America/Rankin_Inlet Central Time - central Nunavut
CA +4953-09709 America/Winnipeg Central Time - Manitoba & west Ontario
@@ -153,13 +141,10 @@ CH +4723+00832 Europe/Zurich
CI +0519-00402 Africa/Abidjan
CK -2114-15946 Pacific/Rarotonga
CL -3327-07040 America/Santiago most locations
-CL -2709-10926 Pacific/Easter Easter Island & Sala y Gomez
+CL -2709-10926 Pacific/Easter Easter Island
CM +0403+00942 Africa/Douala
-CN +3114+12128 Asia/Shanghai east China - Beijing, Guangdong, Shanghai, etc.
-CN +4545+12641 Asia/Harbin Heilongjiang (except Mohe), Jilin
-CN +2934+10635 Asia/Chongqing central China - Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Shaanxi, Guizhou, etc.
-CN +4348+08735 Asia/Urumqi most of Tibet & Xinjiang
-CN +3929+07559 Asia/Kashgar west Tibet & Xinjiang
+CN +3114+12128 Asia/Shanghai Beijing Time
+CN +4348+08735 Asia/Urumqi Xinjiang Time
CO +0436-07405 America/Bogota
CR +0956-08405 America/Costa_Rica
CU +2308-08222 America/Havana
@@ -341,24 +326,26 @@ RE -2052+05528 Indian/Reunion
RO +4426+02606 Europe/Bucharest
RS +4450+02030 Europe/Belgrade
RU +5443+02030 Europe/Kaliningrad Moscow-01 - Kaliningrad
-RU +5545+03735 Europe/Moscow Moscow+00 - west Russia
-RU +4844+04425 Europe/Volgograd Moscow+00 - Caspian Sea
-RU +5312+05009 Europe/Samara Moscow+00 - Samara, Udmurtia
+RU +554521+0373704 Europe/Moscow Moscow+00 - west Russia
RU +4457+03406 Europe/Simferopol Moscow+00 - Crimea
+RU +4844+04425 Europe/Volgograd Moscow+00 - Caspian Sea
+RU +5312+05009 Europe/Samara Moscow+00 (Moscow+01 after 2014-10-26) - Samara, Udmurtia
RU +5651+06036 Asia/Yekaterinburg Moscow+02 - Urals
RU +5500+07324 Asia/Omsk Moscow+03 - west Siberia
RU +5502+08255 Asia/Novosibirsk Moscow+03 - Novosibirsk
-RU +5345+08707 Asia/Novokuznetsk Moscow+03 - Novokuznetsk
+RU +5345+08707 Asia/Novokuznetsk Moscow+03 (Moscow+04 after 2014-10-26) - Kemerovo
RU +5601+09250 Asia/Krasnoyarsk Moscow+04 - Yenisei River
RU +5216+10420 Asia/Irkutsk Moscow+05 - Lake Baikal
+RU +5203+11328 Asia/Chita Moscow+06 (Moscow+05 after 2014-10-26) - Zabaykalsky
RU +6200+12940 Asia/Yakutsk Moscow+06 - Lena River
RU +623923+1353314 Asia/Khandyga Moscow+06 - Tomponsky, Ust-Maysky
RU +4310+13156 Asia/Vladivostok Moscow+07 - Amur River
RU +4658+14242 Asia/Sakhalin Moscow+07 - Sakhalin Island
RU +643337+1431336 Asia/Ust-Nera Moscow+07 - Oymyakonsky
-RU +5934+15048 Asia/Magadan Moscow+08 - Magadan
-RU +5301+15839 Asia/Kamchatka Moscow+08 - Kamchatka
-RU +6445+17729 Asia/Anadyr Moscow+08 - Bering Sea
+RU +5934+15048 Asia/Magadan Moscow+08 (Moscow+07 after 2014-10-26) - Magadan
+RU +6728+15343 Asia/Srednekolymsk Moscow+08 - E Sakha, N Kuril Is
+RU +5301+15839 Asia/Kamchatka Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Kamchatka
+RU +6445+17729 Asia/Anadyr Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Bering Sea
RW -0157+03004 Africa/Kigali
SA +2438+04643 Asia/Riyadh
SB -0932+16012 Pacific/Guadalcanal
@@ -425,13 +412,13 @@ US +394421-1045903 America/Denver Mountain Time
US +433649-1161209 America/Boise Mountain Time - south Idaho & east Oregon
US +332654-1120424 America/Phoenix Mountain Standard Time - Arizona (except Navajo)
US +340308-1181434 America/Los_Angeles Pacific Time
+US +550737-1313435 America/Metlakatla Pacific Standard Time - Annette Island, Alaska
US +611305-1495401 America/Anchorage Alaska Time
US +581807-1342511 America/Juneau Alaska Time - Alaska panhandle
US +571035-1351807 America/Sitka Alaska Time - southeast Alaska panhandle
US +593249-1394338 America/Yakutat Alaska Time - Alaska panhandle neck
US +643004-1652423 America/Nome Alaska Time - west Alaska
US +515248-1763929 America/Adak Aleutian Islands
-US +550737-1313435 America/Metlakatla Metlakatla Time - Annette Island
US +211825-1575130 Pacific/Honolulu Hawaii
UY -3453-05611 America/Montevideo
UZ +3940+06648 Asia/Samarkand west Uzbekistan
diff --git a/zone1970.tab b/zone1970.tab
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c39380c97ef2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zone1970.tab
@@ -0,0 +1,369 @@
+# tz zone descriptions
+#
+# This file is in the public domain.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-31):
+# This file contains a table where each row stands for a zone where
+# civil time stamps have agreed since 1970. Columns are separated by
+# a single tab. Lines beginning with '#' are comments. All text uses
+# UTF-8 encoding. The columns of the table are as follows:
+#
+# 1. The countries that overlap the zone, as a comma-separated list
+# of ISO 3166 2-character country codes. See the file 'iso3166.tab'.
+# 2. Latitude and longitude of the zone's principal location
+# in ISO 6709 sign-degrees-minutes-seconds format,
+# either +-DDMM+-DDDMM or +-DDMMSS+-DDDMMSS,
+# first latitude (+ is north), then longitude (+ is east).
+# 3. Zone name used in value of TZ environment variable.
+# Please see the 'Theory' file for how zone names are chosen.
+# If multiple zones overlap a country, each has a row in the
+# table, with each column 1 containing the country code.
+# 4. Comments; present if and only if a country has multiple zones.
+#
+# If a zone covers multiple countries, the most-populous city is used,
+# and that country is listed first in column 1; any other countries
+# are listed alphabetically by country code. The table is sorted
+# first by country code, then (if possible) by an order within the
+# country that (1) makes some geographical sense, and (2) puts the
+# most populous zones first, where that does not contradict (1).
+#
+# This table is intended as an aid for users, to help them select time
+# zone data appropriate for their practical needs. It is not intended
+# to take or endorse any position on legal or territorial claims.
+#
+#country-
+#codes coordinates TZ comments
+AD +4230+00131 Europe/Andorra
+AE,OM +2518+05518 Asia/Dubai
+AF +3431+06912 Asia/Kabul
+AL +4120+01950 Europe/Tirane
+AM +4011+04430 Asia/Yerevan
+AQ -6734-06808 Antarctica/Rothera Rothera Station, Adelaide Island
+AQ -6448-06406 Antarctica/Palmer Palmer Station, Anvers Island
+AQ -6736+06253 Antarctica/Mawson Mawson Station, Holme Bay
+AQ -6835+07758 Antarctica/Davis Davis Station, Vestfold Hills
+AQ -6617+11031 Antarctica/Casey Casey Station, Bailey Peninsula
+AQ -7824+10654 Antarctica/Vostok Vostok Station, Lake Vostok
+AQ -6640+14001 Antarctica/DumontDUrville Dumont-d'Urville Station, Terre Adelie
+AQ -690022+0393524 Antarctica/Syowa Syowa Station, E Ongul I
+AQ -720041+0023206 Antarctica/Troll Troll Station, Queen Maud Land
+AR -3436-05827 America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires Buenos Aires (BA, CF)
+AR -3124-06411 America/Argentina/Cordoba most locations (CB, CC, CN, ER, FM, MN, SE, SF)
+AR -2447-06525 America/Argentina/Salta (SA, LP, NQ, RN)
+AR -2411-06518 America/Argentina/Jujuy Jujuy (JY)
+AR -2649-06513 America/Argentina/Tucuman Tucumán (TM)
+AR -2828-06547 America/Argentina/Catamarca Catamarca (CT), Chubut (CH)
+AR -2926-06651 America/Argentina/La_Rioja La Rioja (LR)
+AR -3132-06831 America/Argentina/San_Juan San Juan (SJ)
+AR -3253-06849 America/Argentina/Mendoza Mendoza (MZ)
+AR -3319-06621 America/Argentina/San_Luis San Luis (SL)
+AR -5138-06913 America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos Santa Cruz (SC)
+AR -5448-06818 America/Argentina/Ushuaia Tierra del Fuego (TF)
+AS,UM -1416-17042 Pacific/Pago_Pago Samoa, Midway
+AT +4813+01620 Europe/Vienna
+AU -3133+15905 Australia/Lord_Howe Lord Howe Island
+AU -5430+15857 Antarctica/Macquarie Macquarie Island
+AU -4253+14719 Australia/Hobart Tasmania - most locations
+AU -3956+14352 Australia/Currie Tasmania - King Island
+AU -3749+14458 Australia/Melbourne Victoria
+AU -3352+15113 Australia/Sydney New South Wales - most locations
+AU -3157+14127 Australia/Broken_Hill New South Wales - Yancowinna
+AU -2728+15302 Australia/Brisbane Queensland - most locations
+AU -2016+14900 Australia/Lindeman Queensland - Holiday Islands
+AU -3455+13835 Australia/Adelaide South Australia
+AU -1228+13050 Australia/Darwin Northern Territory
+AU -3157+11551 Australia/Perth Western Australia - most locations
+AU -3143+12852 Australia/Eucla Western Australia - Eucla area
+AZ +4023+04951 Asia/Baku
+BB +1306-05937 America/Barbados
+BD +2343+09025 Asia/Dhaka
+BE +5050+00420 Europe/Brussels
+BG +4241+02319 Europe/Sofia
+BM +3217-06446 Atlantic/Bermuda
+BN +0456+11455 Asia/Brunei
+BO -1630-06809 America/La_Paz
+BR -0351-03225 America/Noronha Atlantic islands
+BR -0127-04829 America/Belem Amapá, E Pará
+BR -0343-03830 America/Fortaleza NE Brazil (MA, PI, CE, RN, PB)
+BR -0803-03454 America/Recife Pernambuco
+BR -0712-04812 America/Araguaina Tocantins
+BR -0940-03543 America/Maceio Alagoas, Sergipe
+BR -1259-03831 America/Bahia Bahia
+BR -2332-04637 America/Sao_Paulo S & SE Brazil (GO, DF, MG, ES, RJ, SP, PR, SC, RS)
+BR -2027-05437 America/Campo_Grande Mato Grosso do Sul
+BR -1535-05605 America/Cuiaba Mato Grosso
+BR -0226-05452 America/Santarem W Pará
+BR -0846-06354 America/Porto_Velho Rondônia
+BR +0249-06040 America/Boa_Vista Roraima
+BR -0308-06001 America/Manaus E Amazonas
+BR -0640-06952 America/Eirunepe W Amazonas
+BR -0958-06748 America/Rio_Branco Acre
+BS +2505-07721 America/Nassau
+BT +2728+08939 Asia/Thimphu
+BY +5354+02734 Europe/Minsk
+BZ +1730-08812 America/Belize
+CA +4734-05243 America/St_Johns Newfoundland Time, including SE Labrador
+CA +4439-06336 America/Halifax Atlantic Time - Nova Scotia (most places), PEI
+CA +4612-05957 America/Glace_Bay Atlantic Time - Nova Scotia - places that did not observe DST 1966-1971
+CA +4606-06447 America/Moncton Atlantic Time - New Brunswick
+CA +5320-06025 America/Goose_Bay Atlantic Time - Labrador - most locations
+CA +5125-05707 America/Blanc-Sablon Atlantic Standard Time - Quebec - Lower North Shore
+CA +4339-07923 America/Toronto Eastern Time - Ontario & Quebec - most locations
+CA +4901-08816 America/Nipigon Eastern Time - Ontario & Quebec - places that did not observe DST 1967-1973
+CA +4823-08915 America/Thunder_Bay Eastern Time - Thunder Bay, Ontario
+CA +6344-06828 America/Iqaluit Eastern Time - east Nunavut - most locations
+CA +6608-06544 America/Pangnirtung Eastern Time - Pangnirtung, Nunavut
+CA +744144-0944945 America/Resolute Central Time - Resolute, Nunavut
+CA +484531-0913718 America/Atikokan Eastern Standard Time - Atikokan, Ontario and Southampton I, Nunavut
+CA +624900-0920459 America/Rankin_Inlet Central Time - central Nunavut
+CA +4953-09709 America/Winnipeg Central Time - Manitoba & west Ontario
+CA +4843-09434 America/Rainy_River Central Time - Rainy River & Fort Frances, Ontario
+CA +5024-10439 America/Regina Central Standard Time - Saskatchewan - most locations
+CA +5017-10750 America/Swift_Current Central Standard Time - Saskatchewan - midwest
+CA +5333-11328 America/Edmonton Mountain Time - Alberta, east British Columbia & west Saskatchewan
+CA +690650-1050310 America/Cambridge_Bay Mountain Time - west Nunavut
+CA +6227-11421 America/Yellowknife Mountain Time - central Northwest Territories
+CA +682059-1334300 America/Inuvik Mountain Time - west Northwest Territories
+CA +4906-11631 America/Creston Mountain Standard Time - Creston, British Columbia
+CA +5946-12014 America/Dawson_Creek Mountain Standard Time - Dawson Creek & Fort Saint John, British Columbia
+CA +4916-12307 America/Vancouver Pacific Time - west British Columbia
+CA +6043-13503 America/Whitehorse Pacific Time - south Yukon
+CA +6404-13925 America/Dawson Pacific Time - north Yukon
+CC -1210+09655 Indian/Cocos
+CH,DE,LI +4723+00832 Europe/Zurich Swiss time
+CI,BF,GM,GN,ML,MR,SH,SL,SN,ST,TG +0519-00402 Africa/Abidjan
+CK -2114-15946 Pacific/Rarotonga
+CL -3327-07040 America/Santiago most locations
+CL -2709-10926 Pacific/Easter Easter Island
+CN +3114+12128 Asia/Shanghai Beijing Time
+CN +4348+08735 Asia/Urumqi Xinjiang Time
+CO +0436-07405 America/Bogota
+CR +0956-08405 America/Costa_Rica
+CU +2308-08222 America/Havana
+CV +1455-02331 Atlantic/Cape_Verde
+CW,AW,BQ,SX +1211-06900 America/Curacao
+CX -1025+10543 Indian/Christmas
+CY +3510+03322 Asia/Nicosia
+CZ,SK +5005+01426 Europe/Prague
+DE +5230+01322 Europe/Berlin Berlin time
+DK +5540+01235 Europe/Copenhagen
+DO +1828-06954 America/Santo_Domingo
+DZ +3647+00303 Africa/Algiers
+EC -0210-07950 America/Guayaquil mainland
+EC -0054-08936 Pacific/Galapagos Galápagos Islands
+EE +5925+02445 Europe/Tallinn
+EG +3003+03115 Africa/Cairo
+EH +2709-01312 Africa/El_Aaiun
+ES +4024-00341 Europe/Madrid mainland
+ES +3553-00519 Africa/Ceuta Ceuta & Melilla
+ES +2806-01524 Atlantic/Canary Canary Islands
+FI,AX +6010+02458 Europe/Helsinki
+FJ -1808+17825 Pacific/Fiji
+FK -5142-05751 Atlantic/Stanley
+FM +0725+15147 Pacific/Chuuk Chuuk (Truk) and Yap
+FM +0658+15813 Pacific/Pohnpei Pohnpei (Ponape)
+FM +0519+16259 Pacific/Kosrae Kosrae
+FO +6201-00646 Atlantic/Faroe
+FR +4852+00220 Europe/Paris
+GB,GG,IM,JE +513030-0000731 Europe/London
+GE +4143+04449 Asia/Tbilisi
+GF +0456-05220 America/Cayenne
+GH +0533-00013 Africa/Accra
+GI +3608-00521 Europe/Gibraltar
+GL +6411-05144 America/Godthab most locations
+GL +7646-01840 America/Danmarkshavn east coast, north of Scoresbysund
+GL +7029-02158 America/Scoresbysund Scoresbysund / Ittoqqortoormiit
+GL +7634-06847 America/Thule Thule / Pituffik
+GR +3758+02343 Europe/Athens
+GS -5416-03632 Atlantic/South_Georgia
+GT +1438-09031 America/Guatemala
+GU,MP +1328+14445 Pacific/Guam
+GW +1151-01535 Africa/Bissau
+GY +0648-05810 America/Guyana
+HK +2217+11409 Asia/Hong_Kong
+HN +1406-08713 America/Tegucigalpa
+HT +1832-07220 America/Port-au-Prince
+HU +4730+01905 Europe/Budapest
+ID -0610+10648 Asia/Jakarta Java & Sumatra
+ID -0002+10920 Asia/Pontianak west & central Borneo
+ID -0507+11924 Asia/Makassar east & south Borneo, Sulawesi (Celebes), Bali, Nusa Tengarra, west Timor
+ID -0232+14042 Asia/Jayapura west New Guinea (Irian Jaya) & Malukus (Moluccas)
+IE +5320-00615 Europe/Dublin
+IL +314650+0351326 Asia/Jerusalem
+IN +2232+08822 Asia/Kolkata
+IO -0720+07225 Indian/Chagos
+IQ +3321+04425 Asia/Baghdad
+IR +3540+05126 Asia/Tehran
+IS +6409-02151 Atlantic/Reykjavik
+IT,SM,VA +4154+01229 Europe/Rome
+JM +175805-0764736 America/Jamaica
+JO +3157+03556 Asia/Amman
+JP +353916+1394441 Asia/Tokyo
+KE,DJ,ER,ET,KM,MG,SO,TZ,UG,YT -0117+03649 Africa/Nairobi
+KG +4254+07436 Asia/Bishkek
+KI +0125+17300 Pacific/Tarawa Gilbert Islands
+KI -0308-17105 Pacific/Enderbury Phoenix Islands
+KI +0152-15720 Pacific/Kiritimati Line Islands
+KP +3901+12545 Asia/Pyongyang
+KR +3733+12658 Asia/Seoul
+KZ +4315+07657 Asia/Almaty most locations
+KZ +4448+06528 Asia/Qyzylorda Qyzylorda (Kyzylorda, Kzyl-Orda)
+KZ +5017+05710 Asia/Aqtobe Aqtobe (Aktobe)
+KZ +4431+05016 Asia/Aqtau Atyrau (Atirau, Gur'yev), Mangghystau (Mankistau)
+KZ +5113+05121 Asia/Oral West Kazakhstan
+LB +3353+03530 Asia/Beirut
+LK +0656+07951 Asia/Colombo
+LR +0618-01047 Africa/Monrovia
+LT +5441+02519 Europe/Vilnius
+LU +4936+00609 Europe/Luxembourg
+LV +5657+02406 Europe/Riga
+LY +3254+01311 Africa/Tripoli
+MA +3339-00735 Africa/Casablanca
+MC +4342+00723 Europe/Monaco
+MD +4700+02850 Europe/Chisinau
+MH +0709+17112 Pacific/Majuro most locations
+MH +0905+16720 Pacific/Kwajalein Kwajalein
+MM +1647+09610 Asia/Rangoon
+MN +4755+10653 Asia/Ulaanbaatar most locations
+MN +4801+09139 Asia/Hovd Bayan-Ölgii, Govi-Altai, Hovd, Uvs, Zavkhan
+MN +4804+11430 Asia/Choibalsan Dornod, Sükhbaatar
+MO +2214+11335 Asia/Macau
+MQ +1436-06105 America/Martinique
+MT +3554+01431 Europe/Malta
+MU -2010+05730 Indian/Mauritius
+MV +0410+07330 Indian/Maldives
+MX +1924-09909 America/Mexico_City Central Time - most locations
+MX +2105-08646 America/Cancun Central Time - Quintana Roo
+MX +2058-08937 America/Merida Central Time - Campeche, Yucatán
+MX +2540-10019 America/Monterrey Mexican Central Time - Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas away from US border
+MX +2550-09730 America/Matamoros US Central Time - Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas near US border
+MX +2313-10625 America/Mazatlan Mountain Time - S Baja, Nayarit, Sinaloa
+MX +2838-10605 America/Chihuahua Mexican Mountain Time - Chihuahua away from US border
+MX +2934-10425 America/Ojinaga US Mountain Time - Chihuahua near US border
+MX +2904-11058 America/Hermosillo Mountain Standard Time - Sonora
+MX +3232-11701 America/Tijuana US Pacific Time - Baja California near US border
+MX +3018-11452 America/Santa_Isabel Mexican Pacific Time - Baja California away from US border
+MX +2048-10515 America/Bahia_Banderas Mexican Central Time - Bahía de Banderas
+MY +0310+10142 Asia/Kuala_Lumpur peninsular Malaysia
+MY +0133+11020 Asia/Kuching Sabah & Sarawak
+MZ,BI,BW,CD,MW,RW,ZM,ZW -2558+03235 Africa/Maputo Central Africa Time (UTC+2)
+NA -2234+01706 Africa/Windhoek
+NC -2216+16627 Pacific/Noumea
+NF -2903+16758 Pacific/Norfolk
+NG,AO,BJ,CD,CF,CG,CM,GA,GQ,NE +0627+00324 Africa/Lagos West Africa Time (UTC+1)
+NI +1209-08617 America/Managua
+NL +5222+00454 Europe/Amsterdam
+NO,SJ +5955+01045 Europe/Oslo
+NP +2743+08519 Asia/Kathmandu
+NR -0031+16655 Pacific/Nauru
+NU -1901-16955 Pacific/Niue
+NZ,AQ -3652+17446 Pacific/Auckland New Zealand time
+NZ -4357-17633 Pacific/Chatham Chatham Islands
+PA,KY +0858-07932 America/Panama
+PE -1203-07703 America/Lima
+PF -1732-14934 Pacific/Tahiti Society Islands
+PF -0900-13930 Pacific/Marquesas Marquesas Islands
+PF -2308-13457 Pacific/Gambier Gambier Islands
+PG -0930+14710 Pacific/Port_Moresby
+PH +1435+12100 Asia/Manila
+PK +2452+06703 Asia/Karachi
+PL +5215+02100 Europe/Warsaw
+PM +4703-05620 America/Miquelon
+PN -2504-13005 Pacific/Pitcairn
+PR +182806-0660622 America/Puerto_Rico
+PS +3130+03428 Asia/Gaza Gaza Strip
+PS +313200+0350542 Asia/Hebron West Bank
+PT +3843-00908 Europe/Lisbon mainland
+PT +3238-01654 Atlantic/Madeira Madeira Islands
+PT +3744-02540 Atlantic/Azores Azores
+PW +0720+13429 Pacific/Palau
+PY -2516-05740 America/Asuncion
+QA,BH +2517+05132 Asia/Qatar
+RE,TF -2052+05528 Indian/Reunion Réunion, Crozet Is, Scattered Is
+RO +4426+02606 Europe/Bucharest
+RS,BA,HR,ME,MK,SI +4450+02030 Europe/Belgrade
+RU +5443+02030 Europe/Kaliningrad Moscow-01 - Kaliningrad
+RU +554521+0373704 Europe/Moscow Moscow+00 - west Russia
+RU +4457+03406 Europe/Simferopol Moscow+00 - Crimea
+RU +4844+04425 Europe/Volgograd Moscow+00 - Caspian Sea
+RU +5312+05009 Europe/Samara Moscow+00 (Moscow+01 after 2014-10-26) - Samara, Udmurtia
+RU +5651+06036 Asia/Yekaterinburg Moscow+02 - Urals
+RU +5500+07324 Asia/Omsk Moscow+03 - west Siberia
+RU +5502+08255 Asia/Novosibirsk Moscow+03 - Novosibirsk
+RU +5345+08707 Asia/Novokuznetsk Moscow+03 (Moscow+04 after 2014-10-26) - Kemerovo
+RU +5601+09250 Asia/Krasnoyarsk Moscow+04 - Yenisei River
+RU +5216+10420 Asia/Irkutsk Moscow+05 - Lake Baikal
+RU +5203+11328 Asia/Chita Moscow+06 (Moscow+05 after 2014-10-26) - Zabaykalsky
+RU +6200+12940 Asia/Yakutsk Moscow+06 - Lena River
+RU +623923+1353314 Asia/Khandyga Moscow+06 - Tomponsky, Ust-Maysky
+RU +4310+13156 Asia/Vladivostok Moscow+07 - Amur River
+RU +4658+14242 Asia/Sakhalin Moscow+07 - Sakhalin Island
+RU +643337+1431336 Asia/Ust-Nera Moscow+07 - Oymyakonsky
+RU +5934+15048 Asia/Magadan Moscow+08 (Moscow+07 after 2014-10-26) - Magadan
+RU +6728+15343 Asia/Srednekolymsk Moscow+08 - E Sakha, N Kuril Is
+RU +5301+15839 Asia/Kamchatka Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Kamchatka
+RU +6445+17729 Asia/Anadyr Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Bering Sea
+SA,KW,YE +2438+04643 Asia/Riyadh
+SB -0932+16012 Pacific/Guadalcanal
+SC -0440+05528 Indian/Mahe
+SD,SS +1536+03232 Africa/Khartoum
+SE +5920+01803 Europe/Stockholm
+SG +0117+10351 Asia/Singapore
+SR +0550-05510 America/Paramaribo
+SV +1342-08912 America/El_Salvador
+SY +3330+03618 Asia/Damascus
+TC +2128-07108 America/Grand_Turk
+TD +1207+01503 Africa/Ndjamena
+TF -492110+0701303 Indian/Kerguelen Kerguelen, St Paul I, Amsterdam I
+TH,KH,LA,VN +1345+10031 Asia/Bangkok
+TJ +3835+06848 Asia/Dushanbe
+TK -0922-17114 Pacific/Fakaofo
+TL -0833+12535 Asia/Dili
+TM +3757+05823 Asia/Ashgabat
+TN +3648+01011 Africa/Tunis
+TO -2110-17510 Pacific/Tongatapu
+TR +4101+02858 Europe/Istanbul
+TT,AG,AI,BL,DM,GD,GP,MF,LC,KN,MS,VC,VG,VI +1039-06131 America/Port_of_Spain
+TV -0831+17913 Pacific/Funafuti
+TW +2503+12130 Asia/Taipei
+UA +5026+03031 Europe/Kiev most locations
+UA +4837+02218 Europe/Uzhgorod Ruthenia
+UA +4750+03510 Europe/Zaporozhye Zaporozh'ye, E Lugansk / Zaporizhia, E Luhansk
+UM +1917+16637 Pacific/Wake Wake Island
+US +404251-0740023 America/New_York Eastern Time
+US +421953-0830245 America/Detroit Eastern Time - Michigan - most locations
+US +381515-0854534 America/Kentucky/Louisville Eastern Time - Kentucky - Louisville area
+US +364947-0845057 America/Kentucky/Monticello Eastern Time - Kentucky - Wayne County
+US +394606-0860929 America/Indiana/Indianapolis Eastern Time - Indiana - most locations
+US +384038-0873143 America/Indiana/Vincennes Eastern Time - Indiana - Daviess, Dubois, Knox & Martin Counties
+US +410305-0863611 America/Indiana/Winamac Eastern Time - Indiana - Pulaski County
+US +382232-0862041 America/Indiana/Marengo Eastern Time - Indiana - Crawford County
+US +382931-0871643 America/Indiana/Petersburg Eastern Time - Indiana - Pike County
+US +384452-0850402 America/Indiana/Vevay Eastern Time - Indiana - Switzerland County
+US +415100-0873900 America/Chicago Central Time
+US +375711-0864541 America/Indiana/Tell_City Central Time - Indiana - Perry County
+US +411745-0863730 America/Indiana/Knox Central Time - Indiana - Starke County
+US +450628-0873651 America/Menominee Central Time - Michigan - Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron & Menominee Counties
+US +470659-1011757 America/North_Dakota/Center Central Time - North Dakota - Oliver County
+US +465042-1012439 America/North_Dakota/New_Salem Central Time - North Dakota - Morton County (except Mandan area)
+US +471551-1014640 America/North_Dakota/Beulah Central Time - North Dakota - Mercer County
+US +394421-1045903 America/Denver Mountain Time
+US +433649-1161209 America/Boise Mountain Time - south Idaho & east Oregon
+US +332654-1120424 America/Phoenix Mountain Standard Time - Arizona (except Navajo)
+US +340308-1181434 America/Los_Angeles Pacific Time
+US +550737-1313435 America/Metlakatla Pacific Standard Time - Annette Island, Alaska
+US +611305-1495401 America/Anchorage Alaska Time
+US +581807-1342511 America/Juneau Alaska Time - Alaska panhandle
+US +571035-1351807 America/Sitka Alaska Time - southeast Alaska panhandle
+US +593249-1394338 America/Yakutat Alaska Time - Alaska panhandle neck
+US +643004-1652423 America/Nome Alaska Time - west Alaska
+US +515248-1763929 America/Adak Aleutian Islands
+US,UM +211825-1575130 Pacific/Honolulu Hawaii time
+UY -3453-05611 America/Montevideo
+UZ +3940+06648 Asia/Samarkand west Uzbekistan
+UZ +4120+06918 Asia/Tashkent east Uzbekistan
+VE +1030-06656 America/Caracas
+VU -1740+16825 Pacific/Efate
+WF -1318-17610 Pacific/Wallis
+WS -1350-17144 Pacific/Apia
+ZA,LS,SZ -2615+02800 Africa/Johannesburg