aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorRuslan Ermilov <ru@FreeBSD.org>2006-09-21 07:54:02 +0000
committerRuslan Ermilov <ru@FreeBSD.org>2006-09-21 07:54:02 +0000
commit89de143f92a0fd3a48318d867151651150ee2ce5 (patch)
tree55520b070a287e03c4f13525fea22651f4931047
parent932b1e2fe869d3139ade8cc800912f254347187e (diff)
downloadsrc-89de143f92a0fd3a48318d867151651150ee2ce5.tar.gz
src-89de143f92a0fd3a48318d867151651150ee2ce5.zip
These files live in the doc/ subdir in later releases of GCC.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/gcc/dist/; revision=162512
-rw-r--r--contrib/gcc/cpp.11
-rw-r--r--contrib/gcc/gcc.14191
2 files changed, 0 insertions, 4192 deletions
diff --git a/contrib/gcc/cpp.1 b/contrib/gcc/cpp.1
deleted file mode 100644
index 54c4dfb19832..000000000000
--- a/contrib/gcc/cpp.1
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1 +0,0 @@
-.so man1/cccp.1
diff --git a/contrib/gcc/gcc.1 b/contrib/gcc/gcc.1
deleted file mode 100644
index 74200a1a169e..000000000000
--- a/contrib/gcc/gcc.1
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,4191 +0,0 @@
-.\" Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 Free Software Foundation -*-Text-*-
-.\" See section COPYING for conditions for redistribution
-.\"
-.\" Set up \*(lq, \*(rq if -man hasn't already set it up.
-.if @@\*(lq@ \{\
-. ds lq "
-. if t .ds lq ``
-. if !@@\(lq@ .ds lq "\(lq
-.\}
-.if @@\*(rq@ \{\
-. ds rq "
-. if t .ds rq ''
-. if !@@\(rq@ .ds rq "\(rq
-.\}
-.de Id
-.ds Rv \\$3
-.ds Dt \\$4
-..
-.de Sp
-.if n .sp
-.if t .sp 0.4
-..
-.Id $Id: gcc.1,v 1.9 1998/12/16 20:55:57 law Exp $
-.TH GCC 1 "\*(Dt" "GNU Tools" "GNU Tools"
-.SH NAME
-gcc, g++ \- GNU project C and C++ Compiler (gcc-2.95)
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B gcc
-.RI "[ " option " | " filename " ].\|.\|."
-.br
-.B g++
-.RI "[ " option " | " filename " ].\|.\|."
-.SH WARNING
-The information in this man page is an extract from the full
-documentation of the GNU C compiler, and is limited to the meaning of
-the options.
-.PP
-This man page is not kept up to date except when volunteers want to
-maintain it. If you find a discrepancy between the man page and the
-software, please check the Info file, which is the authoritative
-documentation.
-.PP
-If we find that the things in this man page that are out of date cause
-significant confusion or complaints, we will stop distributing the man
-page. The alternative, updating the man page when we update the Info
-file, is impossible because the rest of the work of maintaining GNU CC
-leaves us no time for that. The GNU project regards man pages as
-obsolete and should not let them take time away from other things.
-.PP
-For complete and current documentation, refer to the Info file `\|\c
-.B gcc\c
-\&\|' or the manual
-.I
-Using and Porting GNU CC (for version 2.0)\c
-\&. Both are made from the Texinfo source file
-.BR gcc.texinfo .
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-The C and C++ compilers are integrated. Both process input files
-through one or more of four stages: preprocessing, compilation,
-assembly, and linking. Source filename suffixes identify the source
-language, but which name you use for the compiler governs default
-assumptions:
-.TP
-.B gcc
-assumes preprocessed (\c
-.B .i\c
-\&) files are C and assumes C style linking.
-.TP
-.B g++
-assumes preprocessed (\c
-.B .i\c
-\&) files are C++ and assumes C++ style linking.
-.PP
-Suffixes of source file names indicate the language and kind of
-processing to be done:
-.Sp
-.nf
-.ta \w'\fB.cxx\fP 'u
-\&\fB.c\fP C source; preprocess, compile, assemble
-\&\fB.C\fP C++ source; preprocess, compile, assemble
-\&\fB.cc\fP C++ source; preprocess, compile, assemble
-\&\fB.cxx\fP C++ source; preprocess, compile, assemble
-\&\fB.m\fP Objective-C source; preprocess, compile, assemble
-\&\fB.i\fP preprocessed C; compile, assemble
-\&\fB.ii\fP preprocessed C++; compile, assemble
-\&\fB.s\fP Assembler source; assemble
-\&\fB.S\fP Assembler source; preprocess, assemble
-\&\fB.h\fP Preprocessor file; not usually named on command line
-.Sp
-.fi
-Files with other suffixes are passed to the linker. Common cases include:
-.Sp
-.nf
-\&\fB.o\fP Object file
-\&\fB.a\fP Archive file
-.br
-.fi
-.Sp
-Linking is always the last stage unless you use one of the
-.BR \-c ,
-.BR \-S ,
-or
-.B \-E
-options to avoid it (or unless compilation errors stop the whole
-process). For the link stage, all
-.B .o
-files corresponding to source files,
-.B \-l
-libraries, unrecognized filenames (including named
-.B .o
-object files and
-.B .a
-archives)
-are passed to the linker in command-line order.
-.SH OPTIONS
-Options must be separate: `\|\c
-.B \-dr\c
-\&\|' is quite different from `\|\c
-.B \-d \-r
-\&\|'.
-.PP
-Most `\|\c
-.B \-f\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-W\c
-\&\|' options have two contrary forms:
-.BI \-f name
-and
-.BI \-fno\- name\c
-\& (or
-.BI \-W name
-and
-.BI \-Wno\- name\c
-\&). Only the non-default forms are shown here.
-.PP
-Here is a summary of all the options, grouped by type. Explanations are
-in the following sections.
-.hy 0
-.na
-.TP
-.B Overall Options
-.br
-\-c
-\-S
-\-E
-.RI "\-o " file
-\-pipe
-\-v
-.RI "\-x " language
-.TP
-.B Language Options
-\-ansi
-\-fall\-virtual
-\-fcond\-mismatch
-\-fdollars\-in\-identifiers
-\-fenum\-int\-equiv
-\-fexternal\-templates
-\-fno\-asm
-\-fno\-builtin
-\-fhosted
-\-fno\-hosted
-\-ffreestanding
-\-fno\-freestanding
-\-fno\-strict\-prototype
-\-fsigned\-bitfields
-\-fsigned\-char
-\-fthis\-is\-variable
-\-funsigned\-bitfields
-\-funsigned\-char
-\-fwritable\-strings
-\-traditional
-\-traditional\-cpp
-\-trigraphs
-.TP
-.B Warning Options
-\-fsyntax\-only
-\-pedantic
-\-pedantic\-errors
-\-w
-\-W
-\-Wall
-\-Waggregate\-return
-\-Wcast\-align
-\-Wcast\-qual
-\-Wchar\-subscript
-\-Wcomment
-\-Wconversion
-\-Wenum\-clash
-\-Werror
-\-Wformat
-.RI \-Wid\-clash\- len
-\-Wimplicit
-\-Wimplicit\-int
-\-Wimplicit\-function\-declaration
-\-Winline
-\-Wlong\-long
-\-Wmain
-\-Wmissing\-prototypes
-\-Wmissing\-declarations
-\-Wnested\-externs
-\-Wno\-import
-\-Wparentheses
-\-Wpointer\-arith
-\-Wredundant\-decls
-\-Wreturn\-type
-\-Wshadow
-\-Wstrict\-prototypes
-\-Wswitch
-\-Wtemplate\-debugging
-\-Wtraditional
-\-Wtrigraphs
-\-Wuninitialized
-\-Wunused
-\-Wwrite\-strings
-.TP
-.B Debugging Options
-\-a
-.RI \-d letters
-\-fpretend\-float
-\-g
-.RI \-g level
-\-gcoff
-\-gxcoff
-\-gxcoff+
-\-gdwarf
-\-gdwarf+
-\-gstabs
-\-gstabs+
-\-ggdb
-\-p
-\-pg
-\-save\-temps
-.RI \-print\-file\-name= library
-\-print\-libgcc\-file\-name
-.RI \-print\-prog\-name= program
-.TP
-.B Optimization Options
-\-fcaller\-saves
-\-fcse\-follow\-jumps
-\-fcse\-skip\-blocks
-\-fdelayed\-branch
-\-felide\-constructors
-\-fexpensive\-optimizations
-\-ffast\-math
-\-ffloat\-store
-\-fforce\-addr
-\-fforce\-mem
-\-finline\-functions
-\-fkeep\-inline\-functions
-\-fmemoize\-lookups
-\-fno\-default\-inline
-\-fno\-defer\-pop
-\-fno\-function\-cse
-\-fno\-inline
-\-fno\-peephole
-\-fomit\-frame\-pointer
-\-frerun\-cse\-after\-loop
-\-fschedule\-insns
-\-fschedule\-insns2
-\-fstrength\-reduce
-\-fthread\-jumps
-\-funroll\-all\-loops
-\-funroll\-loops
-\-O
-\-O2
-\-O3
-.TP
-.B Preprocessor Options
-.RI \-A assertion
-\-C
-\-dD
-\-dM
-\-dN
-.RI \-D macro [\|= defn \|]
-\-E
-\-H
-.RI "\-idirafter " dir
-.RI "\-include " file
-.RI "\-imacros " file
-.RI "\-iprefix " file
-.RI "\-iwithprefix " dir
-\-M
-\-MD
-\-MM
-\-MMD
-\-nostdinc
-\-P
-.RI \-U macro
-\-undef
-.TP
-.B Assembler Option
-.RI \-Wa, option
-.TP
-.B Linker Options
-.RI \-l library
-\-nostartfiles
-\-nostdlib
-\-static
-\-shared
-\-symbolic
-.RI "\-Xlinker\ " option
-.RI \-Wl, option
-.RI "\-u " symbol
-.TP
-.B Directory Options
-.RI \-B prefix
-.RI \-I dir
-\-I\-
-.RI \-L dir
-.TP
-.B Target Options
-.RI "\-b " machine
-.RI "\-V " version
-.TP
-.B Configuration Dependent Options
-.I M680x0\ Options
-.br
-\-m68000
-\-m68020
-\-m68020\-40
-\-m68030
-\-m68040
-\-m68881
-\-mbitfield
-\-mc68000
-\-mc68020
-\-mfpa
-\-mnobitfield
-\-mrtd
-\-mshort
-\-msoft\-float
-.Sp
-.I VAX Options
-.br
-\-mg
-\-mgnu
-\-munix
-.Sp
-.I SPARC Options
-.br
-\-mepilogue
-\-mfpu
-\-mhard\-float
-\-mno\-fpu
-\-mno\-epilogue
-\-msoft\-float
-\-msparclite
-\-mv8
-\-msupersparc
-\-mcypress
-.Sp
-.I Convex Options
-.br
-\-margcount
-\-mc1
-\-mc2
-\-mnoargcount
-.Sp
-.I AMD29K Options
-.br
-\-m29000
-\-m29050
-\-mbw
-\-mdw
-\-mkernel\-registers
-\-mlarge
-\-mnbw
-\-mnodw
-\-msmall
-\-mstack\-check
-\-muser\-registers
-.Sp
-.I M88K Options
-.br
-\-m88000
-\-m88100
-\-m88110
-\-mbig\-pic
-\-mcheck\-zero\-division
-\-mhandle\-large\-shift
-\-midentify\-revision
-\-mno\-check\-zero\-division
-\-mno\-ocs\-debug\-info
-\-mno\-ocs\-frame\-position
-\-mno\-optimize\-arg\-area
-\-mno\-serialize\-volatile
-\-mno\-underscores
-\-mocs\-debug\-info
-\-mocs\-frame\-position
-\-moptimize\-arg\-area
-\-mserialize\-volatile
-.RI \-mshort\-data\- num
-\-msvr3
-\-msvr4
-\-mtrap\-large\-shift
-\-muse\-div\-instruction
-\-mversion\-03.00
-\-mwarn\-passed\-structs
-.Sp
-.I RS6000 Options
-.br
-\-mfp\-in\-toc
-\-mno\-fop\-in\-toc
-.Sp
-.I RT Options
-.br
-\-mcall\-lib\-mul
-\-mfp\-arg\-in\-fpregs
-\-mfp\-arg\-in\-gregs
-\-mfull\-fp\-blocks
-\-mhc\-struct\-return
-\-min\-line\-mul
-\-mminimum\-fp\-blocks
-\-mnohc\-struct\-return
-.Sp
-.I MIPS Options
-.br
-\-mcpu=\fIcpu type\fP
-\-mips2
-\-mips3
-\-mint64
-\-mlong64
-\-mlonglong128
-\-mmips\-as
-\-mgas
-\-mrnames
-\-mno\-rnames
-\-mgpopt
-\-mno\-gpopt
-\-mstats
-\-mno\-stats
-\-mmemcpy
-\-mno\-memcpy
-\-mno\-mips\-tfile
-\-mmips\-tfile
-\-msoft\-float
-\-mhard\-float
-\-mabicalls
-\-mno\-abicalls
-\-mhalf\-pic
-\-mno\-half\-pic
-\-G \fInum\fP
-\-nocpp
-.Sp
-.I i386 Options
-.br
-\-m486
-\-mno\-486
-\-msoft\-float
-\-mno\-fp\-ret\-in\-387
-.Sp
-.I HPPA Options
-.br
-\-mpa\-risc\-1\-0
-\-mpa\-risc\-1\-1
-\-mkernel
-\-mshared\-libs
-\-mno\-shared\-libs
-\-mlong\-calls
-\-mdisable\-fpregs
-\-mdisable\-indexing
-\-mtrailing\-colon
-.Sp
-.I i960 Options
-.br
-\-m\fIcpu-type\fP
-\-mnumerics
-\-msoft\-float
-\-mleaf\-procedures
-\-mno\-leaf\-procedures
-\-mtail\-call
-\-mno\-tail\-call
-\-mcomplex\-addr
-\-mno\-complex\-addr
-\-mcode\-align
-\-mno\-code\-align
-\-mic\-compat
-\-mic2.0\-compat
-\-mic3.0\-compat
-\-masm\-compat
-\-mintel\-asm
-\-mstrict\-align
-\-mno\-strict\-align
-\-mold\-align
-\-mno\-old\-align
-.Sp
-.I DEC Alpha Options
-.br
-\-mfp\-regs
-\-mno\-fp\-regs
-\-mno\-soft\-float
-\-msoft\-float
-.Sp
-.I System V Options
-.br
-\-G
-\-Qy
-\-Qn
-.RI \-YP, paths
-.RI \-Ym, dir
-.TP
-.B Code Generation Options
-.RI \-fcall\-saved\- reg
-.RI \-fcall\-used\- reg
-.RI \-ffixed\- reg
-\-finhibit\-size\-directive
-\-fnonnull\-objects
-\-fno\-common
-\-fno\-ident
-\-fno\-gnu\-linker
-\-fpcc\-struct\-return
-\-fpic
-\-fPIC
-\-freg\-struct\-return
-\-fshared\-data
-\-fshort\-enums
-\-fshort\-double
-\-fvolatile
-\-fvolatile\-global
-\-fverbose\-asm
-.ad b
-.hy 1
-.SH OVERALL OPTIONS
-.TP
-.BI "\-x " "language"
-Specify explicitly the
-.I language\c
-\& for the following input files (rather than choosing a default based
-on the file name suffix) . This option applies to all following input
-files until the next `\|\c
-.B \-x\c
-\&\|' option. Possible values of \c
-.I language\c
-\& are
-`\|\c
-.B c\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B objective\-c\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B c\-header\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B c++\c
-\&\|',
-`\|\c
-.B cpp\-output\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B assembler\c
-\&\|', and `\|\c
-.B assembler\-with\-cpp\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-x none
-Turn off any specification of a language, so that subsequent files are
-handled according to their file name suffixes (as they are if `\|\c
-.B \-x\c
-\&\|'
-has not been used at all).
-.PP
-If you want only some of the four stages (preprocess, compile,
-assemble, link), you can use
-`\|\c
-.B \-x\c
-\&\|' (or filename suffixes) to tell \c
-.B gcc\c
-\& where to start, and
-one of the options `\|\c
-.B \-c\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B \-S\c
-\&\|', or `\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|' to say where
-.B gcc\c
-\& is to stop. Note that some combinations (for example,
-`\|\c
-.B \-x cpp\-output \-E\c
-\&\|') instruct \c
-.B gcc\c
-\& to do nothing at all.
-.TP
-.B \-c
-Compile or assemble the source files, but do not link. The compiler
-output is an object file corresponding to each source file.
-.Sp
-By default, GCC makes the object file name for a source file by replacing
-the suffix `\|\c
-.B .c\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B .i\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B .s\c
-\&\|', etc., with `\|\c
-.B .o\c
-\&\|'. Use
-.B \-o\c
-\& to select another name.
-.Sp
-GCC ignores any unrecognized input files (those that do not require
-compilation or assembly) with the
-.B \-c
-option.
-.TP
-.B \-S
-Stop after the stage of compilation proper; do not assemble. The output
-is an assembler code file for each non-assembler input
-file specified.
-.Sp
-By default, GCC makes the assembler file name for a source file by
-replacing the suffix `\|\c
-.B .c\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B .i\c
-\&\|', etc., with `\|\c
-.B .s\c
-\&\|'. Use
-.B \-o\c
-\& to select another name.
-.Sp
-GCC ignores any input files that don't require compilation.
-.TP
-.B \-E
-Stop after the preprocessing stage; do not run the compiler proper. The
-output is preprocessed source code, which is sent to the
-standard output.
-.Sp
-GCC ignores input files which don't require preprocessing.
-.TP
-.BI "\-o " file
-Place output in file \c
-.I file\c
-\&. This applies regardless to whatever
-sort of output GCC is producing, whether it be an executable file,
-an object file, an assembler file or preprocessed C code.
-.Sp
-Since only one output file can be specified, it does not make sense to
-use `\|\c
-.B \-o\c
-\&\|' when compiling more than one input file, unless you are
-producing an executable file as output.
-.Sp
-If you do not specify `\|\c
-.B \-o\c
-\&\|', the default is to put an executable file
-in `\|\c
-.B a.out\c
-\&\|', the object file for `\|\c
-.I source\c
-.B \&.\c
-.I suffix\c
-\&\c
-\&\|' in
-`\|\c
-.I source\c
-.B \&.o\c
-\&\|', its assembler file in `\|\c
-.I source\c
-.B \&.s\c
-\&\|', and
-all preprocessed C source on standard output.
-.TP
-.B \-v
-Print (on standard error output) the commands executed to run the stages
-of compilation. Also print the version number of the compiler driver
-program and of the preprocessor and the compiler proper.
-.TP
-.B \-pipe
-Use pipes rather than temporary files for communication between the
-various stages of compilation. This fails to work on some systems where
-the assembler cannot read from a pipe; but the GNU assembler has
-no trouble.
-.PP
-.SH LANGUAGE OPTIONS
-The following options control the dialect of C that the compiler
-accepts:
-.TP
-.B \-ansi
-Support all ANSI standard C programs.
-.Sp
-This turns off certain features of GNU C that are incompatible with
-ANSI C, such as the \c
-.B asm\c
-\&, \c
-.B inline\c
-\& and \c
-.B typeof
-keywords, and predefined macros such as \c
-.B unix\c
-\& and \c
-.B vax
-that identify the type of system you are using. It also enables the
-undesirable and rarely used ANSI trigraph feature, and disallows `\|\c
-.B $\c
-\&\|' as part of identifiers.
-.Sp
-The alternate keywords \c
-.B _\|_asm_\|_\c
-\&, \c
-.B _\|_extension_\|_\c
-\&,
-.B _\|_inline_\|_\c
-\& and \c
-.B _\|_typeof_\|_\c
-\& continue to work despite
-`\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|'. You would not want to use them in an ANSI C program, of
-course, but it is useful to put them in header files that might be included
-in compilations done with `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|'. Alternate predefined macros
-such as \c
-.B _\|_unix_\|_\c
-\& and \c
-.B _\|_vax_\|_\c
-\& are also available, with or
-without `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-The `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|' option does not cause non-ANSI programs to be
-rejected gratuitously. For that, `\|\c
-.B \-pedantic\c
-\&\|' is required in
-addition to `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-The preprocessor predefines a macro \c
-.B _\|_STRICT_ANSI_\|_\c
-\& when you use the `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|'
-option. Some header files may notice this macro and refrain
-from declaring certain functions or defining certain macros that the
-ANSI standard doesn't call for; this is to avoid interfering with any
-programs that might use these names for other things.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-asm
-Do not recognize \c
-.B asm\c
-\&, \c
-.B inline\c
-\& or \c
-.B typeof\c
-\& as a
-keyword. These words may then be used as identifiers. You can
-use \c
-.B _\|_asm_\|_\c
-\&, \c
-.B _\|_inline_\|_\c
-\& and \c
-.B _\|_typeof_\|_\c
-\& instead.
-`\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|' implies `\|\c
-.B \-fno\-asm\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-builtin
-Don't recognize built-in functions that do not begin with two leading
-underscores. Currently, the functions affected include \c
-.B _exit\c
-\&,
-.B abort\c
-\&, \c
-.B abs\c
-\&, \c
-.B alloca\c
-\&, \c
-.B cos\c
-\&, \c
-.B exit\c
-\&,
-.B fabs\c
-\&, \c
-.B labs\c
-\&, \c
-.B memcmp\c
-\&, \c
-.B memcpy\c
-\&, \c
-.B sin\c
-\&,
-.B sqrt\c
-\&, \c
-.B strcmp\c
-\&, \c
-.B strcpy\c
-\&, and \c
-.B strlen\c
-\&.
-.Sp
-The `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|' option prevents \c
-.B alloca\c
-\& and \c
-.B _exit\c
-\& from
-being builtin functions.
-.TP
-.B \-fhosted
-Compile for a hosted environment; this implies the `\|\c
-.B \-fbuiltin\c
-\&\|' option, and implies that suspicious declarations of
-.B main\c
-\& should be warned about.
-.TP
-.B \-ffreestanding
-Compile for a freestanding environment; this implies the `\|\c
-.B \-fno-builtin\c
-\&\|' option, and implies that
-.B main\c
-\& has no special requirements.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-strict\-prototype
-Treat a function declaration with no arguments, such as `\|\c
-.B int foo
-();\c
-\&\|', as C would treat it\(em\&as saying nothing about the number of
-arguments or their types (C++ only). Normally, such a declaration in
-C++ means that the function \c
-.B foo\c
-\& takes no arguments.
-.TP
-.B \-trigraphs
-Support ANSI C trigraphs. The `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|' option implies `\|\c
-.B \-trigraphs\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-traditional
-Attempt to support some aspects of traditional C compilers.
-For details, see the GNU C Manual; the duplicate list here
-has been deleted so that we won't get complaints when it
-is out of date.
-.Sp
-But one note about C++ programs only (not C). `\|\c
-.B \-traditional\c
-\&\|' has one additional effect for C++: assignment to
-.B this
-is permitted. This is the same as the effect of `\|\c
-.B \-fthis\-is\-variable\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-traditional\-cpp
-Attempt to support some aspects of traditional C preprocessors.
-This includes the items that specifically mention the preprocessor above,
-but none of the other effects of `\|\c
-.B \-traditional\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-fdollars\-in\-identifiers
-Permit the use of `\|\c
-.B $\c
-\&\|' in identifiers (C++ only). You can also use
-`\|\c
-.B \-fno\-dollars\-in\-identifiers\c
-\&\|' to explicitly prohibit use of
-`\|\c
-.B $\c
-\&\|'. (GNU C++ allows `\|\c
-.B $\c
-\&\|' by default on some target systems
-but not others.)
-.TP
-.B \-fenum\-int\-equiv
-Permit implicit conversion of \c
-.B int\c
-\& to enumeration types (C++
-only). Normally GNU C++ allows conversion of \c
-.B enum\c
-\& to \c
-.B int\c
-\&,
-but not the other way around.
-.TP
-.B \-fexternal\-templates
-Produce smaller code for template declarations, by generating only a
-single copy of each template function where it is defined (C++ only).
-To use this option successfully, you must also mark all files that
-use templates with either `\|\c
-.B #pragma implementation\c
-\&\|' (the definition) or
-`\|\c
-.B #pragma interface\c
-\&\|' (declarations).
-
-When your code is compiled with `\|\c
-.B \-fexternal\-templates\c
-\&\|', all
-template instantiations are external. You must arrange for all
-necessary instantiations to appear in the implementation file; you can
-do this with a \c
-.B typedef\c
-\& that references each instantiation needed.
-Conversely, when you compile using the default option
-`\|\c
-.B \-fno\-external\-templates\c
-\&\|', all template instantiations are
-explicitly internal.
-.TP
-.B \-fall\-virtual
-Treat all possible member functions as virtual, implicitly. All
-member functions (except for constructor functions and
-.B new
-or
-.B delete
-member operators) are treated as virtual functions of the class where
-they appear.
-.Sp
-This does not mean that all calls to these member functions will be
-made through the internal table of virtual functions. Under some
-circumstances, the compiler can determine that a call to a given
-virtual function can be made directly; in these cases the calls are
-direct in any case.
-.TP
-.B \-fcond\-mismatch
-Allow conditional expressions with mismatched types in the second and
-third arguments. The value of such an expression is void.
-.TP
-.B \-fthis\-is\-variable
-Permit assignment to \c
-.B this\c
-\& (C++ only). The incorporation of
-user-defined free store management into C++ has made assignment to
-`\|\c
-.B this\c
-\&\|' an anachronism. Therefore, by default it is invalid to
-assign to \c
-.B this\c
-\& within a class member function. However, for
-backwards compatibility, you can make it valid with
-`\|\c
-.B \-fthis-is-variable\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-funsigned\-char
-Let the type \c
-.B char\c
-\& be unsigned, like \c
-.B unsigned char\c
-\&.
-.Sp
-Each kind of machine has a default for what \c
-.B char\c
-\& should
-be. It is either like \c
-.B unsigned char\c
-\& by default or like
-.B signed char\c
-\& by default.
-.Sp
-Ideally, a portable program should always use \c
-.B signed char\c
-\& or
-.B unsigned char\c
-\& when it depends on the signedness of an object.
-But many programs have been written to use plain \c
-.B char\c
-\& and
-expect it to be signed, or expect it to be unsigned, depending on the
-machines they were written for. This option, and its inverse, let you
-make such a program work with the opposite default.
-.Sp
-The type \c
-.B char\c
-\& is always a distinct type from each of
-.B signed char\c
-\& and \c
-.B unsigned char\c
-\&, even though its behavior
-is always just like one of those two.
-.TP
-.B \-fsigned\-char
-Let the type \c
-.B char\c
-\& be signed, like \c
-.B signed char\c
-\&.
-.Sp
-Note that this is equivalent to `\|\c
-.B \-fno\-unsigned\-char\c
-\&\|', which is
-the negative form of `\|\c
-.B \-funsigned\-char\c
-\&\|'. Likewise,
-`\|\c
-.B \-fno\-signed\-char\c
-\&\|' is equivalent to `\|\c
-.B \-funsigned\-char\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-fsigned\-bitfields
-.TP
-.B \-funsigned\-bitfields
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-signed\-bitfields
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-unsigned\-bitfields
-These options control whether a bitfield is
-signed or unsigned, when declared with no explicit `\|\c
-.B signed\c
-\&\|' or `\|\c
-.B unsigned\c
-\&\|' qualifier. By default, such a bitfield is
-signed, because this is consistent: the basic integer types such as
-.B int\c
-\& are signed types.
-.Sp
-However, when you specify `\|\c
-.B \-traditional\c
-\&\|', bitfields are all unsigned
-no matter what.
-.TP
-.B \-fwritable\-strings
-Store string constants in the writable data segment and don't uniquize
-them. This is for compatibility with old programs which assume they
-can write into string constants. `\|\c
-.B \-traditional\c
-\&\|' also has this
-effect.
-.Sp
-Writing into string constants is a very bad idea; \*(lqconstants\*(rq should
-be constant.
-.SH PREPROCESSOR OPTIONS
-These options control the C preprocessor, which is run on each C source
-file before actual compilation.
-.PP
-If you use the `\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|' option, GCC does nothing except preprocessing.
-Some of these options make sense only together with `\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|' because
-they cause the preprocessor output to be unsuitable for actual
-compilation.
-.TP
-.BI "\-include " "file"
-Process \c
-.I file\c
-\& as input before processing the regular input file.
-In effect, the contents of \c
-.I file\c
-\& are compiled first. Any `\|\c
-.B \-D\c
-\&\|'
-and `\|\c
-.B \-U\c
-\&\|' options on the command line are always processed before
-`\|\c
-.B \-include \c
-.I file\c
-\&\c
-\&\|', regardless of the order in which they are
-written. All the `\|\c
-.B \-include\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-imacros\c
-\&\|' options are
-processed in the order in which they are written.
-.TP
-.BI "\-imacros " file
-Process \c
-.I file\c
-\& as input, discarding the resulting output, before
-processing the regular input file. Because the output generated from
-.I file\c
-\& is discarded, the only effect of `\|\c
-.B \-imacros \c
-.I file\c
-\&\c
-\&\|' is to
-make the macros defined in \c
-.I file\c
-\& available for use in the main
-input. The preprocessor evaluates any `\|\c
-.B \-D\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-U\c
-\&\|' options
-on the command line before processing `\|\c
-.B \-imacros\c
-.I file\c
-\&\|', regardless of the order in
-which they are written. All the `\|\c
-.B \-include\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-imacros\c
-\&\|'
-options are processed in the order in which they are written.
-.TP
-.BI "\-idirafter " "dir"
-Add the directory \c
-.I dir\c
-\& to the second include path. The directories
-on the second include path are searched when a header file is not found
-in any of the directories in the main include path (the one that
-`\|\c
-.B \-I\c
-\&\|' adds to).
-.TP
-.BI "\-iprefix " "prefix"
-Specify \c
-.I prefix\c
-\& as the prefix for subsequent `\|\c
-.B \-iwithprefix\c
-\&\|'
-options.
-.TP
-.BI "\-iwithprefix " "dir"
-Add a directory to the second include path. The directory's name is
-made by concatenating \c
-.I prefix\c
-\& and \c
-.I dir\c
-\&, where \c
-.I prefix
-was specified previously with `\|\c
-.B \-iprefix\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-nostdinc
-Do not search the standard system directories for header files. Only
-the directories you have specified with `\|\c
-.B \-I\c
-\&\|' options (and the
-current directory, if appropriate) are searched.
-.Sp
-By using both `\|\c
-.B \-nostdinc\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|', you can limit the include-file search file to only those
-directories you specify explicitly.
-.TP
-.B \-nostdinc++
-Do not search for header files in the C++\-specific standard directories,
-but do still search the other standard directories.
-(This option is used when building `\|\c
-.B libg++\c
-\&\|'.)
-.TP
-.B \-undef
-Do not predefine any nonstandard macros. (Including architecture flags).
-.TP
-.B \-E
-Run only the C preprocessor. Preprocess all the C source files
-specified and output the results to standard output or to the
-specified output file.
-.TP
-.B \-C
-Tell the preprocessor not to discard comments. Used with the
-`\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|' option.
-.TP
-.B \-P
-Tell the preprocessor not to generate `\|\c
-.B #line\c
-\&\|' commands.
-Used with the `\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|' option.
-.TP
-.B \-M\ [ \-MG ]
-Tell the preprocessor to output a rule suitable for \c
-.B make
-describing the dependencies of each object file. For each source file,
-the preprocessor outputs one \c
-.B make\c
-\&-rule whose target is the object
-file name for that source file and whose dependencies are all the files
-`\|\c
-.B #include\c
-\&\|'d in it. This rule may be a single line or may be
-continued with `\|\c
-.B \e\c
-\&\|'-newline if it is long. The list of rules is
-printed on standard output instead of the preprocessed C program.
-.Sp
-`\|\c
-.B \-M\c
-\&\|' implies `\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-`\|\c
-.B \-MG\c
-\&\|' says to treat missing header files as generated files and assume \c
-they live in the same directory as the source file. It must be specified \c
-in addition to `\|\c
-.B \-M\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-MM\ [ \-MG ]
-Like `\|\c
-.B \-M\c
-\&\|' but the output mentions only the user header files
-included with `\|\c
-.B #include "\c
-.I file\c
-\&"\c
-\&\|'. System header files
-included with `\|\c
-.B #include <\c
-.I file\c
-\&>\c
-\&\|' are omitted.
-.TP
-.B \-MD
-Like `\|\c
-.B \-M\c
-\&\|' but the dependency information is written to files with
-names made by replacing `\|\c
-.B .o\c
-\&\|' with `\|\c
-.B .d\c
-\&\|' at the end of the
-output file names. This is in addition to compiling the file as
-specified\(em\&`\|\c
-.B \-MD\c
-\&\|' does not inhibit ordinary compilation the way
-`\|\c
-.B \-M\c
-\&\|' does.
-.Sp
-The Mach utility `\|\c
-.B md\c
-\&\|' can be used to merge the `\|\c
-.B .d\c
-\&\|' files
-into a single dependency file suitable for using with the `\|\c
-.B make\c
-\&\|'
-command.
-.TP
-.B \-MMD
-Like `\|\c
-.B \-MD\c
-\&\|' except mention only user header files, not system
-header files.
-.TP
-.B \-H
-Print the name of each header file used, in addition to other normal
-activities.
-.TP
-.BI "\-A" "question" ( answer )
-Assert the answer
-.I answer
-for
-.I question\c
-\&, in case it is tested
-with a preprocessor conditional such as `\|\c
-.BI "#if #" question ( answer )\c
-\&\|'. `\|\c
-.B \-A\-\c
-\&\|' disables the standard
-assertions that normally describe the target machine.
-.TP
-.BI "\-A" "question"\c
-\&(\c
-.I answer\c
-\&)
-Assert the answer \c
-.I answer\c
-\& for \c
-.I question\c
-\&, in case it is tested
-with a preprocessor conditional such as `\|\c
-.B #if
-#\c
-.I question\c
-\&(\c
-.I answer\c
-\&)\c
-\&\|'. `\|\c
-.B \-A-\c
-\&\|' disables the standard
-assertions that normally describe the target machine.
-.TP
-.BI \-D macro
-Define macro \c
-.I macro\c
-\& with the string `\|\c
-.B 1\c
-\&\|' as its definition.
-.TP
-.BI \-D macro = defn
-Define macro \c
-.I macro\c
-\& as \c
-.I defn\c
-\&. All instances of `\|\c
-.B \-D\c
-\&\|' on
-the command line are processed before any `\|\c
-.B \-U\c
-\&\|' options.
-.TP
-.BI \-U macro
-Undefine macro \c
-.I macro\c
-\&. `\|\c
-.B \-U\c
-\&\|' options are evaluated after all `\|\c
-.B \-D\c
-\&\|' options, but before any `\|\c
-.B \-include\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-imacros\c
-\&\|' options.
-.TP
-.B \-dM
-Tell the preprocessor to output only a list of the macro definitions
-that are in effect at the end of preprocessing. Used with the `\|\c
-.B \-E\c
-\&\|'
-option.
-.TP
-.B \-dD
-Tell the preprocessor to pass all macro definitions into the output, in
-their proper sequence in the rest of the output.
-.TP
-.B \-dN
-Like `\|\c
-.B \-dD\c
-\&\|' except that the macro arguments and contents are omitted.
-Only `\|\c
-.B #define \c
-.I name\c
-\&\c
-\&\|' is included in the output.
-.SH ASSEMBLER OPTION
-.TP
-.BI "\-Wa," "option"
-Pass \c
-.I option\c
-\& as an option to the assembler. If \c
-.I option
-contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas.
-.SH LINKER OPTIONS
-These options come into play when the compiler links object files into
-an executable output file. They are meaningless if the compiler is
-not doing a link step.
-.TP
-.I object-file-name
-A file name that does not end in a special recognized suffix is
-considered to name an object file or library. (Object files are
-distinguished from libraries by the linker according to the file
-contents.) If GCC does a link step, these object files are used as input
-to the linker.
-.TP
-.BI \-l library
-Use the library named \c
-.I library\c
-\& when linking.
-.Sp
-The linker searches a standard list of directories for the library,
-which is actually a file named `\|\c
-.B lib\c
-.I library\c
-\&.a\c
-\&\|'. The linker
-then uses this file as if it had been specified precisely by name.
-.Sp
-The directories searched include several standard system directories
-plus any that you specify with `\|\c
-.B \-L\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-Normally the files found this way are library files\(em\&archive files
-whose members are object files. The linker handles an archive file by
-scanning through it for members which define symbols that have so far
-been referenced but not defined. However, if the linker finds an
-ordinary object file rather than a library, the object file is linked
-in the usual fashion. The only difference between using an `\|\c
-.B \-l\c
-\&\|' option and specifying a file
-name is that `\|\c
-.B \-l\c
-\&\|' surrounds
-.I library
-with `\|\c
-.B lib\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B .a\c
-\&\|' and searches several directories.
-.TP
-.B \-lobjc
-You need this special case of the
-.B \-l
-option in order to link an Objective C program.
-.TP
-.B \-nostartfiles
-Do not use the standard system startup files when linking.
-The standard libraries are used normally.
-.TP
-.B \-nostdlib
-Don't use the standard system libraries and startup files when linking.
-Only the files you specify will be passed to the linker.
-.TP
-.B \-static
-On systems that support dynamic linking, this prevents linking with the shared
-libraries. On other systems, this option has no effect.
-.TP
-.B \-shared
-Produce a shared object which can then be linked with other objects to
-form an executable. Only a few systems support this option.
-.TP
-.B \-symbolic
-Bind references to global symbols when building a shared object. Warn
-about any unresolved references (unless overridden by the link editor
-option `\|\c
-.B
-\-Xlinker \-z \-Xlinker defs\c
-\&\|'). Only a few systems support
-this option.
-.TP
-.BI "\-Xlinker " "option"
-Pass \c
-.I option
-as an option to the linker. You can use this to
-supply system-specific linker options which GNU CC does not know how to
-recognize.
-.Sp
-If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use
-`\|\c
-.B \-Xlinker\c
-\&\|' twice, once for the option and once for the argument.
-For example, to pass `\|\c
-.B
-\-assert definitions\c
-\&\|', you must write
-`\|\c
-.B
-\-Xlinker \-assert \-Xlinker definitions\c
-\&\|'. It does not work to write
-`\|\c
-.B
-\-Xlinker "\-assert definitions"\c
-\&\|', because this passes the entire
-string as a single argument, which is not what the linker expects.
-.TP
-.BI "\-Wl," "option"
-Pass \c
-.I option\c
-\& as an option to the linker. If \c
-.I option\c
-\& contains
-commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas.
-.TP
-.BI "\-u " "symbol"
-Pretend the symbol
-.I symbol
-is undefined, to force linking of
-library modules to define it. You can use `\|\c
-.B \-u\c
-\&\|' multiple times with
-different symbols to force loading of additional library modules.
-.SH DIRECTORY OPTIONS
-These options specify directories to search for header files, for
-libraries and for parts of the compiler:
-.TP
-.BI "\-I" "dir"
-Append directory \c
-.I dir\c
-\& to the list of directories searched for include files.
-.TP
-.B \-I\-
-Any directories you specify with `\|\c
-.B \-I\c
-\&\|' options before the `\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|'
-option are searched only for the case of `\|\c
-.B
-#include "\c
-.I file\c
-.B
-\&"\c
-\&\|';
-they are not searched for `\|\c
-.B #include <\c
-.I file\c
-\&>\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-If additional directories are specified with `\|\c
-.B \-I\c
-\&\|' options after
-the `\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|', these directories are searched for all `\|\c
-.B #include\c
-\&\|'
-directives. (Ordinarily \c
-.I all\c
-\& `\|\c
-.B \-I\c
-\&\|' directories are used
-this way.)
-.Sp
-In addition, the `\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|' option inhibits the use of the current
-directory (where the current input file came from) as the first search
-directory for `\|\c
-.B
-#include "\c
-.I file\c
-.B
-\&"\c
-\&\|'. There is no way to
-override this effect of `\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|'. With `\|\c
-.B \-I.\c
-\&\|' you can specify
-searching the directory which was current when the compiler was
-invoked. That is not exactly the same as what the preprocessor does
-by default, but it is often satisfactory.
-.Sp
-`\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|' does not inhibit the use of the standard system directories
-for header files. Thus, `\|\c
-.B \-I\-\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-nostdinc\c
-\&\|' are
-independent.
-.TP
-.BI "\-L" "dir"
-Add directory \c
-.I dir\c
-\& to the list of directories to be searched
-for `\|\c
-.B \-l\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.BI "\-B" "prefix"
-This option specifies where to find the executables, libraries and
-data files of the compiler itself.
-.Sp
-The compiler driver program runs one or more of the subprograms
-`\|\c
-.B cpp\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B cc1\c
-\&\|' (or, for C++, `\|\c
-.B cc1plus\c
-\&\|'), `\|\c
-.B as\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B ld\c
-\&\|'. It tries
-.I prefix\c
-\& as a prefix for each program it tries to run, both with and
-without `\|\c
-.I machine\c
-.B /\c
-.I version\c
-.B /\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-For each subprogram to be run, the compiler driver first tries the
-`\|\c
-.B \-B\c
-\&\|' prefix, if any. If that name is not found, or if `\|\c
-.B \-B\c
-\&\|'
-was not specified, the driver tries two standard prefixes, which are
-`\|\c
-.B /usr/lib/gcc/\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib/\c
-\&\|'. If neither of
-those results in a file name that is found, the compiler driver
-searches for the unmodified program
-name, using the directories specified in your
-`\|\c
-.B PATH\c
-\&\|' environment variable.
-.Sp
-The run-time support file `\|\c
-.B libgcc.a\c
-\&\|' is also searched for using the
-`\|\c
-.B \-B\c
-\&\|' prefix, if needed. If it is not found there, the two
-standard prefixes above are tried, and that is all. The file is left
-out of the link if it is not found by those means. Most of the time,
-on most machines, `\|\c
-.B libgcc.a\c
-\&\|' is not actually necessary.
-.Sp
-You can get a similar result from the environment variable
-.B GCC_EXEC_PREFIX\c
-\&; if it is defined, its value is used as a prefix
-in the same way. If both the `\|\c
-.B \-B\c
-\&\|' option and the
-.B GCC_EXEC_PREFIX\c
-\& variable are present, the `\|\c
-.B \-B\c
-\&\|' option is
-used first and the environment variable value second.
-.SH WARNING OPTIONS
-Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions which
-are not inherently erroneous but which are risky or suggest there
-may have been an error.
-.Sp
-These options control the amount and kinds of warnings produced by GNU
-CC:
-.TP
-.B \-fsyntax\-only
-Check the code for syntax errors, but don't emit any output.
-.TP
-.B \-w
-Inhibit all warning messages.
-.TP
-.B \-Wno\-import
-Inhibit warning messages about the use of
-.BR #import .
-.TP
-.B \-pedantic
-Issue all the warnings demanded by strict ANSI standard C; reject
-all programs that use forbidden extensions.
-.Sp
-Valid ANSI standard C programs should compile properly with or without
-this option (though a rare few will require `\|\c
-.B \-ansi\c
-\&\|'). However,
-without this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional C features
-are supported as well. With this option, they are rejected. There is
-no reason to \c
-.I use\c
-\& this option; it exists only to satisfy pedants.
-.Sp
-`\|\c
-.B \-pedantic\c
-\&\|' does not cause warning messages for use of the
-alternate keywords whose names begin and end with `\|\c
-.B _\|_\c
-\&\|'. Pedantic
-warnings are also disabled in the expression that follows
-.B _\|_extension_\|_\c
-\&. However, only system header files should use
-these escape routes; application programs should avoid them.
-.TP
-.B \-pedantic\-errors
-Like `\|\c
-.B \-pedantic\c
-\&\|', except that errors are produced rather than
-warnings.
-.TP
-.B \-W
-Print extra warning messages for these events:
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-A nonvolatile automatic variable might be changed by a call to
-.B longjmp\c
-\&. These warnings are possible only in
-optimizing compilation.
-.Sp
-The compiler sees only the calls to \c
-.B setjmp\c
-\&. It cannot know
-where \c
-.B longjmp\c
-\& will be called; in fact, a signal handler could
-call it at any point in the code. As a result, you may get a warning
-even when there is in fact no problem because \c
-.B longjmp\c
-\& cannot
-in fact be called at the place which would cause a problem.
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-A function can return either with or without a value. (Falling
-off the end of the function body is considered returning without
-a value.) For example, this function would evoke such a
-warning:
-.Sp
-.nf
-foo (a)
-{
- if (a > 0)
- return a;
-}
-.Sp
-.fi
-Spurious warnings can occur because GNU CC does not realize that
-certain functions (including \c
-.B abort\c
-\& and \c
-.B longjmp\c
-\&)
-will never return.
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-An expression-statement or the left-hand side of a comma expression
-contains no side effects.
-To suppress the warning, cast the unused expression to void.
-For example, an expression such as `\|\c
-.B x[i,j]\c
-\&\|' will cause a warning,
-but `\|\c
-.B x[(void)i,j]\c
-\&\|' will not.
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-An unsigned value is compared against zero with `\|\c
-.B >\c
-\&\|' or `\|\c
-.B <=\c
-\&\|'.
-.PP
-.TP
-.B \-Wimplicit-int
-Warn whenever a declaration does not specify a type.
-.TP
-.B \-Wimplicit-function-declaration
-Warn whenever a function is used before being declared.
-.TP
-.B \-Wimplicit
-Same as -Wimplicit-int and -Wimplicit-function-declaration.
-.TP
-.B \-Wmain
-Warn if the
-.B main
-function is declared or defined with a suspicious type.
-Typically, it is a function with external linkage, returning
-.B int\c
-\&, and
-taking zero or two arguments.
-
-.TP
-.B \-Wreturn\-type
-Warn whenever a function is defined with a return-type that defaults
-to \c
-.B int\c
-\&. Also warn about any \c
-.B return\c
-\& statement with no
-return-value in a function whose return-type is not \c
-.B void\c
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-Wunused
-Warn whenever a local variable is unused aside from its declaration,
-whenever a function is declared static but never defined, and whenever
-a statement computes a result that is explicitly not used.
-.TP
-.B \-Wswitch
-Warn whenever a \c
-.B switch\c
-\& statement has an index of enumeral type
-and lacks a \c
-.B case\c
-\& for one or more of the named codes of that
-enumeration. (The presence of a \c
-.B default\c
-\& label prevents this
-warning.) \c
-.B case\c
-\& labels outside the enumeration range also
-provoke warnings when this option is used.
-.TP
-.B \-Wcomment
-Warn whenever a comment-start sequence `\|\c
-.B /\(**\c
-\&\|' appears in a comment.
-.TP
-.B \-Wtrigraphs
-Warn if any trigraphs are encountered (assuming they are enabled).
-.TP
-.B \-Wformat
-Check calls to \c
-.B printf\c
-\& and \c
-.B scanf\c
-\&, etc., to make sure that
-the arguments supplied have types appropriate to the format string
-specified.
-.TP
-.B \-Wchar\-subscripts
-Warn if an array subscript has type
-.BR char .
-This is a common cause of error, as programmers often forget that this
-type is signed on some machines.
-.TP
-.B \-Wuninitialized
-An automatic variable is used without first being initialized.
-.Sp
-These warnings are possible only in optimizing compilation,
-because they require data flow information that is computed only
-when optimizing. If you don't specify `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|', you simply won't
-get these warnings.
-.Sp
-These warnings occur only for variables that are candidates for
-register allocation. Therefore, they do not occur for a variable that
-is declared \c
-.B volatile\c
-\&, or whose address is taken, or whose size
-is other than 1, 2, 4 or 8 bytes. Also, they do not occur for
-structures, unions or arrays, even when they are in registers.
-.Sp
-Note that there may be no warning about a variable that is used only
-to compute a value that itself is never used, because such
-computations may be deleted by data flow analysis before the warnings
-are printed.
-.Sp
-These warnings are made optional because GNU CC is not smart
-enough to see all the reasons why the code might be correct
-despite appearing to have an error. Here is one example of how
-this can happen:
-.Sp
-.nf
-{
- int x;
- switch (y)
- {
- case 1: x = 1;
- break;
- case 2: x = 4;
- break;
- case 3: x = 5;
- }
- foo (x);
-}
-.Sp
-.fi
-If the value of \c
-.B y\c
-\& is always 1, 2 or 3, then \c
-.B x\c
-\& is
-always initialized, but GNU CC doesn't know this. Here is
-another common case:
-.Sp
-.nf
-{
- int save_y;
- if (change_y) save_y = y, y = new_y;
- .\|.\|.
- if (change_y) y = save_y;
-}
-.Sp
-.fi
-This has no bug because \c
-.B save_y\c
-\& is used only if it is set.
-.Sp
-Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare as
-.B volatile\c
-\& all the functions you use that never return.
-.TP
-.B \-Wparentheses
-Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts.
-.TP
-.B \-Wtemplate\-debugging
-When using templates in a C++ program, warn if debugging is not yet
-fully available (C++ only).
-.TP
-.B \-Wall
-All of the above `\|\c
-.B \-W\c
-\&\|' options combined. These are all the
-options which pertain to usage that we recommend avoiding and that we
-believe is easy to avoid, even in conjunction with macros.
-.PP
-The remaining `\|\c
-.B \-W.\|.\|.\c
-\&\|' options are not implied by `\|\c
-.B \-Wall\c
-\&\|'
-because they warn about constructions that we consider reasonable to
-use, on occasion, in clean programs.
-.TP
-.B \-Wtraditional
-Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and
-ANSI C.
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-Macro arguments occurring within string constants in the macro body.
-These would substitute the argument in traditional C, but are part of
-the constant in ANSI C.
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-A function declared external in one block and then used after the end of
-the block.
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-A \c
-.B switch\c
-\& statement has an operand of type \c
-.B long\c
-\&.
-.PP
-.TP
-.B \-Wshadow
-Warn whenever a local variable shadows another local variable.
-.TP
-.BI "\-Wid\-clash\-" "len"
-Warn whenever two distinct identifiers match in the first \c
-.I len
-characters. This may help you prepare a program that will compile
-with certain obsolete, brain-damaged compilers.
-.TP
-.B \-Wpointer\-arith
-Warn about anything that depends on the \*(lqsize of\*(rq a function type or
-of \c
-.B void\c
-\&. GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for
-convenience in calculations with \c
-.B void \(**\c
-\& pointers and pointers
-to functions.
-.TP
-.B \-Wcast\-qual
-Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier from
-the target type. For example, warn if a \c
-.B const char \(**\c
-\& is cast
-to an ordinary \c
-.B char \(**\c
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-Wcast\-align
-Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the
-target is increased. For example, warn if a \c
-.B char \(**\c
-\& is cast to
-an \c
-.B int \(**\c
-\& on machines where integers can only be accessed at
-two- or four-byte boundaries.
-.TP
-.B \-Wwrite\-strings
-Give string constants the type \c
-.B const char[\c
-.I length\c
-.B ]\c
-\& so that
-copying the address of one into a non-\c
-.B const\c
-\& \c
-.B char \(**
-pointer will get a warning. These warnings will help you find at
-compile time code that can try to write into a string constant, but
-only if you have been very careful about using \c
-.B const\c
-\& in
-declarations and prototypes. Otherwise, it will just be a nuisance;
-this is why we did not make `\|\c
-.B \-Wall\c
-\&\|' request these warnings.
-.TP
-.B \-Wconversion
-Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from what
-would happen to the same argument in the absence of a prototype. This
-includes conversions of fixed point to floating and vice versa, and
-conversions changing the width or signedness of a fixed point argument
-except when the same as the default promotion.
-.TP
-.B \-Waggregate\-return
-Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined or
-called. (In languages where you can return an array, this also elicits
-a warning.)
-.TP
-.B \-Wstrict\-prototypes
-Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the
-argument types. (An old-style function definition is permitted without
-a warning if preceded by a declaration which specifies the argument
-types.)
-.TP
-.B \-Wmissing\-prototypes
-Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype
-declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself
-provides a prototype. The aim is to detect global functions that fail
-to be declared in header files.
-.TP
-.B \-Wmissing\-declarations
-Warn if a global function is defined without a previous declaration.
-Do so even if the definition itself provides a prototype.
-Use this option to detect global functions that are not declared in
-header files.
-.TP
-.B \-Wredundant-decls
-Warn if anything is declared more than once in the same scope, even in
-cases where multiple declaration is valid and changes nothing.
-.TP
-.B \-Wnested-externs
-Warn if an \c
-.B extern\c
-\& declaration is encountered within an function.
-.TP
-.B \-Wenum\-clash
-Warn about conversion between different enumeration types (C++ only).
-.TP
-.B \-Wlong-long
-Warn if
-.B long long \c
-type is used. This is default. To inhibit
-the warning messages, use flag `\|\c
-.B \-Wno\-long\-long\c
-\&\|'. Flags `\|\c
-.B \-W\-long\-long\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-Wno\-long\-long\c
-\&\|' are taken into account only when flag `\|\c
-.B \-pedantic\c
-\&\|' is used.
-.TP
-.B \-Woverloaded\-virtual
-(C++ only.)
-In a derived class, the definitions of virtual functions must match
-the type signature of a virtual function declared in the base class.
-Use this option to request warnings when a derived class declares a
-function that may be an erroneous attempt to define a virtual
-function: that is, warn when a function with the same name as a
-virtual function in the base class, but with a type signature that
-doesn't match any virtual functions from the base class.
-.TP
-.B \-Winline
-Warn if a function can not be inlined, and either it was declared as inline,
-or else the
-.B \-finline\-functions
-option was given.
-.TP
-.B \-Werror
-Treat warnings as errors; abort compilation after any warning.
-.SH DEBUGGING OPTIONS
-GNU CC has various special options that are used for debugging
-either your program or GCC:
-.TP
-.B \-g
-Produce debugging information in the operating system's native format
-(stabs, COFF, XCOFF, or DWARF). GDB can work with this debugging
-information.
-.Sp
-On most systems that use stabs format, `\|\c
-.B \-g\c
-\&\|' enables use of extra
-debugging information that only GDB can use; this extra information
-makes debugging work better in GDB but will probably make other debuggers
-crash or
-refuse to read the program. If you want to control for certain whether
-to generate the extra information, use `\|\c
-.B \-gstabs+\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B \-gstabs\c
-\&\|',
-`\|\c
-.B \-gxcoff+\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B \-gxcoff\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B \-gdwarf+\c
-\&\|', or `\|\c
-.B \-gdwarf\c
-\&\|'
-(see below).
-.Sp
-Unlike most other C compilers, GNU CC allows you to use `\|\c
-.B \-g\c
-\&\|' with
-`\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|'. The shortcuts taken by optimized code may occasionally
-produce surprising results: some variables you declared may not exist
-at all; flow of control may briefly move where you did not expect it;
-some statements may not be executed because they compute constant
-results or their values were already at hand; some statements may
-execute in different places because they were moved out of loops.
-.Sp
-Nevertheless it proves possible to debug optimized output. This makes
-it reasonable to use the optimizer for programs that might have bugs.
-.PP
-The following options are useful when GNU CC is generated with the
-capability for more than one debugging format.
-.TP
-.B \-ggdb
-Produce debugging information in the native format (if that is supported),
-including GDB extensions if at all possible.
-.TP
-.B \-gstabs
-Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported),
-without GDB extensions. This is the format used by DBX on most BSD
-systems.
-.TP
-.B \-gstabs+
-Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported),
-using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The
-use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or
-refuse to read the program.
-.TP
-.B \-gcoff
-Produce debugging information in COFF format (if that is supported).
-This is the format used by SDB on most System V systems prior to
-System V Release 4.
-.TP
-.B \-gxcoff
-Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is supported).
-This is the format used by the DBX debugger on IBM RS/6000 systems.
-.TP
-.B \-gxcoff+
-Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is supported),
-using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The
-use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or
-refuse to read the program.
-.TP
-.B \-gdwarf
-Produce debugging information in DWARF format (if that is supported).
-This is the format used by SDB on most System V Release 4 systems.
-.TP
-.B \-gdwarf+
-Produce debugging information in DWARF format (if that is supported),
-using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The
-use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or
-refuse to read the program.
-.PP
-.BI "\-g" "level"
-.br
-.BI "\-ggdb" "level"
-.br
-.BI "\-gstabs" "level"
-.br
-.BI "\-gcoff" "level"
-.BI "\-gxcoff" "level"
-.TP
-.BI "\-gdwarf" "level"
-Request debugging information and also use \c
-.I level\c
-\& to specify how
-much information. The default level is 2.
-.Sp
-Level 1 produces minimal information, enough for making backtraces in
-parts of the program that you don't plan to debug. This includes
-descriptions of functions and external variables, but no information
-about local variables and no line numbers.
-.Sp
-Level 3 includes extra information, such as all the macro definitions
-present in the program. Some debuggers support macro expansion when
-you use `\|\c
-.B \-g3\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-p
-Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the
-analysis program \c
-.B prof\c
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-pg
-Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the
-analysis program \c
-.B gprof\c
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-a
-Generate extra code to write profile information for basic blocks,
-which will record the number of times each basic block is executed.
-This data could be analyzed by a program like \c
-.B tcov\c
-\&. Note,
-however, that the format of the data is not what \c
-.B tcov\c
-\& expects.
-Eventually GNU \c
-.B gprof\c
-\& should be extended to process this data.
-.TP
-.B \-ax
-Generate extra code to read basic block profiling parameters from
-file `bb.in' and write profiling results to file `bb.out'.
-`bb.in' contains a list of functions. Whenever a function on the list
-is entered, profiling is turned on. When the outmost function is left,
-profiling is turned off. If a function name is prefixed with `-'
-the function is excluded from profiling. If a function name is not
-unique it can be disambiguated by writing
-`/path/filename.d:functionname'. `bb.out' will list some available
-filenames.
-Four function names have a special meaning:
-`__bb_jumps__' will cause jump frequencies to be written to `bb.out'.
-`__bb_trace__' will cause the sequence of basic blocks to be piped
-into `gzip' and written to file `bbtrace.gz'.
-`__bb_hidecall__' will cause call instructions to be excluded from
-the trace.
-`__bb_showret__' will cause return instructions to be included in
-the trace.
-.TP
-.BI "\-d" "letters"
-Says to make debugging dumps during compilation at times specified by
-.I letters\c
-\&. This is used for debugging the compiler. The file names
-for most of the dumps are made by appending a word to the source file
-name (e.g. `\|\c
-.B foo.c.rtl\c
-\&\|' or `\|\c
-.B foo.c.jump\c
-\&\|').
-.TP
-.B \-dM
-Dump all macro definitions, at the end of preprocessing, and write no
-output.
-.TP
-.B \-dN
-Dump all macro names, at the end of preprocessing.
-.TP
-.B \-dD
-Dump all macro definitions, at the end of preprocessing, in addition to
-normal output.
-.TP
-.B \-dy
-Dump debugging information during parsing, to standard error.
-.TP
-.B \-dr
-Dump after RTL generation, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.rtl\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dx
-Just generate RTL for a function instead of compiling it. Usually used
-with `\|\c
-.B r\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dj
-Dump after first jump optimization, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.jump\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-ds
-Dump after CSE (including the jump optimization that sometimes
-follows CSE), to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.cse\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dL
-Dump after loop optimization, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.loop\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dt
-Dump after the second CSE pass (including the jump optimization that
-sometimes follows CSE), to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.cse2\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-df
-Dump after flow analysis, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.flow\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dc
-Dump after instruction combination, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.combine\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dS
-Dump after the first instruction scheduling pass, to
-`\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.sched\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dl
-Dump after local register allocation, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.lreg\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dg
-Dump after global register allocation, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.greg\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dR
-Dump after the second instruction scheduling pass, to
-`\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.sched2\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dJ
-Dump after last jump optimization, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.jump2\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dd
-Dump after delayed branch scheduling, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.dbr\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-dk
-Dump after conversion from registers to stack, to `\|\c
-.I file\c
-.B \&.stack\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-da
-Produce all the dumps listed above.
-.TP
-.B \-dm
-Print statistics on memory usage, at the end of the run, to
-standard error.
-.TP
-.B \-dp
-Annotate the assembler output with a comment indicating which
-pattern and alternative was used.
-.TP
-.B \-fpretend\-float
-When running a cross-compiler, pretend that the target machine uses the
-same floating point format as the host machine. This causes incorrect
-output of the actual floating constants, but the actual instruction
-sequence will probably be the same as GNU CC would make when running on
-the target machine.
-.TP
-.B \-save\-temps
-Store the usual \*(lqtemporary\*(rq intermediate files permanently; place them
-in the current directory and name them based on the source file. Thus,
-compiling `\|\c
-.B foo.c\c
-\&\|' with `\|\c
-.B \-c \-save\-temps\c
-\&\|' would produce files
-`\|\c
-.B foo.cpp\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B foo.s\c
-\&\|', as well as `\|\c
-.B foo.o\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.BI "\-print\-file\-name=" "library"
-Print the full absolute name of the library file \|\c
-.nh
-.I library
-.hy
-\&\| that
-would be used when linking\(em\&and do not do anything else. With this
-option, GNU CC does not compile or link anything; it just prints the
-file name.
-.TP
-.B \-print\-libgcc\-file\-name
-Same as `\|\c
-.B \-print\-file\-name=libgcc.a\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.BI "\-print\-prog\-name=" "program"
-Like `\|\c
-.B \-print\-file\-name\c
-\&\|', but searches for a program such as `\|\c
-cpp\c
-\&\|'.
-.SH OPTIMIZATION OPTIONS
-These options control various sorts of optimizations:
-.TP
-.B \-O
-.TP
-.B \-O1
-Optimize. Optimizing compilation takes somewhat more time, and a lot
-more memory for a large function.
-.Sp
-Without `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|', the compiler's goal is to reduce the cost of
-compilation and to make debugging produce the expected results.
-Statements are independent: if you stop the program with a breakpoint
-between statements, you can then assign a new value to any variable or
-change the program counter to any other statement in the function and
-get exactly the results you would expect from the source code.
-.Sp
-Without `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|', only variables declared \c
-.B register\c
-\& are
-allocated in registers. The resulting compiled code is a little worse
-than produced by PCC without `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-With `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|', the compiler tries to reduce code size and execution
-time.
-.Sp
-When you specify `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|', the two options `\|\c
-.B \-fthread\-jumps\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-fdefer\-pop\c
-\&\|' are turned on. On machines that have delay slots, the `\|\c
-.B \-fdelayed\-branch\c
-\&\|' option is turned on. For those machines that can support debugging even
-without a frame pointer, the `\|\c
-.B \-fomit\-frame\-pointer\c
-\&\|' option is turned on. On some machines other flags may also be turned on.
-.TP
-.B \-O2
-Optimize even more. Nearly all supported optimizations that do not
-involve a space-speed tradeoff are performed. Loop unrolling and function
-inlining are not done, for example. As compared to
-.B \-O\c
-\&,
-this option increases both compilation time and the performance of the
-generated code.
-.TP
-.B \-O3
-Optimize yet more. This turns on everything
-.B \-O2
-does, along with also turning on
-.B \-finline\-functions.
-.TP
-.B \-O0
-Do not optimize.
-.Sp
-If you use multiple
-.B \-O
-options, with or without level numbers, the last such option is the
-one that is effective.
-.PP
-Options of the form `\|\c
-.B \-f\c
-.I flag\c
-\&\c
-\&\|' specify machine-independent
-flags. Most flags have both positive and negative forms; the negative
-form of `\|\c
-.B \-ffoo\c
-\&\|' would be `\|\c
-.B \-fno\-foo\c
-\&\|'. The following list shows
-only one form\(em\&the one which is not the default.
-You can figure out the other form by either removing `\|\c
-.B no\-\c
-\&\|' or
-adding it.
-.TP
-.B \-ffloat\-store
-Do not store floating point variables in registers. This
-prevents undesirable excess precision on machines such as the
-68000 where the floating registers (of the 68881) keep more
-precision than a \c
-.B double\c
-\& is supposed to have.
-.Sp
-For most programs, the excess precision does only good, but a few
-programs rely on the precise definition of IEEE floating point.
-Use `\|\c
-.B \-ffloat\-store\c
-\&\|' for such programs.
-.TP
-.B \-fmemoize\-lookups
-.TP
-.B \-fsave\-memoized
-Use heuristics to compile faster (C++ only). These heuristics are not
-enabled by default, since they are only effective for certain input
-files. Other input files compile more slowly.
-.Sp
-The first time the compiler must build a call to a member function (or
-reference to a data member), it must (1) determine whether the class
-implements member functions of that name; (2) resolve which member
-function to call (which involves figuring out what sorts of type
-conversions need to be made); and (3) check the visibility of the member
-function to the caller. All of this adds up to slower compilation.
-Normally, the second time a call is made to that member function (or
-reference to that data member), it must go through the same lengthy
-process again. This means that code like this
-.Sp
-\& cout << "This " << p << " has " << n << " legs.\en";
-.Sp
-makes six passes through all three steps. By using a software cache,
-a \*(lqhit\*(rq significantly reduces this cost. Unfortunately, using the
-cache introduces another layer of mechanisms which must be implemented,
-and so incurs its own overhead. `\|\c
-.B \-fmemoize\-lookups\c
-\&\|' enables
-the software cache.
-.Sp
-Because access privileges (visibility) to members and member functions
-may differ from one function context to the next,
-.B g++
-may need to flush the cache. With the `\|\c
-.B \-fmemoize\-lookups\c
-\&\|' flag, the cache is flushed after every
-function that is compiled. The `\|\c
-\-fsave\-memoized\c
-\&\|' flag enables the same software cache, but when the compiler
-determines that the context of the last function compiled would yield
-the same access privileges of the next function to compile, it
-preserves the cache.
-This is most helpful when defining many member functions for the same
-class: with the exception of member functions which are friends of
-other classes, each member function has exactly the same access
-privileges as every other, and the cache need not be flushed.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-default\-inline
-Don't make member functions inline by default merely because they are
-defined inside the class scope (C++ only).
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-defer\-pop
-Always pop the arguments to each function call as soon as that
-function returns. For machines which must pop arguments after a
-function call, the compiler normally lets arguments accumulate on the
-stack for several function calls and pops them all at once.
-.TP
-.B \-fforce\-mem
-Force memory operands to be copied into registers before doing
-arithmetic on them. This may produce better code by making all
-memory references potential common subexpressions. When they are
-not common subexpressions, instruction combination should
-eliminate the separate register-load. I am interested in hearing
-about the difference this makes.
-.TP
-.B \-fforce\-addr
-Force memory address constants to be copied into registers before
-doing arithmetic on them. This may produce better code just as
-`\|\c
-.B \-fforce\-mem\c
-\&\|' may. I am interested in hearing about the
-difference this makes.
-.TP
-.B \-fomit\-frame\-pointer
-Don't keep the frame pointer in a register for functions that
-don't need one. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and
-restore frame pointers; it also makes an extra register available
-in many functions. \c
-.I It also makes debugging impossible on most machines\c
-\&.
-.Sp
-On some machines, such as the Vax, this flag has no effect, because
-the standard calling sequence automatically handles the frame pointer
-and nothing is saved by pretending it doesn't exist. The
-machine-description macro \c
-.B FRAME_POINTER_REQUIRED\c
-\& controls
-whether a target machine supports this flag.
-.TP
-.B \-finline\-functions
-Integrate all simple functions into their callers. The compiler
-heuristically decides which functions are simple enough to be worth
-integrating in this way.
-.Sp
-If all calls to a given function are integrated, and the function is
-declared \c
-.B static\c
-\&, then GCC normally does not output the function as
-assembler code in its own right.
-.TP
-.B \-fcaller\-saves
-Enable values to be allocated in registers that will be clobbered by
-function calls, by emitting extra instructions to save and restore the
-registers around such calls. Such allocation is done only when it
-seems to result in better code than would otherwise be produced.
-.Sp
-This option is enabled by default on certain machines, usually those
-which have no call-preserved registers to use instead.
-.TP
-.B \-fkeep\-inline\-functions
-Even if all calls to a given function are integrated, and the function
-is declared \c
-.B static\c
-\&, nevertheless output a separate run-time
-callable version of the function.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-function\-cse
-Do not put function addresses in registers; make each instruction that
-calls a constant function contain the function's address explicitly.
-.Sp
-This option results in less efficient code, but some strange hacks
-that alter the assembler output may be confused by the optimizations
-performed when this option is not used.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-peephole
-Disable any machine-specific peephole optimizations.
-.TP
-.B \-ffast-math
-This option allows GCC to violate some ANSI or IEEE rules/specifications
-in the interest of optimizing code for speed. For example, it allows
-the compiler to assume arguments to the \c
-.B sqrt\c
-\& function are
-non-negative numbers.
-.Sp
-This option should never be turned on by any `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|' option since
-it can result in incorrect output for programs which depend on
-an exact implementation of IEEE or ANSI rules/specifications for
-math functions.
-.PP
-The following options control specific optimizations. The `\|\c
-.B \-O2\c
-\&\|'
-option turns on all of these optimizations except `\|\c
-.B \-funroll\-loops\c
-\&\|'
-and `\|\c
-.B \-funroll\-all\-loops\c
-\&\|'.
-.PP
-The `\|\c
-.B \-O\c
-\&\|' option usually turns on
-the `\|\c
-.B \-fthread\-jumps\c
-\&\|' and `\|\c
-.B \-fdelayed\-branch\c
-\&\|' options, but
-specific machines may change the default optimizations.
-.PP
-You can use the following flags in the rare cases when \*(lqfine-tuning\*(rq
-of optimizations to be performed is desired.
-.TP
-.B \-fstrength\-reduce
-Perform the optimizations of loop strength reduction and
-elimination of iteration variables.
-.TP
-.B \-fthread\-jumps
-Perform optimizations where we check to see if a jump branches to a
-location where another comparison subsumed by the first is found. If
-so, the first branch is redirected to either the destination of the
-second branch or a point immediately following it, depending on whether
-the condition is known to be true or false.
-.TP
-.B \-funroll\-loops
-Perform the optimization of loop unrolling. This is only done for loops
-whose number of iterations can be determined at compile time or run time.
-.TP
-.B \-funroll\-all\-loops
-Perform the optimization of loop unrolling. This is done for all loops.
-This usually makes programs run more slowly.
-.TP
-.B \-fcse\-follow\-jumps
-In common subexpression elimination, scan through jump instructions
-when the target of the jump is not reached by any other path. For
-example, when CSE encounters an \c
-.B if\c
-\& statement with an
-.B else\c
-\& clause, CSE will follow the jump when the condition
-tested is false.
-.TP
-.B \-fcse\-skip\-blocks
-This is similar to `\|\c
-.B \-fcse\-follow\-jumps\c
-\&\|', but causes CSE to
-follow jumps which conditionally skip over blocks. When CSE
-encounters a simple \c
-.B if\c
-\& statement with no else clause,
-`\|\c
-.B \-fcse\-skip\-blocks\c
-\&\|' causes CSE to follow the jump around the
-body of the \c
-.B if\c
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-frerun\-cse\-after\-loop
-Re-run common subexpression elimination after loop optimizations has been
-performed.
-.TP
-.B \-felide\-constructors
-Elide constructors when this seems plausible (C++ only). With this
-flag, GNU C++ initializes \c
-.B y\c
-\& directly from the call to \c
-.B foo
-without going through a temporary in the following code:
-.Sp
-A foo ();
-A y = foo ();
-.Sp
-Without this option, GNU C++ first initializes \c
-.B y\c
-\& by calling the
-appropriate constructor for type \c
-.B A\c
-\&; then assigns the result of
-.B foo\c
-\& to a temporary; and, finally, replaces the initial value of
-`\|\c
-.B y\c
-\&\|' with the temporary.
-.Sp
-The default behavior (`\|\c
-.B \-fno\-elide\-constructors\c
-\&\|') is specified by
-the draft ANSI C++ standard. If your program's constructors have side
-effects, using `\|\c
-.B \-felide-constructors\c
-\&\|' can make your program act
-differently, since some constructor calls may be omitted.
-.TP
-.B \-fexpensive\-optimizations
-Perform a number of minor optimizations that are relatively expensive.
-.TP
-.B \-fdelayed\-branch
-If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions
-to exploit instruction slots available after delayed branch
-instructions.
-.TP
-.B \-fschedule\-insns
-If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to
-eliminate execution stalls due to required data being unavailable. This
-helps machines that have slow floating point or memory load instructions
-by allowing other instructions to be issued until the result of the load
-or floating point instruction is required.
-.TP
-.B \-fschedule\-insns2
-Similar to `\|\c
-.B \-fschedule\-insns\c
-\&\|', but requests an additional pass of
-instruction scheduling after register allocation has been done. This is
-especially useful on machines with a relatively small number of
-registers and where memory load instructions take more than one cycle.
-.SH TARGET OPTIONS
-By default, GNU CC compiles code for the same type of machine that you
-are using. However, it can also be installed as a cross-compiler, to
-compile for some other type of machine. In fact, several different
-configurations of GNU CC, for different target machines, can be
-installed side by side. Then you specify which one to use with the
-`\|\c
-.B \-b\c
-\&\|' option.
-.PP
-In addition, older and newer versions of GNU CC can be installed side
-by side. One of them (probably the newest) will be the default, but
-you may sometimes wish to use another.
-.TP
-.BI "\-b " "machine"
-The argument \c
-.I machine\c
-\& specifies the target machine for compilation.
-This is useful when you have installed GNU CC as a cross-compiler.
-.Sp
-The value to use for \c
-.I machine\c
-\& is the same as was specified as the
-machine type when configuring GNU CC as a cross-compiler. For
-example, if a cross-compiler was configured with `\|\c
-.B configure
-i386v\c
-\&\|', meaning to compile for an 80386 running System V, then you
-would specify `\|\c
-.B \-b i386v\c
-\&\|' to run that cross compiler.
-.Sp
-When you do not specify `\|\c
-.B \-b\c
-\&\|', it normally means to compile for
-the same type of machine that you are using.
-.TP
-.BI "\-V " "version"
-The argument \c
-.I version\c
-\& specifies which version of GNU CC to run.
-This is useful when multiple versions are installed. For example,
-.I version\c
-\& might be `\|\c
-.B 2.0\c
-\&\|', meaning to run GNU CC version 2.0.
-.Sp
-The default version, when you do not specify `\|\c
-.B \-V\c
-\&\|', is controlled
-by the way GNU CC is installed. Normally, it will be a version that
-is recommended for general use.
-.SH MACHINE DEPENDENT OPTIONS
-Each of the target machine types can have its own special options,
-starting with `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|', to choose among various hardware models or
-configurations\(em\&for example, 68010 vs 68020, floating coprocessor or
-none. A single installed version of the compiler can compile for any
-model or configuration, according to the options specified.
-.PP
-Some configurations of the compiler also support additional special
-options, usually for command-line compatibility with other compilers on
-the same platform.
-.PP
-These are the `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options defined for the 68000 series:
-.TP
-.B \-m68000
-.TP
-.B \-mc68000
-Generate output for a 68000. This is the default when the compiler is
-configured for 68000-based systems.
-.TP
-.B \-m68020
-.TP
-.B \-mc68020
-Generate output for a 68020 (rather than a 68000). This is the
-default when the compiler is configured for 68020-based systems.
-.TP
-.B \-m68881
-Generate output containing 68881 instructions for floating point.
-This is the default for most 68020-based systems unless
-.B \-nfp
-was specified when the compiler was configured.
-.TP
-.B \-m68030
-Generate output for a 68030. This is the default when the compiler is
-configured for 68030-based systems.
-.TP
-.B \-m68040
-Generate output for a 68040. This is the default when the compiler is
-configured for 68040-based systems.
-.TP
-.B \-m68020\-40
-Generate output for a 68040, without using any of the new instructions.
-This results in code which can run relatively efficiently on either a
-68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040.
-.TP
-.B \-mfpa
-Generate output containing Sun FPA instructions for floating point.
-.TP
-.B \-msoft\-float
-Generate output containing library calls for floating point.
-.I
-WARNING:
-the requisite libraries are not part of GNU CC. Normally the
-facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used, but this can't
-be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your own
-arrangements to provide suitable library functions for cross-compilation.
-.TP
-.B \-mshort
-Consider type \c
-.B int\c
-\& to be 16 bits wide, like \c
-.B short int\c
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-mnobitfield
-Do not use the bit-field instructions. `\|\c
-.B \-m68000\c
-\&\|' implies
-`\|\c
-.B \-mnobitfield\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-mbitfield
-Do use the bit-field instructions. `\|\c
-.B \-m68020\c
-\&\|' implies
-`\|\c
-.B \-mbitfield\c
-\&\|'. This is the default if you use the unmodified
-sources.
-.TP
-.B \-mrtd
-Use a different function-calling convention, in which functions
-that take a fixed number of arguments return with the \c
-.B rtd
-instruction, which pops their arguments while returning. This
-saves one instruction in the caller since there is no need to pop
-the arguments there.
-.Sp
-This calling convention is incompatible with the one normally
-used on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call libraries
-compiled with the Unix compiler.
-.Sp
-Also, you must provide function prototypes for all functions that
-take variable numbers of arguments (including \c
-.B printf\c
-\&);
-otherwise incorrect code will be generated for calls to those
-functions.
-.Sp
-In addition, seriously incorrect code will result if you call a
-function with too many arguments. (Normally, extra arguments are
-harmlessly ignored.)
-.Sp
-The \c
-.B rtd\c
-\& instruction is supported by the 68010 and 68020
-processors, but not by the 68000.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the Vax:
-.TP
-.B \-munix
-Do not output certain jump instructions (\c
-.B aobleq\c
-\& and so on)
-that the Unix assembler for the Vax cannot handle across long
-ranges.
-.TP
-.B \-mgnu
-Do output those jump instructions, on the assumption that you
-will assemble with the GNU assembler.
-.TP
-.B \-mg
-Output code for g-format floating point numbers instead of d-format.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' switches are supported on the SPARC:
-.PP
-.B \-mfpu
-.TP
-.B \-mhard\-float
-Generate output containing floating point instructions. This is the
-default.
-.PP
-.B \-mno\-fpu
-.TP
-.B \-msoft\-float
-Generate output containing library calls for floating point.
-.I Warning:
-there is no GNU floating-point library for SPARC.
-Normally the facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used, but
-this cannot be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your
-own arrangements to provide suitable library functions for
-cross-compilation.
-.Sp
-.B \-msoft\-float
-changes the calling convention in the output file;
-therefore, it is only useful if you compile
-.I all
-of a program with this option.
-.PP
-.B \-mno\-epilogue
-.TP
-.B \-mepilogue
-With
-.B \-mepilogue
-(the default), the compiler always emits code for
-function exit at the end of each function. Any function exit in
-the middle of the function (such as a return statement in C) will
-generate a jump to the exit code at the end of the function.
-.Sp
-With
-.BR \-mno\-epilogue ,
-the compiler tries to emit exit code inline at every function exit.
-.PP
-.B \-mno\-v8
-.TP
-.B \-mv8
-.TP
-.B \-msparclite
-These three options select variations on the SPARC architecture.
-.Sp
-By default (unless specifically configured for the Fujitsu SPARClite),
-GCC generates code for the v7 variant of the SPARC architecture.
-.Sp
-.B \-mv8
-will give you SPARC v8 code. The only difference from v7
-code is that the compiler emits the integer multiply and integer
-divide instructions which exist in SPARC v8 but not in SPARC v7.
-.Sp
-.B \-msparclite
-will give you SPARClite code. This adds the integer
-multiply, integer divide step and scan (ffs) instructions which
-exist in SPARClite but not in SPARC v7.
-.PP
-.B \-mcypress
-.TP
-.B \-msupersparc
-These two options select the processor for which the code is optimised.
-.Sp
-With
-.B \-mcypress
-(the default), the compiler optimises code for the Cypress CY7C602 chip, as
-used in the SparcStation/SparcServer 3xx series. This is also appropriate for
-the older SparcStation 1, 2, IPX etc.
-.Sp
-With
-.B \-msupersparc
-the compiler optimises code for the SuperSparc cpu, as used in the SparcStation
-10, 1000 and 2000 series. This flag also enables use of the full SPARC v8
-instruction set.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the Convex:
-.TP
-.B \-mc1
-Generate output for a C1. This is the default when the compiler is
-configured for a C1.
-.TP
-.B \-mc2
-Generate output for a C2. This is the default when the compiler is
-configured for a C2.
-.TP
-.B \-margcount
-Generate code which puts an argument count in the word preceding each
-argument list. Some nonportable Convex and Vax programs need this word.
-(Debuggers don't, except for functions with variable-length argument
-lists; this info is in the symbol table.)
-.TP
-.B \-mnoargcount
-Omit the argument count word. This is the default if you use the
-unmodified sources.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the AMD Am29000:
-.TP
-.B \-mdw
-Generate code that assumes the DW bit is set, i.e., that byte and
-halfword operations are directly supported by the hardware. This is the
-default.
-.TP
-.B \-mnodw
-Generate code that assumes the DW bit is not set.
-.TP
-.B \-mbw
-Generate code that assumes the system supports byte and halfword write
-operations. This is the default.
-.TP
-.B \-mnbw
-Generate code that assumes the systems does not support byte and
-halfword write operations. This implies `\|\c
-.B \-mnodw\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-msmall
-Use a small memory model that assumes that all function addresses are
-either within a single 256 KB segment or at an absolute address of less
-than 256K. This allows the \c
-.B call\c
-\& instruction to be used instead
-of a \c
-.B const\c
-\&, \c
-.B consth\c
-\&, \c
-.B calli\c
-\& sequence.
-.TP
-.B \-mlarge
-Do not assume that the \c
-.B call\c
-\& instruction can be used; this is the
-default.
-.TP
-.B \-m29050
-Generate code for the Am29050.
-.TP
-.B \-m29000
-Generate code for the Am29000. This is the default.
-.TP
-.B \-mkernel\-registers
-Generate references to registers \c
-.B gr64-gr95\c
-\& instead of
-.B gr96-gr127\c
-\&. This option can be used when compiling kernel code
-that wants a set of global registers disjoint from that used by
-user-mode code.
-.Sp
-Note that when this option is used, register names in `\|\c
-.B \-f\c
-\&\|' flags
-must use the normal, user-mode, names.
-.TP
-.B \-muser\-registers
-Use the normal set of global registers, \c
-.B gr96-gr127\c
-\&. This is the
-default.
-.TP
-.B \-mstack\-check
-Insert a call to \c
-.B _\|_msp_check\c
-\& after each stack adjustment. This
-is often used for kernel code.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for Motorola 88K architectures:
-.TP
-.B \-m88000
-Generate code that works well on both the m88100 and the
-m88110.
-.TP
-.B \-m88100
-Generate code that works best for the m88100, but that also
-runs on the m88110.
-.TP
-.B \-m88110
-Generate code that works best for the m88110, and may not run
-on the m88100.
-.TP
-.B \-midentify\-revision
-Include an \c
-.B ident\c
-\& directive in the assembler output recording the
-source file name, compiler name and version, timestamp, and compilation
-flags used.
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-underscores
-In assembler output, emit symbol names without adding an underscore
-character at the beginning of each name. The default is to use an
-underscore as prefix on each name.
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-check\-zero\-division
-.TP
-.B \-mcheck\-zero\-division
-Early models of the 88K architecture had problems with division by zero;
-in particular, many of them didn't trap. Use these options to avoid
-including (or to include explicitly) additional code to detect division
-by zero and signal an exception. All GCC configurations for the 88K use
-`\|\c
-.B \-mcheck\-zero\-division\c
-\&\|' by default.
-.TP
-.B \-mocs\-debug\-info
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-ocs\-debug\-info
-Include (or omit) additional debugging information (about
-registers used in each stack frame) as specified in the 88Open Object
-Compatibility Standard, \*(lqOCS\*(rq. This extra information is not needed
-by GDB. The default for DG/UX, SVr4, and Delta 88 SVr3.2 is to
-include this information; other 88k configurations omit this information
-by default.
-.TP
-.B \-mocs\-frame\-position
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-ocs\-frame\-position
-Force (or do not require) register values to be stored in a particular
-place in stack frames, as specified in OCS. The DG/UX, Delta88 SVr3.2,
-and BCS configurations use `\|\c
-.B \-mocs\-frame\-position\c
-\&\|'; other 88k
-configurations have the default `\|\c
-.B \-mno\-ocs\-frame\-position\c
-\&\|'.
-.TP
-.B \-moptimize\-arg\-area
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-optimize\-arg\-area
-Control how to store function arguments in stack frames.
-`\|\c
-.B \-moptimize\-arg\-area\c
-\&\|' saves space, but may break some
-debuggers (not GDB). `\|\c
-.B \-mno\-optimize\-arg\-area\c
-\&\|' conforms better to
-standards. By default GCC does not optimize the argument area.
-.TP
-.BI "\-mshort\-data\-" "num"
-.I num
-Generate smaller data references by making them relative to \c
-.B r0\c
-\&,
-which allows loading a value using a single instruction (rather than the
-usual two). You control which data references are affected by
-specifying \c
-.I num\c
-\& with this option. For example, if you specify
-`\|\c
-.B \-mshort\-data\-512\c
-\&\|', then the data references affected are those
-involving displacements of less than 512 bytes.
-`\|\c
-.B \-mshort\-data\-\c
-.I num\c
-\&\c
-\&\|' is not effective for \c
-.I num\c
-\& greater
-than 64K.
-.PP
-.B \-mserialize-volatile
-.TP
-.B \-mno-serialize-volatile
-Do, or do not, generate code to guarantee sequential consistency of
-volatile memory references.
-.Sp
-GNU CC always guarantees consistency by default, for the preferred
-processor submodel. How this is done depends on the submodel.
-.Sp
-The m88100 processor does not reorder memory references and so always
-provides sequential consistency. If you use `\|\c
-.B \-m88100\c
-\&\|', GNU CC does
-not generate any special instructions for sequential consistency.
-.Sp
-The order of memory references made by the m88110 processor does not
-always match the order of the instructions requesting those references.
-In particular, a load instruction may execute before a preceding store
-instruction. Such reordering violates sequential consistency of
-volatile memory references, when there are multiple processors. When
-you use `\|\c
-.B \-m88000\c
-\&\|' or `\|\c
-.B \-m88110\c
-\&\|', GNU CC generates special
-instructions when appropriate, to force execution in the proper order.
-.Sp
-The extra code generated to guarantee consistency may affect the
-performance of your application. If you know that you can safely forgo
-this guarantee, you may use the option `\|\c
-.B \-mno-serialize-volatile\c
-\&\|'.
-.Sp
-If you use the `\|\c
-.B \-m88100\c
-\&\|' option but require sequential consistency
-when running on the m88110 processor, you should use
-`\|\c
-.B \-mserialize-volatile\c
-\&\|'.
-.PP
-.B \-msvr4
-.TP
-.B \-msvr3
-Turn on (`\|\c
-.B \-msvr4\c
-\&\|') or off (`\|\c
-.B \-msvr3\c
-\&\|') compiler extensions
-related to System V release 4 (SVr4). This controls the following:
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-Which variant of the assembler syntax to emit (which you can select
-independently using `\|\c
-.B \-mversion\-03.00\c
-\&\|').
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-`\|\c
-.B \-msvr4\c
-\&\|' makes the C preprocessor recognize `\|\c
-.B #pragma weak\c
-\&\|'
-.TP
-\ \ \ \(bu
-`\|\c
-.B \-msvr4\c
-\&\|' makes GCC issue additional declaration directives used in
-SVr4.
-.PP
-`\|\c
-.B \-msvr3\c
-\&\|' is the default for all m88K configurations except
-the SVr4 configuration.
-.TP
-.B \-mtrap\-large\-shift
-.TP
-.B \-mhandle\-large\-shift
-Include code to detect bit-shifts of more than 31 bits; respectively,
-trap such shifts or emit code to handle them properly. By default GCC
-makes no special provision for large bit shifts.
-.TP
-.B \-muse\-div\-instruction
-Very early models of the 88K architecture didn't have a divide
-instruction, so GCC avoids that instruction by default. Use this option
-to specify that it's safe to use the divide instruction.
-.TP
-.B \-mversion\-03.00
-In the DG/UX configuration, there are two flavors of SVr4. This option
-modifies
-.B \-msvr4
-to select whether the hybrid-COFF or real-ELF
-flavor is used. All other configurations ignore this option.
-.TP
-.B \-mwarn\-passed\-structs
-Warn when a function passes a struct as an argument or result.
-Structure-passing conventions have changed during the evolution of the C
-language, and are often the source of portability problems. By default,
-GCC issues no such warning.
-.PP
-These options are defined for the IBM RS6000:
-.PP
-.B \-mfp\-in\-toc
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-fp\-in\-toc
-Control whether or not floating-point constants go in the Table of
-Contents (TOC), a table of all global variable and function addresses. By
-default GCC puts floating-point constants there; if the TOC overflows,
-`\|\c
-.B \-mno\-fp\-in\-toc\c
-\&\|' will reduce the size of the TOC, which may avoid
-the overflow.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the IBM RT PC:
-.TP
-.B \-min\-line\-mul
-Use an in-line code sequence for integer multiplies. This is the
-default.
-.TP
-.B \-mcall\-lib\-mul
-Call \c
-.B lmul$$\c
-\& for integer multiples.
-.TP
-.B \-mfull\-fp\-blocks
-Generate full-size floating point data blocks, including the minimum
-amount of scratch space recommended by IBM. This is the default.
-.TP
-.B \-mminimum\-fp\-blocks
-Do not include extra scratch space in floating point data blocks. This
-results in smaller code, but slower execution, since scratch space must
-be allocated dynamically.
-.TP
-.B \-mfp\-arg\-in\-fpregs
-Use a calling sequence incompatible with the IBM calling convention in
-which floating point arguments are passed in floating point registers.
-Note that \c
-.B varargs.h\c
-\& and \c
-.B stdargs.h\c
-\& will not work with
-floating point operands if this option is specified.
-.TP
-.B \-mfp\-arg\-in\-gregs
-Use the normal calling convention for floating point arguments. This is
-the default.
-.TP
-.B \-mhc\-struct\-return
-Return structures of more than one word in memory, rather than in a
-register. This provides compatibility with the MetaWare HighC (hc)
-compiler. Use `\|\c
-.B \-fpcc\-struct\-return\c
-\&\|' for compatibility with the
-Portable C Compiler (pcc).
-.TP
-.B \-mnohc\-struct\-return
-Return some structures of more than one word in registers, when
-convenient. This is the default. For compatibility with the
-IBM-supplied compilers, use either `\|\c
-.B \-fpcc\-struct\-return\c
-\&\|' or
-`\|\c
-.B \-mhc\-struct\-return\c
-\&\|'.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the MIPS family of computers:
-.TP
-.BI "\-mcpu=" "cpu-type"
-Assume the defaults for the machine type
-.I cpu-type
-when
-scheduling instructions. The default
-.I cpu-type
-is
-.BR default ,
-which picks the longest cycles times for any of the machines, in order
-that the code run at reasonable rates on all MIPS cpu's. Other
-choices for
-.I cpu-type
-are
-.BR r2000 ,
-.BR r3000 ,
-.BR r4000 ,
-and
-.BR r6000 .
-While picking a specific
-.I cpu-type
-will schedule things appropriately for that particular chip, the
-compiler will not generate any code that does not meet level 1 of the
-MIPS ISA (instruction set architecture) without the
-.B \-mips2
-or
-.B \-mips3
-switches being used.
-.TP
-.B \-mips2
-Issue instructions from level 2 of the MIPS ISA (branch likely, square
-root instructions). The
-.B \-mcpu=r4000
-or
-.B \-mcpu=r6000
-switch must be used in conjunction with
-.BR \-mips2 .
-.TP
-.B \-mips3
-Issue instructions from level 3 of the MIPS ISA (64 bit instructions).
-The
-.B \-mcpu=r4000
-switch must be used in conjunction with
-.BR \-mips2 .
-.TP
-.B \-mint64
-.TP
-.B \-mlong64
-.TP
-.B \-mlonglong128
-These options don't work at present.
-.TP
-.B \-mmips\-as
-Generate code for the MIPS assembler, and invoke
-.B mips\-tfile
-to add normal debug information. This is the default for all
-platforms except for the OSF/1 reference platform, using the OSF/rose
-object format. If any of the
-.BR \-ggdb ,
-.BR \-gstabs ,
-or
-.B \-gstabs+
-switches are used, the
-.B mips\-tfile
-program will encapsulate the stabs within MIPS ECOFF.
-.TP
-.B \-mgas
-Generate code for the GNU assembler. This is the default on the OSF/1
-reference platform, using the OSF/rose object format.
-.TP
-.B \-mrnames
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-rnames
-The
-.B \-mrnames
-switch says to output code using the MIPS software names for the
-registers, instead of the hardware names (ie,
-.B a0
-instead of
-.BR $4 ).
-The GNU assembler does not support the
-.B \-mrnames
-switch, and the MIPS assembler will be instructed to run the MIPS C
-preprocessor over the source file. The
-.B \-mno\-rnames
-switch is default.
-.TP
-.B \-mgpopt
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-gpopt
-The
-.B \-mgpopt
-switch says to write all of the data declarations before the
-instructions in the text section, to all the MIPS assembler to
-generate one word memory references instead of using two words for
-short global or static data items. This is on by default if
-optimization is selected.
-.TP
-.B \-mstats
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-stats
-For each non-inline function processed, the
-.B \-mstats
-switch causes the compiler to emit one line to the standard error file
-to print statistics about the program (number of registers saved,
-stack size, etc.).
-.TP
-.B \-mmemcpy
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-memcpy
-The
-.B \-mmemcpy
-switch makes all block moves call the appropriate string function
-.RB ( memcpy
-or
-.BR bcopy )
-instead of possibly generating inline code.
-.TP
-.B \-mmips\-tfile
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-mips\-tfile
-The
-.B \-mno\-mips\-tfile
-switch causes the compiler not postprocess the object file with the
-.B mips\-tfile
-program, after the MIPS assembler has generated it to add debug
-support. If
-.B mips\-tfile
-is not run, then no local variables will be available to the debugger.
-In addition,
-.B stage2
-and
-.B stage3
-objects will have the temporary file names passed to the assembler
-embedded in the object file, which means the objects will not compare
-the same.
-.TP
-.B \-msoft\-float
-Generate output containing library calls for floating point.
-.I
-WARNING:
-the requisite libraries are not part of GNU CC. Normally the
-facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used, but this can't
-be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your own
-arrangements to provide suitable library functions for cross-compilation.
-.TP
-.B \-mhard\-float
-Generate output containing floating point instructions. This is the
-default if you use the unmodified sources.
-.TP
-.B \-mfp64
-Assume that the
-.B FR
-bit in the status word is on, and that there are 32 64-bit floating
-point registers, instead of 32 32-bit floating point registers. You
-must also specify the
-.B \-mcpu=r4000
-and
-.B \-mips3
-switches.
-.TP
-.B \-mfp32
-Assume that there are 32 32-bit floating point registers. This is the
-default.
-.PP
-.B \-mabicalls
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-abicalls
-Emit (or do not emit) the
-.BR \&.abicalls ,
-.BR \&.cpload ,
-and
-.B \&.cprestore
-pseudo operations that some System V.4 ports use for position
-independent code.
-.TP
-.B \-mhalf\-pic
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-half\-pic
-The
-.B \-mhalf\-pic
-switch says to put pointers to extern references into the data section
-and load them up, rather than put the references in the text section.
-This option does not work at present.
-.B
-.BI \-G num
-Put global and static items less than or equal to
-.I num
-bytes into the small data or bss sections instead of the normal data
-or bss section. This allows the assembler to emit one word memory
-reference instructions based on the global pointer
-.RB ( gp
-or
-.BR $28 ),
-instead of the normal two words used. By default,
-.I num
-is 8 when the MIPS assembler is used, and 0 when the GNU
-assembler is used. The
-.BI \-G num
-switch is also passed to the assembler and linker. All modules should
-be compiled with the same
-.BI \-G num
-value.
-.TP
-.B \-nocpp
-Tell the MIPS assembler to not run its preprocessor over user
-assembler files (with a `\|\c
-.B .s\c
-\&\|' suffix) when assembling them.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the Intel 80386 family of computers:
-.B \-m486
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-486
-Control whether or not code is optimized for a 486 instead of an
-386. Code generated for a 486 will run on a 386 and vice versa.
-.TP
-.B \-msoft\-float
-Generate output containing library calls for floating point.
-.I Warning:
-the requisite libraries are not part of GNU CC.
-Normally the facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used, but
-this can't be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your
-own arrangements to provide suitable library functions for
-cross-compilation.
-.Sp
-On machines where a function returns floating point results in the 80387
-register stack, some floating point opcodes may be emitted even if
-`\|\c
-.B \-msoft-float\c
-\&\|' is used.
-.TP
-.B \-mno-fp-ret-in-387
-Do not use the FPU registers for return values of functions.
-.Sp
-The usual calling convention has functions return values of types
-.B float\c
-\& and \c
-.B double\c
-\& in an FPU register, even if there
-is no FPU. The idea is that the operating system should emulate
-an FPU.
-.Sp
-The option `\|\c
-.B \-mno-fp-ret-in-387\c
-\&\|' causes such values to be returned
-in ordinary CPU registers instead.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the HPPA family of computers:
-.TP
-.B \-mpa-risc-1-0
-Generate code for a PA 1.0 processor.
-.TP
-.B \-mpa-risc-1-1
-Generate code for a PA 1.1 processor.
-.TP
-.B \-mkernel
-Generate code which is suitable for use in kernels. Specifically, avoid
-.B add\c
-\& instructions in which one of the arguments is the DP register;
-generate \c
-.B addil\c
-\& instructions instead. This avoids a rather serious
-bug in the HP-UX linker.
-.TP
-.B \-mshared-libs
-Generate code that can be linked against HP-UX shared libraries. This option
-is not fully function yet, and is not on by default for any PA target. Using
-this option can cause incorrect code to be generated by the compiler.
-.TP
-.B \-mno-shared-libs
-Don't generate code that will be linked against shared libraries. This is
-the default for all PA targets.
-.TP
-.B \-mlong-calls
-Generate code which allows calls to functions greater than 256K away from
-the caller when the caller and callee are in the same source file. Do
-not turn this option on unless code refuses to link with \*(lqbranch out of
-range errors\*('' from the linker.
-.TP
-.B \-mdisable-fpregs
-Prevent floating point registers from being used in any manner. This is
-necessary for compiling kernels which perform lazy context switching of
-floating point registers. If you use this option and attempt to perform
-floating point operations, the compiler will abort.
-.TP
-.B \-mdisable-indexing
-Prevent the compiler from using indexing address modes. This avoids some
-rather obscure problems when compiling MIG generated code under MACH.
-.TP
-.B \-mtrailing-colon
-Add a colon to the end of label definitions (for ELF assemblers).
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the Intel 80960 family of computers:
-.TP
-.BI "\-m" "cpu-type"
-Assume the defaults for the machine type
-.I cpu-type
-for instruction and addressing-mode availability and alignment.
-The default
-.I cpu-type
-is
-.BR kb ;
-other choices are
-.BR ka ,
-.BR mc ,
-.BR ca ,
-.BR cf ,
-.BR sa ,
-and
-.BR sb .
-.TP
-.B \-mnumerics
-.TP
-.B \-msoft\-float
-The
-.B \-mnumerics
-option indicates that the processor does support
-floating-point instructions. The
-.B \-msoft\-float
-option indicates
-that floating-point support should not be assumed.
-.TP
-.B \-mleaf\-procedures
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-leaf\-procedures
-Do (or do not) attempt to alter leaf procedures to be callable with the
-.I bal
-instruction as well as
-.IR call .
-This will result in more
-efficient code for explicit calls when the
-.I bal
-instruction can be
-substituted by the assembler or linker, but less efficient code in other
-cases, such as calls via function pointers, or using a linker that doesn't
-support this optimization.
-.TP
-.B \-mtail\-call
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-tail\-call
-Do (or do not) make additional attempts (beyond those of the
-machine-independent portions of the compiler) to optimize tail-recursive
-calls into branches. You may not want to do this because the detection of
-cases where this is not valid is not totally complete. The default is
-.BR \-mno\-tail\-call .
-.TP
-.B \-mcomplex\-addr
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-complex\-addr
-Assume (or do not assume) that the use of a complex addressing mode is a
-win on this implementation of the i960. Complex addressing modes may not
-be worthwhile on the K-series, but they definitely are on the C-series.
-The default is currently
-.B \-mcomplex\-addr
-for all processors except
-the CB and CC.
-.TP
-.B \-mcode\-align
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-code\-align
-Align code to 8-byte boundaries for faster fetching (or don't bother).
-Currently turned on by default for C-series implementations only.
-.TP
-.B \-mic\-compat
-.TP
-.B \-mic2.0\-compat
-.TP
-.B \-mic3.0\-compat
-Enable compatibility with iC960 v2.0 or v3.0.
-.TP
-.B \-masm\-compat
-.TP
-.B \-mintel\-asm
-Enable compatibility with the iC960 assembler.
-.TP
-.B \-mstrict\-align
-.TP
-.B \-mno\-strict\-align
-Do not permit (do permit) unaligned accesses.
-.TP
-.B \-mold\-align
-Enable structure-alignment compatibility with Intel's gcc release version
-1.3 (based on gcc 1.37). Currently this is buggy in that
-.B #pragma align 1
-is always assumed as well, and cannot be turned off.
-.PP
-These `\|\c
-.B \-m\c
-\&\|' options are defined for the DEC Alpha implementations:
-.TP
-.B \-mno-soft-float
-.TP
-.B \-msoft-float
-Use (do not use) the hardware floating-point instructions for
-floating-point operations. When \c
-.B \-msoft-float\c
-\& is specified,
-functions in `\|\c
-.B libgcc1.c\c
-\&\|' will be used to perform floating-point
-operations. Unless they are replaced by routines that emulate the
-floating-point operations, or compiled in such a way as to call such
-emulations routines, these routines will issue floating-point
-operations. If you are compiling for an Alpha without floating-point
-operations, you must ensure that the library is built so as not to call
-them.
-.Sp
-Note that Alpha implementations without floating-point operations are
-required to have floating-point registers.
-.TP
-.B \-mfp-reg
-.TP
-.B \-mno-fp-regs
-Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point register set.
-.B \-mno-fp-regs\c
-\& implies \c
-.B \-msoft-float\c
-\&. If the floating-point
-register set is not used, floating point operands are passed in integer
-registers as if they were integers and floating-point results are passed
-in $0 instead of $f0. This is a non-standard calling sequence, so any
-function with a floating-point argument or return value called by code
-compiled with \c
-.B \-mno-fp-regs\c
-\& must also be compiled with that
-option.
-.Sp
-A typical use of this option is building a kernel that does not use,
-and hence need not save and restore, any floating-point registers.
-.PP
-These additional options are available on System V Release 4 for
-compatibility with other compilers on those systems:
-.TP
-.B \-G
-On SVr4 systems, \c
-.B gcc\c
-\& accepts the option `\|\c
-.B \-G\c
-\&\|' (and passes
-it to the system linker), for compatibility with other compilers.
-However, we suggest you use `\|\c
-.B \-symbolic\c
-\&\|' or `\|\c
-.B \-shared\c
-\&\|' as
-appropriate, instead of supplying linker options on the \c
-.B gcc
-command line.
-.TP
-.B \-Qy
-Identify the versions of each tool used by the compiler, in a
-.B .ident\c
-\& assembler directive in the output.
-.TP
-.B \-Qn
-Refrain from adding \c
-.B .ident\c
-\& directives to the output file (this is
-the default).
-.TP
-.BI "\-YP," "dirs"
-Search the directories \c
-.I dirs\c
-\&, and no others, for libraries
-specified with `\|\c
-.B \-l\c
-\&\|'. You can separate directory entries in
-.I dirs\c
-\& from one another with colons.
-.TP
-.BI "\-Ym," "dir"
-Look in the directory \c
-.I dir\c
-\& to find the M4 preprocessor.
-The assembler uses this option.
-.SH CODE GENERATION OPTIONS
-These machine-independent options control the interface conventions
-used in code generation.
-.PP
-Most of them begin with `\|\c
-\-f\c
-\&\|'. These options have both positive and negative forms; the negative form
-of `\|\c
-.B \-ffoo\c
-\&\|' would be `\|\c
-.B \-fno\-foo\c
-\&\|'. In the table below, only
-one of the forms is listed\(em\&the one which is not the default. You
-can figure out the other form by either removing `\|\c
-.B no\-\c
-\&\|' or adding
-it.
-.TP
-.B \-fnonnull\-objects
-Assume that objects reached through references are not null
-(C++ only).
-.Sp
-Normally, GNU C++ makes conservative assumptions about objects reached
-through references. For example, the compiler must check that \c
-.B a
-is not null in code like the following:
-.Sp
-obj &a = g ();
-a.f (2);
-.Sp
-Checking that references of this sort have non-null values requires
-extra code, however, and it is unnecessary for many programs. You can
-use `\|\c
-.B \-fnonnull-objects\c
-\&\|' to omit the checks for null, if your
-program doesn't require checking.
-.TP
-.B \-fpcc\-struct\-return
-Use the same convention for returning \c
-.B struct\c
-\& and \c
-.B union
-values that is used by the usual C compiler on your system. This
-convention is less efficient for small structures, and on many
-machines it fails to be reentrant; but it has the advantage of
-allowing intercallability between GCC-compiled code and PCC-compiled
-code.
-.TP
-.B \-freg\-struct\-return
-Use the convention that
-.B struct
-and
-.B union
-values are returned in registers when possible. This is more
-efficient for small structures than
-.BR \-fpcc\-struct\-return .
-.Sp
-If you specify neither
-.B \-fpcc\-struct\-return
-nor
-.BR \-freg\-struct\-return ,
-GNU CC defaults to whichever convention is standard for the target.
-If there is no standard convention, GNU CC defaults to
-.BR \-fpcc\-struct\-return .
-.TP
-.B \-fshort\-enums
-Allocate to an \c
-.B enum\c
-\& type only as many bytes as it needs for the
-declared range of possible values. Specifically, the \c
-.B enum\c
-\& type
-will be equivalent to the smallest integer type which has enough room.
-.TP
-.B \-fshort\-double
-Use the same size for
-.B double
-as for
-.B float
-\&.
-.TP
-.B \-fshared\-data
-Requests that the data and non-\c
-.B const\c
-\& variables of this
-compilation be shared data rather than private data. The distinction
-makes sense only on certain operating systems, where shared data is
-shared between processes running the same program, while private data
-exists in one copy per process.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-common
-Allocate even uninitialized global variables in the bss section of the
-object file, rather than generating them as common blocks. This has the
-effect that if the same variable is declared (without \c
-.B extern\c
-\&) in
-two different compilations, you will get an error when you link them.
-The only reason this might be useful is if you wish to verify that the
-program will work on other systems which always work this way.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-ident
-Ignore the `\|\c
-.B #ident\c
-\&\|' directive.
-.TP
-.B \-fno\-gnu\-linker
-Do not output global initializations (such as C++ constructors and
-destructors) in the form used by the GNU linker (on systems where the GNU
-linker is the standard method of handling them). Use this option when
-you want to use a non-GNU linker, which also requires using the
-.B collect2\c
-\& program to make sure the system linker includes
-constructors and destructors. (\c
-.B collect2\c
-\& is included in the GNU CC
-distribution.) For systems which \c
-.I must\c
-\& use \c
-.B collect2\c
-\&, the
-compiler driver \c
-.B gcc\c
-\& is configured to do this automatically.
-.TP
-.B \-finhibit-size-directive
-Don't output a \c
-.B .size\c
-\& assembler directive, or anything else that
-would cause trouble if the function is split in the middle, and the
-two halves are placed at locations far apart in memory. This option is
-used when compiling `\|\c
-.B crtstuff.c\c
-\&\|'; you should not need to use it
-for anything else.
-.TP
-.B \-fverbose-asm
-Put extra commentary information in the generated assembly code to
-make it more readable. This option is generally only of use to those
-who actually need to read the generated assembly code (perhaps while
-debugging the compiler itself).
-.TP
-.B \-fvolatile
-Consider all memory references through pointers to be volatile.
-.TP
-.B \-fvolatile\-global
-Consider all memory references to extern and global data items to
-be volatile.
-.TP
-.B \-fpic
-If supported for the target machines, generate position-independent code,
-suitable for use in a shared library.
-.TP
-.B \-fPIC
-If supported for the target machine, emit position-independent code,
-suitable for dynamic linking, even if branches need large displacements.
-.TP
-.BI "\-ffixed\-" "reg"
-Treat the register named \c
-.I reg\c
-\& as a fixed register; generated code
-should never refer to it (except perhaps as a stack pointer, frame
-pointer or in some other fixed role).
-.Sp
-.I reg\c
-\& must be the name of a register. The register names accepted
-are machine-specific and are defined in the \c
-.B REGISTER_NAMES
-macro in the machine description macro file.
-.Sp
-This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
-three-way choice.
-.TP
-.BI "\-fcall\-used\-" "reg"
-Treat the register named \c
-.I reg\c
-\& as an allocable register that is
-clobbered by function calls. It may be allocated for temporaries or
-variables that do not live across a call. Functions compiled this way
-will not save and restore the register \c
-.I reg\c
-\&.
-.Sp
-Use of this flag for a register that has a fixed pervasive role in the
-machine's execution model, such as the stack pointer or frame pointer,
-will produce disastrous results.
-.Sp
-This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
-three-way choice.
-.TP
-.BI "\-fcall\-saved\-" "reg"
-Treat the register named \c
-.I reg\c
-\& as an allocable register saved by
-functions. It may be allocated even for temporaries or variables that
-live across a call. Functions compiled this way will save and restore
-the register \c
-.I reg\c
-\& if they use it.
-.Sp
-Use of this flag for a register that has a fixed pervasive role in the
-machine's execution model, such as the stack pointer or frame pointer,
-will produce disastrous results.
-.Sp
-A different sort of disaster will result from the use of this flag for
-a register in which function values may be returned.
-.Sp
-This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
-three-way choice.
-.SH PRAGMAS
-Two `\|\c
-.B #pragma\c
-\&\|' directives are supported for GNU C++, to permit using the same
-header file for two purposes: as a definition of interfaces to a given
-object class, and as the full definition of the contents of that object class.
-.TP
-.B #pragma interface
-(C++ only.)
-Use this directive in header files that define object classes, to save
-space in most of the object files that use those classes. Normally,
-local copies of certain information (backup copies of inline member
-functions, debugging information, and the internal tables that
-implement virtual functions) must be kept in each object file that
-includes class definitions. You can use this pragma to avoid such
-duplication. When a header file containing `\|\c
-.B #pragma interface\c
-\&\|' is included in a compilation, this auxiliary information
-will not be generated (unless the main input source file itself uses
-`\|\c
-.B #pragma implementation\c
-\&\|'). Instead, the object files will contain references to be
-resolved at link time.
-.TP
-.B #pragma implementation
-.TP
-\fB#pragma implementation "\fP\fIobjects\fP\fB.h"\fP
-(C++ only.)
-Use this pragma in a main input file, when you want full output from
-included header files to be generated (and made globally visible).
-The included header file, in turn, should use `\|\c
-.B #pragma interface\c
-\&\|'.
-Backup copies of inline member functions, debugging information, and
-the internal tables used to implement virtual functions are all
-generated in implementation files.
-.Sp
-If you use `\|\c
-.B #pragma implementation\c
-\&\|' with no argument, it applies to an include file with the same
-basename as your source file; for example, in `\|\c
-.B allclass.cc\c
-\&\|', `\|\c
-.B #pragma implementation\c
-\&\|' by itself is equivalent to `\|\c
-.B
-#pragma implementation "allclass.h"\c
-\&\|'. Use the string argument if you want a single implementation
-file to include code from multiple header files.
-.Sp
-There is no way to split up the contents of a single header file into
-multiple implementation files.
-.SH FILES
-.nf
-.ta \w'LIBDIR/g++\-include 'u
-file.c C source file
-file.h C header (preprocessor) file
-file.i preprocessed C source file
-file.C C++ source file
-file.cc C++ source file
-file.cxx C++ source file
-file.m Objective-C source file
-file.s assembly language file
-file.o object file
-a.out link edited output
-\fITMPDIR\fR/cc\(** temporary files
-\fILIBDIR\fR/cpp preprocessor
-\fILIBDIR\fR/cc1 compiler for C
-\fILIBDIR\fR/cc1plus compiler for C++
-\fILIBDIR\fR/collect linker front end needed on some machines
-\fILIBDIR\fR/libgcc.a GCC subroutine library
-/lib/crt[01n].o start-up routine
-\fILIBDIR\fR/ccrt0 additional start-up routine for C++
-/lib/libc.a standard C library, see
-.IR intro (3)
-/usr/include standard directory for \fB#include\fP files
-\fILIBDIR\fR/include standard gcc directory for \fB#include\fP files
-\fILIBDIR\fR/g++\-include additional g++ directory for \fB#include\fP
-.Sp
-.fi
-.I LIBDIR
-is usually
-.B /usr/local/lib/\c
-.IR machine / version .
-.br
-.I TMPDIR
-comes from the environment variable
-.B TMPDIR
-(default
-.B /usr/tmp
-if available, else
-.B /tmp\c
-\&).
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-cpp(1), as(1), ld(1), gdb(1), adb(1), dbx(1), sdb(1).
-.br
-.RB "`\|" gcc "\|', `\|" cpp \|',
-.RB "`\|" as "\|', `\|" ld \|',
-and
-.RB `\| gdb \|'
-entries in
-.B info\c
-\&.
-.br
-.I
-Using and Porting GNU CC (for version 2.0)\c
-, Richard M. Stallman;
-.I
-The C Preprocessor\c
-, Richard M. Stallman;
-.I
-Debugging with GDB: the GNU Source-Level Debugger\c
-, Richard M. Stallman and Roland H. Pesch;
-.I
-Using as: the GNU Assembler\c
-, Dean Elsner, Jay Fenlason & friends;
-.I
-ld: the GNU linker\c
-, Steve Chamberlain and Roland Pesch.
-.SH BUGS
-For instructions on reporting bugs, see the GCC manual.
-.SH COPYING
-Copyright
-.if t \(co
-1991, 1992, 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
-.PP
-Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
-this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
-are preserved on all copies.
-.PP
-Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
-manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
-entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
-permission notice identical to this one.
-.PP
-Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
-manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
-versions, except that this permission notice may be included in
-translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in
-the original English.
-.SH AUTHORS
-See the GNU CC Manual for the contributors to GNU CC.