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authorStefan Eßer <se@FreeBSD.org>2020-11-26 17:27:07 +0000
committerStefan Eßer <se@FreeBSD.org>2020-11-26 17:27:07 +0000
commit2e4772e82335c32e07d0605e5edefb0ac6ea857b (patch)
treed7a054971d1ea18056d0ddb9e0bf0aeb93fb274f
parent907a6834f73ccf2839853eb67a29726275ed04b4 (diff)
downloadsrc-2e4772e82335c32e07d0605e5edefb0ac6ea857b.tar.gz
src-2e4772e82335c32e07d0605e5edefb0ac6ea857b.zip
Import version 3.2.0vendor/bc/3.2.0
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/bc/dist/; revision=368068 svn path=/vendor/bc/3.2.0/; revision=368069; tag=vendor/bc/3.2.0
-rw-r--r--.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Makefile.in101
-rw-r--r--NEWS.md18
-rw-r--r--README.md18
-rwxr-xr-xconfigure.sh261
-rwxr-xr-xexec-install.sh (renamed from install.sh)0
-rw-r--r--gen/lib.bc2
-rw-r--r--gen/strgen.c21
-rwxr-xr-xgen/strgen.sh6
-rw-r--r--include/bcl.h184
-rw-r--r--include/file.h2
-rw-r--r--include/lex.h4
-rw-r--r--include/library.h165
-rw-r--r--include/num.h64
-rw-r--r--include/parse.h9
-rw-r--r--include/rand.h1
-rw-r--r--include/status.h132
-rw-r--r--include/vector.h1
-rw-r--r--include/vm.h75
-rwxr-xr-xmanpage.sh32
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc.1.md.in14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/A.12025
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/A.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/E.11181
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/E.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EH.11165
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EH.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EHN.11161
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EHN.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EHNP.11159
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EHNP.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EHP.11163
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EHP.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EN.11177
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EN.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/ENP.11175
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/ENP.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EP.11179
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/EP.1.md6
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/H.12009
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/H.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/HN.12005
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/HN.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/HNP.12003
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/HNP.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/HP.12007
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/HP.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/N.12021
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/N.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/NP.12019
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/NP.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/P.12023
-rw-r--r--manuals/bc/P.1.md14
-rw-r--r--manuals/bcl.31365
-rw-r--r--manuals/bcl.3.md1177
-rw-r--r--manuals/build.md23
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc.1.md.in13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/A.11203
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/A.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/E.1965
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/E.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EH.1951
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EH.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EHN.1949
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EHN.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EHNP.1947
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EHNP.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EHP.1949
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EHP.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EN.1963
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EN.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/ENP.1961
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/ENP.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EP.1963
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/EP.1.md7
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/H.11189
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/H.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/HN.11187
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/HN.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/HNP.11185
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/HNP.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/HP.11187
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/HP.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/N.11201
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/N.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/NP.11199
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/NP.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/P.11201
-rw-r--r--manuals/dc/P.1.md13
-rw-r--r--manuals/header.txt27
-rw-r--r--manuals/header_bc.txt1
-rw-r--r--manuals/header_bcl.txt1
-rw-r--r--manuals/header_dc.txt1
-rwxr-xr-xrelease.sh46
-rw-r--r--src/args.c6
-rw-r--r--src/bc.c (renamed from src/bc/bc.c)1
-rw-r--r--src/bc_lex.c (renamed from src/bc/lex.c)17
-rw-r--r--src/bc_parse.c (renamed from src/bc/parse.c)160
-rw-r--r--src/data.c45
-rw-r--r--src/dc.c (renamed from src/dc/dc.c)1
-rw-r--r--src/dc_lex.c (renamed from src/dc/lex.c)6
-rw-r--r--src/dc_parse.c (renamed from src/dc/parse.c)14
-rw-r--r--src/file.c6
-rw-r--r--src/history.c (renamed from src/history/history.c)15
-rw-r--r--src/lang.c2
-rw-r--r--src/lex.c11
-rw-r--r--src/library.c1183
-rw-r--r--src/main.c3
-rw-r--r--src/num.c562
-rw-r--r--src/opt.c18
-rw-r--r--src/parse.c3
-rw-r--r--src/program.c83
-rw-r--r--src/rand.c (renamed from src/rand/rand.c)5
-rw-r--r--src/read.c12
-rw-r--r--src/vector.c3
-rw-r--r--src/vm.c126
-rw-r--r--tests/bcl.c228
117 files changed, 26190 insertions, 23077 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 85681bf6b48e..fb9bc5ab6aa2 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@ bin/*bc
bin/*bc.exe
bin/*dc
bin/*dc.exe
+bin/bcl
bc.old
*.o
*.a
diff --git a/Makefile.in b/Makefile.in
index 53f782c02791..4cc653b6a5cd 100644
--- a/Makefile.in
+++ b/Makefile.in
@@ -29,33 +29,13 @@
#
.POSIX:
-VERSION = 3.1.6
+VERSION = 3.2.0
SRC = %%SRC%%
OBJ = %%OBJ%%
GCDA = %%GCDA%%
GCNO = %%GCNO%%
-BC_SRC = %%BC_SRC%%
-BC_OBJ = %%BC_OBJ%%
-BC_GCDA = %%BC_GCDA%%
-BC_GCNO = %%BC_GCNO%%
-
-DC_SRC = %%DC_SRC%%
-DC_OBJ = %%DC_OBJ%%
-DC_GCDA = %%DC_GCDA%%
-DC_GCNO = %%DC_GCNO%%
-
-HISTORY_SRC = %%HISTORY_SRC%%
-HISTORY_OBJ = %%HISTORY_OBJ%%
-HISTORY_GCDA = %%HISTORY_GCDA%%
-HISTORY_GCNO = %%HISTORY_GCNO%%
-
-RAND_SRC = %%RAND_SRC%%
-RAND_OBJ = %%RAND_OBJ%%
-RAND_GCDA = %%RAND_GCDA%%
-RAND_GCNO = %%RAND_GCNO%%
-
BC_ENABLED_NAME = BC_ENABLED
BC_ENABLED = %%BC_ENABLED%%
DC_ENABLED_NAME = DC_ENABLED
@@ -102,6 +82,13 @@ DC = dc
BC_EXEC = $(BIN)/$(EXEC_PREFIX)$(BC)
DC_EXEC = $(BIN)/$(EXEC_PREFIX)$(DC)
+LIB = libbcl
+LIB_NAME = $(LIB).a
+LIBBC = $(BIN)/$(LIB_NAME)
+BCL = bcl
+BCL_TEST = $(BIN)/$(BCL)
+BCL_TEST_C = tests/$(BCL).c
+
MANUALS = manuals
BC_MANPAGE_NAME = $(EXEC_PREFIX)$(BC)$(EXEC_SUFFIX).1
BC_MANPAGE = $(MANUALS)/$(BC).1
@@ -109,16 +96,28 @@ BC_MD = $(BC_MANPAGE).md
DC_MANPAGE_NAME = $(EXEC_PREFIX)$(DC)$(EXEC_SUFFIX).1
DC_MANPAGE = $(MANUALS)/$(DC).1
DC_MD = $(DC_MANPAGE).md
+BCL_MANPAGE_NAME = bcl.3
+BCL_MANPAGE = $(MANUALS)/$(BCL_MANPAGE_NAME)
+BCL_MD = $(BCL_MANPAGE).md
MANPAGE_INSTALL_ARGS = -Dm644
+BINARY_INSTALL_ARGS = -Dm755
+
+BCL_HEADER_NAME = bcl.h
+BCL_HEADER = include/$(BCL_HEADER_NAME)
%%DESTDIR%%
BINDIR = %%BINDIR%%
+INCLUDEDIR = %%INCLUDEDIR%%
+LIBDIR = %%LIBDIR%%
MAN1DIR = %%MAN1DIR%%
+MAN3DIR = %%MAN3DIR%%
MAIN_EXEC = $(EXEC_PREFIX)$(%%MAIN_EXEC%%)$(EXEC_SUFFIX)
EXEC = $(%%EXEC%%)
NLSPATH = %%NLSPATH%%
+BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY = %%LIBRARY%%
+
BC_ENABLE_HISTORY = %%HISTORY%%
BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH_NAME = BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH
BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH = %%EXTRA_MATH%%
@@ -129,7 +128,7 @@ BC_LONG_BIT = %%LONG_BIT%%
RM = rm
MKDIR = mkdir
-INSTALL = ./install.sh
+INSTALL = ./exec-install.sh
SAFE_INSTALL = ./safe-install.sh
LINK = ./link.sh
MANPAGE = ./manpage.sh
@@ -148,7 +147,7 @@ CPPFLAGS4 = $(CPPFLAGS3) -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200809L -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=700
CPPFLAGS5 = $(CPPFLAGS4) -DBC_NUM_KARATSUBA_LEN=$(BC_NUM_KARATSUBA_LEN)
CPPFLAGS6 = $(CPPFLAGS5) -DBC_ENABLE_NLS=$(BC_ENABLE_NLS) -DBC_ENABLE_PROMPT=$(BC_ENABLE_PROMPT)
CPPFLAGS7 = $(CPPFLAGS6) -D$(BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH_NAME)=$(BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH)
-CPPFLAGS = $(CPPFLAGS7) -DBC_ENABLE_HISTORY=$(BC_ENABLE_HISTORY)
+CPPFLAGS = $(CPPFLAGS7) -DBC_ENABLE_HISTORY=$(BC_ENABLE_HISTORY) -DBC_ENABLE_LIBRARY=$(BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY)
CFLAGS = $(CPPFLAGS) %%CPPFLAGS%% %%CFLAGS%%
LDFLAGS = %%LDFLAGS%%
@@ -157,21 +156,24 @@ HOSTCFLAGS = %%HOSTCFLAGS%%
CC = %%CC%%
HOSTCC = %%HOSTCC%%
-BC_LIB_C_ARGS = bc_lib bc.h bc_lib_name $(BC_ENABLED_NAME) 1
-BC_LIB2_C_ARGS = bc_lib2 bc.h bc_lib2_name "$(BC_ENABLED_NAME) && $(BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH_NAME)" 1
+BC_LIB_C_ARGS = bc_lib bc_lib_name $(BC_ENABLED_NAME) 1
+BC_LIB2_C_ARGS = bc_lib2 bc_lib2_name "$(BC_ENABLED_NAME) && $(BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH_NAME)" 1
-OBJS1 = $(OBJ) $(DC_OBJ) $(BC_OBJ) $(HISTORY_OBJ) $(RAND_OBJ) $(BC_HELP_O) $(DC_HELP_O)
-OBJS = $(OBJS1) $(BC_LIB_O) $(BC_LIB2_O) $(BC_LIB3_O)
-OBJ_TARGETS1 = $(DC_HELP_O) $(BC_HELP_O) $(BC_LIB_O) $(BC_LIB2_O) $(BC_LIB3_O)
-OBJ_TARGETS = $(OBJ_TARGETS1) $(BC_OBJ) $(DC_OBJ) $(HISTORY_OBJ) $(RAND_OBJ) $(OBJ)
+OBJS = $(BC_HELP_O) $(DC_HELP_O) $(BC_LIB_O) $(BC_LIB2_O) $(OBJ)
+OBJ_TARGETS = $(DC_HELP_O) $(BC_HELP_O) $(BC_LIB_O) $(BC_LIB2_O) $(OBJ)
.c.o:
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -o $@ -c $<
-all: make_bin $(OBJ_TARGETS)
+all: %%ALL_PREREQ%%
+
+execs: make_bin $(OBJ_TARGETS)
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(OBJS) $(LDFLAGS) -o $(EXEC)
%%LINK%%
+library: make_bin $(OBJ) $(BC_LIB_O) $(BC_LIB2_O)
+ ar -r -cu $(LIBBC) $(BC_LIB_O) $(BC_LIB2_O) $(OBJ)
+
$(GEN_EXEC):
%%GEN_EXEC_TARGET%%
@@ -182,10 +184,10 @@ $(BC_LIB2_C): $(GEN_EXEC) $(BC_LIB2)
$(GEN_EMU) $(GEN_EXEC) $(BC_LIB2) $(BC_LIB2_C) $(BC_LIB2_C_ARGS)
$(BC_HELP_C): $(GEN_EXEC) $(BC_HELP)
- $(GEN_EMU) $(GEN_EXEC) $(BC_HELP) $(BC_HELP_C) bc_help bc.h "" $(BC_ENABLED_NAME)
+ $(GEN_EMU) $(GEN_EXEC) $(BC_HELP) $(BC_HELP_C) bc_help "" $(BC_ENABLED_NAME)
$(DC_HELP_C): $(GEN_EXEC) $(DC_HELP)
- $(GEN_EMU) $(GEN_EXEC) $(DC_HELP) $(DC_HELP_C) dc_help dc.h "" $(DC_ENABLED_NAME)
+ $(GEN_EMU) $(GEN_EXEC) $(DC_HELP) $(DC_HELP_C) dc_help "" $(DC_ENABLED_NAME)
make_bin:
$(MKDIR) -p $(BIN)
@@ -222,7 +224,7 @@ help:
check: test
-test: test_bc timeconst test_dc
+test: %%TESTS%%
test_bc:
%%BC_TEST%%
@@ -241,6 +243,12 @@ time_test_dc:
timeconst:
%%TIMECONST%%
+library_test: library
+ $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(BCL_TEST_C) $(LIBBC) -o $(BCL_TEST)
+
+test_library: library_test
+ $(BCL_TEST)
+
valgrind: valgrind_bc valgrind_dc
valgrind_bc:
@@ -272,6 +280,7 @@ extra_math:
manpages:
$(MANPAGE) bc
$(MANPAGE) dc
+ $(MANPAGE) bcl
clean_gen:
@$(RM) -f $(GEN_EXEC)
@@ -279,10 +288,6 @@ clean_gen:
clean:%%CLEAN_PREREQS%%
@printf 'Cleaning files...\n'
@$(RM) -f $(OBJ)
- @$(RM) -f $(BC_OBJ)
- @$(RM) -f $(DC_OBJ)
- @$(RM) -f $(HISTORY_OBJ)
- @$(RM) -f $(RAND_OBJ)
@$(RM) -f $(BC_EXEC)
@$(RM) -f $(DC_EXEC)
@$(RM) -fr $(BIN)
@@ -343,9 +348,20 @@ install_bc_manpage:
install_dc_manpage:
$(SAFE_INSTALL) $(MANPAGE_INSTALL_ARGS) $(DC_MANPAGE) $(DESTDIR)$(MAN1DIR)/$(DC_MANPAGE_NAME)
-install:%%INSTALL_LOCALES_PREREQS%%%%INSTALL_PREREQS%%
+install_bcl_manpage:
+ $(SAFE_INSTALL) $(MANPAGE_INSTALL_ARGS) $(BCL_MANPAGE) $(DESTDIR)$(MAN3DIR)/$(BCL_MANPAGE_NAME)
+
+install_bcl_header:
+ $(SAFE_INSTALL) $(MANPAGE_INSTALL_ARGS) $(BCL_HEADER) $(DESTDIR)$(INCLUDEDIR)/$(BCL_HEADER_NAME)
+
+install_execs:
$(INSTALL) $(DESTDIR)$(BINDIR) "$(EXEC_SUFFIX)"
+install_library:
+ $(SAFE_INSTALL) $(BINARY_INSTALL_ARGS) $(LIBBC) $(DESTDIR)$(LIBDIR)/$(LIB_NAME)
+
+install:%%INSTALL_LOCALES_PREREQS%%%%INSTALL_MAN_PREREQS%%%%INSTALL_PREREQS%%
+
uninstall_locales:
$(LOCALE_UNINSTALL) $(NLSPATH) $(MAIN_EXEC) $(DESTDIR)
@@ -361,4 +377,13 @@ uninstall_dc_manpage:
uninstall_dc:
$(RM) -f $(DESTDIR)$(BINDIR)/$(EXEC_PREFIX)$(DC)$(EXEC_SUFFIX)
+uninstall_library:
+ $(RM) -f $(DESTDIR)$(LIBDIR)/$(LIB_NAME)
+
+uninstall_bcl_header:
+ $(RM) -f $(DESTDIR)$(INCLUDEDIR)/$(BCL_HEADER_NAME)
+
+uninstall_bcl_manpage:
+ $(RM) -f $(DESTDIR)$(MAN3DIR)/$(BCL_MANPAGE_NAME)
+
uninstall:%%UNINSTALL_LOCALES_PREREQS%%%%UNINSTALL_MAN_PREREQS%%%%UNINSTALL_PREREQS%%
diff --git a/NEWS.md b/NEWS.md
index af7f21c48fa6..d200187e23ce 100644
--- a/NEWS.md
+++ b/NEWS.md
@@ -1,5 +1,23 @@
# News
+## 3.2.0
+
+This is a production release that has one bug fix and a major addition.
+
+The bug fix was a missing `auto` variable in the bessel `j()` function in the
+math library.
+
+The major addition is a way to build a version of `bc`'s math code as a library.
+This is done with the `-a` option to `configure.sh`. The API for the library can
+be read in `./manuals/bcl.3.md` or `man bcl` once the library is installed with
+`make install`.
+
+This library was requested by developers before I even finished version 1.0, but
+I could not figure out how to do it until now.
+
+If the library has API breaking changes, the major version of `bc` will be
+incremented.
+
## 3.1.6
This is a production release that fixes a new warning from Clang 12 for FreeBSD
diff --git a/README.md b/README.md
index 8aacb21b004c..cea5d877b95c 100644
--- a/README.md
+++ b/README.md
@@ -107,6 +107,23 @@ other locations, use the `PREFIX` environment variable when running
`configure.sh` or pass the `--prefix=<prefix>` option to `configure.sh`. See the
[build manual][5], or run `./configure.sh --help`, for more details.
+### Library
+
+This `bc` does provide a way to build a math library with C bindings. This is
+done by the `-a` or `--library` options to `configure.sh`:
+
+```
+./configure.sh -a
+```
+
+When building the library, the executables are not built. For more information,
+see the [build manual][5].
+
+The library API can be found in [`manuals/bcl.3.md`][26] or `man bcl` once the
+library is installed.
+
+The library is built as `bin/libbcl.a`.
+
### Package and Distro Maintainers
#### Recommended Compiler
@@ -335,3 +352,4 @@ Folders:
[23]: https://svnweb.freebsd.org/base/head/contrib/bc/
[24]: https://bugs.freebsd.org/
[25]: https://reviews.freebsd.org/
+[26]: ./manuals/bcl.3.md
diff --git a/configure.sh b/configure.sh
index 9490787ffa21..b41bee445594 100755
--- a/configure.sh
+++ b/configure.sh
@@ -45,22 +45,27 @@ usage() {
_usage_val=0
fi
- printf 'usage: %s -h\n' "$script"
- printf ' %s --help\n' "$script"
- printf ' %s [-bD|-dB|-c] [-EfgGHlMNPT] [-O OPT_LEVEL] [-k KARATSUBA_LEN]\n' "$script"
- printf ' %s \\\n' "$script"
- printf ' [--bc-only --disable-dc|--dc-only --disable-bc|--coverage] \\\n'
- printf ' [--debug --disable-extra-math --disable-generated-tests] \\\n'
- printf ' [--disable-history --disable-man-pages --disable-nls] \\\n'
- printf ' [--disable-prompt --disable-strip] [--install-all-locales] \\\n'
- printf ' [--opt=OPT_LEVEL] [--karatsuba-len=KARATSUBA_LEN] \\\n'
- printf ' [--prefix=PREFIX] [--bindir=BINDIR] [--datarootdir=DATAROOTDIR] \\\n'
- printf ' [--datadir=DATADIR] [--mandir=MANDIR] [--man1dir=MAN1DIR] \\\n'
- printf ' [--force] \\\n'
+ printf 'usage:\n'
+ printf ' %s -h\n' "$script"
+ printf ' %s --help\n' "$script"
+ printf ' %s [-a|-bD|-dB|-c] [-EfgGHlMNPT] [-O OPT_LEVEL] [-k KARATSUBA_LEN]\n' "$script"
+ printf ' %s \\\n' "$script"
+ printf ' [--library|--bc-only --disable-dc|--dc-only --disable-bc|--coverage]\\\n'
+ printf ' [--force --debug --disable-extra-math --disable-generated-tests] \\\n'
+ printf ' [--disable-history --disable-man-pages --disable-nls] \\\n'
+ printf ' [--disable-prompt --disable-strip] [--install-all-locales] \\\n'
+ printf ' [--opt=OPT_LEVEL] [--karatsuba-len=KARATSUBA_LEN] \\\n'
+ printf ' [--prefix=PREFIX] [--bindir=BINDIR] [--datarootdir=DATAROOTDIR] \\\n'
+ printf ' [--datadir=DATADIR] [--mandir=MANDIR] [--man1dir=MAN1DIR] \\\n'
printf '\n'
+ printf ' -a, --library\n'
+ printf ' Build the libbc instead of the programs. This is meant to be used with\n'
+ printf ' Other software like programming languages that want to make use of the\n'
+ printf ' parsing and math capabilities. This option will install headers using\n'
+ printf ' `make install`.\n'
printf ' -b, --bc-only\n'
- printf ' Build bc only. It is an error if "-d", "--dc-only", "-B", or "--disable-bc"\n'
- printf ' are specified too.\n'
+ printf ' Build bc only. It is an error if "-d", "--dc-only", "-B", or\n'
+ printf ' "--disable-bc" are specified too.\n'
printf ' -B, --disable-bc\n'
printf ' Disable bc. It is an error if "-b", "--bc-only", "-D", or "--disable-dc"\n'
printf ' are specified too.\n'
@@ -69,10 +74,10 @@ usage() {
printf ' It is an error if either "-b" ("-D") or "-d" ("-B") is specified.\n'
printf ' Requires a compiler that use gcc-compatible coverage options\n'
printf ' -d, --dc-only\n'
- printf ' Build dc only. It is an error if "-b", "--bc-only", "-D", or "--disable-dc"\n'
- printf ' are specified too.\n'
+ printf ' Build dc only. It is an error if "-b", "--bc-only", "-D", or\n'
+ printf ' "--disable-dc" are specified too.\n'
printf ' -D, --disable-dc\n'
- printf ' Disable dc. It is an error if "-d", "--dc-only" "-B", or "--disable-bc"\n'
+ printf ' Disable dc. It is an error if "-d", "--dc-only", "-B", or "--disable-bc"\n'
printf ' are specified too.\n'
printf ' -E, --disable-extra-math\n'
printf ' Disable extra math. This includes: "$" operator (truncate to integer),\n'
@@ -122,8 +127,14 @@ usage() {
printf ' If PREFIX is "/usr", install path will be "/usr/bin".\n'
printf ' Default is "/usr/local".\n'
printf ' --bindir BINDIR\n'
- printf ' The directory to install binaries. Overrides "$BINDIR" if it exists.\n'
+ printf ' The directory to install binaries in. Overrides "$BINDIR" if it exists.\n'
printf ' Default is "$PREFIX/bin".\n'
+ printf ' --includedir INCLUDEDIR\n'
+ printf ' The directory to install headers in. Overrides "$INCLUDEDIR" if it\n'
+ printf ' exists. Default is "$PREFIX/include".\n'
+ printf ' --libdir LIBDIR\n'
+ printf ' The directory to install libraries in. Overrides "$LIBDIR" if it exists.\n'
+ printf ' Default is "$PREFIX/lib".\n'
printf ' --datarootdir DATAROOTDIR\n'
printf ' The root location for data files. Overrides "$DATAROOTDIR" if it exists.\n'
printf ' Default is "$PREFIX/share".\n'
@@ -136,6 +147,9 @@ usage() {
printf ' --man1dir MAN1DIR\n'
printf ' The location to install Section 1 manpages to. Overrides "$MAN1DIR" if\n'
printf ' it exists. Default is "$MANDIR/man1".\n'
+ printf ' --man3dir MAN3DIR\n'
+ printf ' The location to install Section 3 manpages to. Overrides "$MAN3DIR" if\n'
+ printf ' it exists. Default is "$MANDIR/man3".\n'
printf '\n'
printf 'In addition, the following environment variables are used:\n'
printf '\n'
@@ -157,12 +171,18 @@ usage() {
printf ' LDFLAGS Linker flags. Default is "".\n'
printf ' PREFIX The prefix to install to. Default is "/usr/local".\n'
printf ' If PREFIX is "/usr", install path will be "/usr/bin".\n'
- printf ' BINDIR The directory to install binaries. Default is "$PREFIX/bin".\n'
+ printf ' BINDIR The directory to install binaries in. Default is "$PREFIX/bin".\n'
+ printf ' INCLUDEDIR The directory to install header files in. Default is\n'
+ printf ' "$PREFIX/include".\n'
+ printf ' LIBDIR The directory to install libraries in. Default is\n'
+ printf ' "$PREFIX/lib".\n'
printf ' DATAROOTDIR The root location for data files. Default is "$PREFIX/share".\n'
printf ' DATADIR The location for data files. Default is "$DATAROOTDIR".\n'
printf ' MANDIR The location to install manpages to. Default is "$DATADIR/man".\n'
printf ' MAN1DIR The location to install Section 1 manpages to. Default is\n'
printf ' "$MANDIR/man1".\n'
+ printf ' MAN3DIR The location to install Section 3 manpages to. Default is\n'
+ printf ' "$MANDIR/man3".\n'
printf ' NLSPATH The location to install locale catalogs to. Must be an absolute\n'
printf ' path (or contain one). This is treated the same as the POSIX\n'
printf ' definition of $NLSPATH (see POSIX environment variables for\n'
@@ -257,56 +277,55 @@ replace() {
substring_replace "$_replace_str" "%%$_replace_needle%%" "$_replace_replacement"
}
-gen_file_lists() {
+gen_file_list() {
- if [ "$#" -lt 3 ]; then
+ if [ "$#" -lt 1 ]; then
err_exit "Invalid number of args to $0"
fi
- _gen_file_lists_contents="$1"
+ _gen_file_list_contents="$1"
shift
- _gen_file_lists_filedir="$1"
- shift
+ p=$(pwd)
- _gen_file_lists_typ="$1"
- shift
+ cd "$scriptdir"
+
+ if [ "$#" -ge 1 ]; then
+
+ while [ "$#" -ge 1 ]; do
+ a="$1"
+ shift
+ args="$args ! -wholename src/${a}"
+ done
- # If there is an extra argument, and it
- # is zero, we keep the file lists empty.
- if [ "$#" -gt 0 ]; then
- _gen_file_lists_use="$1"
else
- _gen_file_lists_use="1"
+ args="-print"
fi
- _gen_file_lists_needle_src="${_gen_file_lists_typ}SRC"
- _gen_file_lists_needle_obj="${_gen_file_lists_typ}OBJ"
- _gen_file_lists_needle_gcda="${_gen_file_lists_typ}GCDA"
- _gen_file_lists_needle_gcno="${_gen_file_lists_typ}GCNO"
+ _gen_file_list_needle_src="SRC"
+ _gen_file_list_needle_obj="OBJ"
+ _gen_file_list_needle_gcda="GCDA"
+ _gen_file_list_needle_gcno="GCNO"
- if [ "$_gen_file_lists_use" -ne 0 ]; then
+ _gen_file_list_replacement=$(find src/ -depth -name "*.c" $args | tr '\n' ' ')
+ _gen_file_list_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_list_contents" \
+ "$_gen_file_list_needle_src" "$_gen_file_list_replacement")
- _gen_file_lists_replacement=$(cd "$_gen_file_lists_filedir" && find . ! -name . -prune -name "*.c" | cut -d/ -f2 | sed "s@^@$_gen_file_lists_filedir/@g" | tr '\n' ' ')
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_src" "$_gen_file_lists_replacement")
+ _gen_file_list_replacement=$(replace_exts "$_gen_file_list_replacement" "c" "o")
+ _gen_file_list_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_list_contents" \
+ "$_gen_file_list_needle_obj" "$_gen_file_list_replacement")
- _gen_file_lists_replacement=$(replace_exts "$_gen_file_lists_replacement" "c" "o")
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_obj" "$_gen_file_lists_replacement")
+ _gen_file_list_replacement=$(replace_exts "$_gen_file_list_replacement" "o" "gcda")
+ _gen_file_list_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_list_contents" \
+ "$_gen_file_list_needle_gcda" "$_gen_file_list_replacement")
- _gen_file_lists_replacement=$(replace_exts "$_gen_file_lists_replacement" "o" "gcda")
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_gcda" "$_gen_file_lists_replacement")
+ _gen_file_list_replacement=$(replace_exts "$_gen_file_list_replacement" "gcda" "gcno")
+ _gen_file_list_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_list_contents" \
+ "$_gen_file_list_needle_gcno" "$_gen_file_list_replacement")
- _gen_file_lists_replacement=$(replace_exts "$_gen_file_lists_replacement" "gcda" "gcno")
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_gcno" "$_gen_file_lists_replacement")
+ cd "$p"
- else
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_src" "")
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_obj" "")
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_gcda" "")
- _gen_file_lists_contents=$(replace "$_gen_file_lists_contents" "$_gen_file_lists_needle_gcno" "")
- fi
-
- printf '%s\n' "$_gen_file_lists_contents"
+ printf '%s\n' "$_gen_file_list_contents"
}
bc_only=0
@@ -324,10 +343,12 @@ prompt=1
force=0
strip_bin=1
all_locales=0
+library=0
-while getopts "bBcdDEfgGhHk:lMNO:PST-" opt; do
+while getopts "abBcdDEfgGhHk:lMNO:PST-" opt; do
case "$opt" in
+ a) library=1 ;;
b) bc_only=1 ;;
B) dc_only=1 ;;
c) coverage=1 ;;
@@ -352,6 +373,7 @@ while getopts "bBcdDEfgGhHk:lMNO:PST-" opt; do
LONG_OPTARG="${arg#*=}"
case $arg in
help) usage ;;
+ library) library=1 ;;
bc-only) bc_only=1 ;;
dc-only) dc_only=1 ;;
coverage) coverage=1 ;;
@@ -371,6 +393,20 @@ while getopts "bBcdDEfgGhHk:lMNO:PST-" opt; do
fi
BINDIR="$2"
shift ;;
+ includedir=?*) INCLUDEDIR="$LONG_OPTARG" ;;
+ includedir)
+ if [ "$#" -lt 2 ]; then
+ usage "No argument given for '--$arg' option"
+ fi
+ INCLUDEDIR="$2"
+ shift ;;
+ libdir=?*) LIBDIR="$LONG_OPTARG" ;;
+ libdir)
+ if [ "$#" -lt 2 ]; then
+ usage "No argument given for '--$arg' option"
+ fi
+ LIBDIR="$2"
+ shift ;;
datarootdir=?*) DATAROOTDIR="$LONG_OPTARG" ;;
datarootdir)
if [ "$#" -lt 2 ]; then
@@ -399,6 +435,13 @@ while getopts "bBcdDEfgGhHk:lMNO:PST-" opt; do
fi
MAN1DIR="$2"
shift ;;
+ man3dir=?*) MAN3DIR="$LONG_OPTARG" ;;
+ man3dir)
+ if [ "$#" -lt 2 ]; then
+ usage "No argument given for '--$arg' option"
+ fi
+ MAN3DIR="$2"
+ shift ;;
localedir=?*) LOCALEDIR="$LONG_OPTARG" ;;
localedir)
if [ "$#" -lt 2 ]; then
@@ -454,6 +497,12 @@ if [ "$bc_only" -eq 1 ] && [ "$dc_only" -eq 1 ]; then
usage "Can only specify one of -b(-D) or -d(-B)"
fi
+if [ "$library" -ne 0 ]; then
+ if [ "$bc_only" -eq 1 ] || [ "$dc_only" -eq 1 ]; then
+ usage "Must not specify -b(-D) or -d(-B) when building the library"
+ fi
+fi
+
case $karatsuba_len in
(*[!0-9]*|'') usage "KARATSUBA_LEN is not a number" ;;
(*) ;;
@@ -529,6 +578,8 @@ link="@printf 'No link necessary\\\\n'"
main_exec="BC"
executable="BC_EXEC"
+tests="test_bc timeconst test_dc"
+
bc_test="@tests/all.sh bc $extra_math 1 $generate_tests 0 \$(BC_EXEC)"
bc_time_test="@tests/all.sh bc $extra_math 1 $generate_tests 1 \$(BC_EXEC)"
@@ -567,7 +618,8 @@ if [ "$bc_only" -eq 1 ]; then
dc_time_test="@printf 'No dc tests to run\\\\n'"
vg_dc_test="@printf 'No dc tests to run\\\\n'"
- install_prereqs=" install_bc_manpage"
+ install_prereqs=" install_execs"
+ install_man_prereqs=" install_bc_manpage"
uninstall_prereqs=" uninstall_bc"
uninstall_man_prereqs=" uninstall_bc_manpage"
@@ -590,7 +642,8 @@ elif [ "$dc_only" -eq 1 ]; then
timeconst="@printf 'timeconst cannot be run because bc is not built\\\\n'"
- install_prereqs=" install_dc_manpage"
+ install_prereqs=" install_execs"
+ install_man_prereqs=" install_dc_manpage"
uninstall_prereqs=" uninstall_dc"
uninstall_man_prereqs=" uninstall_dc_manpage"
@@ -606,9 +659,18 @@ else
karatsuba="@\$(KARATSUBA) 30 0 \$(BC_EXEC)"
karatsuba_test="@\$(KARATSUBA) 1 100 \$(BC_EXEC)"
- install_prereqs=" install_bc_manpage install_dc_manpage"
- uninstall_prereqs=" uninstall_bc uninstall_dc"
- uninstall_man_prereqs=" uninstall_bc_manpage uninstall_dc_manpage"
+ if [ "$library" -eq 0 ]; then
+ install_prereqs=" install_execs"
+ install_man_prereqs=" install_bc_manpage install_dc_manpage"
+ uninstall_prereqs=" uninstall_bc uninstall_dc"
+ uninstall_man_prereqs=" uninstall_bc_manpage uninstall_dc_manpage"
+ else
+ install_prereqs=" install_library install_bcl_header"
+ install_man_prereqs=" install_bcl_manpage"
+ uninstall_prereqs=" uninstall_library uninstall_bcl_header"
+ uninstall_man_prereqs=" uninstall_bcl_manpage"
+ tests="test_library"
+ fi
fi
@@ -664,6 +726,14 @@ if [ -z "${BINDIR+set}" ]; then
BINDIR="$PREFIX/bin"
fi
+if [ -z "${INCLUDEDIR+set}" ]; then
+ INCLUDEDIR="$PREFIX/include"
+fi
+
+if [ -z "${LIBDIR+set}" ]; then
+ LIBDIR="$PREFIX/lib"
+fi
+
if [ "$install_manpages" -ne 0 ] || [ "$nls" -ne 0 ]; then
if [ -z "${DATAROOTDIR+set}" ]; then
DATAROOTDIR="$PREFIX/share"
@@ -684,11 +754,25 @@ if [ "$install_manpages" -ne 0 ]; then
MAN1DIR="$MANDIR/man1"
fi
+ if [ -z "${MAN3DIR+set}" ]; then
+ MAN3DIR="$MANDIR/man3"
+ fi
+
else
- install_prereqs=""
+ install_man_prereqs=""
uninstall_man_prereqs=""
fi
+if [ "$library" -ne 0 ]; then
+ extra_math=1
+ nls=0
+ hist=0
+ prompt=0
+ ALL_PREREQ="library"
+else
+ ALL_PREREQ="execs"
+fi
+
if [ "$nls" -ne 0 ]; then
set +e
@@ -776,11 +860,11 @@ if [ "$hist" -eq 1 ]; then
printf 'Testing history...\n'
flags="-DBC_ENABLE_HISTORY=1 -DBC_ENABLED=$bc -DDC_ENABLED=$dc"
- flags="$flags -DBC_ENABLE_NLS=$nls"
+ flags="$flags -DBC_ENABLE_NLS=$nls -DBC_ENABLE_LIBRARY=0"
flags="$flags -DBC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH=$extra_math -I./include/"
flags="$flags -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200809L -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=700"
- "$CC" $CPPFLAGS $CFLAGS $flags -c "src/history/history.c" -o "$scriptdir/history.o" > /dev/null 2>&1
+ "$CC" $CPPFLAGS $CFLAGS $flags -c "src/history.c" -o "$scriptdir/history.o" > /dev/null 2>&1
err="$?"
@@ -804,7 +888,11 @@ if [ "$hist" -eq 1 ]; then
fi
-if [ "$extra_math" -eq 1 ] && [ "$bc" -ne 0 ]; then
+if [ "$library" -eq 1 ]; then
+ bc_lib=""
+fi
+
+if [ "$extra_math" -eq 1 ] && [ "$bc" -ne 0 ] && [ "$library" -eq 0 ]; then
BC_LIB2_O="\$(GEN_DIR)/lib2.o"
else
BC_LIB2_O=""
@@ -846,6 +934,33 @@ if [ "$manpage_args" = "" ]; then
manpage_args="A"
fi
+unneeded=""
+
+if [ "$hist" -eq 0 ]; then
+ unneeded="$unneeded history.c"
+fi
+
+if [ "$bc" -eq 0 ]; then
+ unneeded="$unneeded bc.c bc_lex.c bc_parse.c"
+fi
+
+if [ "$dc" -eq 0 ]; then
+ unneeded="$unneeded dc.c dc_lex.c dc_parse.c"
+fi
+
+if [ "$extra_math" -eq 0 ]; then
+ unneeded="$unneeded rand.c"
+fi
+
+if [ "$library" -ne 0 ]; then
+ unneeded="$unneeded args.c opt.c read.c file.c main.c"
+ unneeded="$unneeded lang.c lex.c parse.c program.c"
+ unneeded="$unneeded bc.c bc_lex.c bc_parse.c"
+ unneeded="$unneeded dc.c dc_lex.c dc_parse.c"
+else
+ unneeded="$unneeded library.c"
+fi
+
# Print out the values; this is for debugging.
if [ "$bc" -ne 0 ]; then
printf 'Building bc\n'
@@ -858,6 +973,7 @@ else
printf 'Not building dc\n'
fi
printf '\n'
+printf 'BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY=%s\n\n' "$library"
printf 'BC_ENABLE_HISTORY=%s\n' "$hist"
printf 'BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH=%s\n' "$extra_math"
printf 'BC_ENABLE_NLS=%s\n' "$nls"
@@ -873,10 +989,13 @@ printf 'CPPFLAGS=%s\n' "$CPPFLAGS"
printf 'LDFLAGS=%s\n' "$LDFLAGS"
printf 'PREFIX=%s\n' "$PREFIX"
printf 'BINDIR=%s\n' "$BINDIR"
+printf 'INCLUDEDIR=%s\n' "$INCLUDEDIR"
+printf 'LIBDIR=%s\n' "$LIBDIR"
printf 'DATAROOTDIR=%s\n' "$DATAROOTDIR"
printf 'DATADIR=%s\n' "$DATADIR"
printf 'MANDIR=%s\n' "$MANDIR"
printf 'MAN1DIR=%s\n' "$MAN1DIR"
+printf 'MAN3DIR=%s\n' "$MAN3DIR"
printf 'NLSPATH=%s\n' "$NLSPATH"
printf 'EXECSUFFIX=%s\n' "$EXECSUFFIX"
printf 'EXECPREFIX=%s\n' "$EXECPREFIX"
@@ -892,16 +1011,17 @@ replacement='*** WARNING: Autogenerated from Makefile.in. DO NOT MODIFY ***'
contents=$(replace "$contents" "$needle" "$replacement")
-contents=$(gen_file_lists "$contents" "$scriptdir/src" "")
-contents=$(gen_file_lists "$contents" "$scriptdir/src/bc" "BC_" "$bc")
-contents=$(gen_file_lists "$contents" "$scriptdir/src/dc" "DC_" "$dc")
-contents=$(gen_file_lists "$contents" "$scriptdir/src/history" "HISTORY_" "$hist")
-contents=$(gen_file_lists "$contents" "$scriptdir/src/rand" "RAND_" "$extra_math")
+if [ "$unneeded" = "" ]; then
+ contents=$(gen_file_list "$contents" "library.c")
+else
+ contents=$(gen_file_list "$contents" $unneeded)
+fi
contents=$(replace "$contents" "BC_ENABLED" "$bc")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "DC_ENABLED" "$dc")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "LINK" "$link")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "LIBRARY" "$library")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "HISTORY" "$hist")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "EXTRA_MATH" "$extra_math")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "NLS" "$nls")
@@ -917,7 +1037,10 @@ contents=$(replace "$contents" "DESTDIR" "$destdir")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "EXECSUFFIX" "$EXECSUFFIX")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "EXECPREFIX" "$EXECPREFIX")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "BINDIR" "$BINDIR")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "INCLUDEDIR" "$INCLUDEDIR")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "LIBDIR" "$LIBDIR")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "MAN1DIR" "$MAN1DIR")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "MAN3DIR" "$MAN3DIR")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "CFLAGS" "$CFLAGS")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "HOSTCFLAGS" "$HOSTCFLAGS")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "CPPFLAGS" "$CPPFLAGS")
@@ -927,15 +1050,19 @@ contents=$(replace "$contents" "HOSTCC" "$HOSTCC")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "COVERAGE_OUTPUT" "$COVERAGE_OUTPUT")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "COVERAGE_PREREQS" "$COVERAGE_PREREQS")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "INSTALL_PREREQS" "$install_prereqs")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "INSTALL_MAN_PREREQS" "$install_man_prereqs")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "INSTALL_LOCALES" "$install_locales")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "INSTALL_LOCALES_PREREQS" "$install_locales_prereqs")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "UNINSTALL_MAN_PREREQS" "$uninstall_man_prereqs")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "UNINSTALL_PREREQS" "$uninstall_prereqs")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "UNINSTALL_LOCALES_PREREQS" "$uninstall_locales_prereqs")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "ALL_PREREQ" "$ALL_PREREQ")
+
contents=$(replace "$contents" "EXECUTABLES" "$executables")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "MAIN_EXEC" "$main_exec")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "EXEC" "$executable")
+contents=$(replace "$contents" "TESTS" "$tests")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "BC_TEST" "$bc_test")
contents=$(replace "$contents" "BC_TIME_TEST" "$bc_time_test")
diff --git a/install.sh b/exec-install.sh
index 6d1600330ba9..6d1600330ba9 100755
--- a/install.sh
+++ b/exec-install.sh
diff --git a/gen/lib.bc b/gen/lib.bc
index 93ac29546beb..7768eb74bad1 100644
--- a/gen/lib.bc
+++ b/gen/lib.bc
@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ define a(x){
return((m*a+r)/n)
}
define j(n,x){
- auto b,s,o,a,i,v,f
+ auto b,s,o,a,i,r,v,f
b=ibase
ibase=A
s=scale
diff --git a/gen/strgen.c b/gen/strgen.c
index f4c4b51d1248..0b2306152874 100644
--- a/gen/strgen.c
+++ b/gen/strgen.c
@@ -45,13 +45,14 @@
static const char* const bc_gen_header =
"// Copyright (c) 2018-2020 Gavin D. Howard and contributors.\n"
"// Licensed under the 2-clause BSD license.\n"
- "// *** AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED FROM %s. DO NOT MODIFY. ***\n";
+ "// *** AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED FROM %s. DO NOT MODIFY. ***\n\n";
-static const char* const bc_gen_include = "#include <%s>\n\n";
static const char* const bc_gen_label = "const char *%s = \"%s\";\n\n";
+static const char* const bc_gen_label_extern = "extern const char *%s;\n\n";
static const char* const bc_gen_ifdef = "#if %s\n";
static const char* const bc_gen_endif = "#endif // %s\n";
static const char* const bc_gen_name = "const char %s[] = {\n";
+static const char* const bc_gen_name_extern = "extern const char %s[];\n\n";
#define IO_ERR (1)
#define INVALID_INPUT_FILE (2)
@@ -62,7 +63,7 @@ static const char* const bc_gen_name = "const char %s[] = {\n";
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
FILE *in, *out;
- char *label, *define, *name, *include;
+ char *label, *define, *name;
int c, count, slashes, err = IO_ERR;
bool has_label, has_define, remove_tabs;
@@ -72,15 +73,14 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
}
name = argv[3];
- include = argv[4];
- has_label = (argc > 5 && strcmp("", argv[5]) != 0);
- label = has_label ? argv[5] : "";
+ has_label = (argc > 4 && strcmp("", argv[4]) != 0);
+ label = has_label ? argv[4] : "";
- has_define = (argc > 6 && strcmp("", argv[6]) != 0);
- define = has_define ? argv[6] : "";
+ has_define = (argc > 5 && strcmp("", argv[5]) != 0);
+ define = has_define ? argv[5] : "";
- remove_tabs = (argc > 7);
+ remove_tabs = (argc > 6);
in = fopen(argv[1], "r");
if (!in) return INVALID_INPUT_FILE;
@@ -89,8 +89,9 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
if (!out) goto out_err;
if (fprintf(out, bc_gen_header, argv[1]) < 0) goto err;
+ if (has_label && fprintf(out, bc_gen_label_extern, label) < 0) goto err;
+ if (fprintf(out, bc_gen_name_extern, name) < 0) goto err;
if (has_define && fprintf(out, bc_gen_ifdef, define) < 0) goto err;
- if (fprintf(out, bc_gen_include, include) < 0) goto err;
if (has_label && fprintf(out, bc_gen_label, label, argv[1]) < 0) goto err;
if (fprintf(out, bc_gen_name, name) < 0) goto err;
diff --git a/gen/strgen.sh b/gen/strgen.sh
index f389c12c0579..53acece8c06c 100755
--- a/gen/strgen.sh
+++ b/gen/strgen.sh
@@ -50,6 +50,7 @@ exec > "$output"
if [ -n "$label" ]; then
nameline="const char *${label} = \"${input}\";"
+ labelexternline="extern const char *${label};"
fi
if [ -n "$define" ]; then
@@ -64,11 +65,14 @@ if [ -n "$remove_tabs" ]; then
fi
cat<<EOF
+// Copyright (c) 2018-2020 Gavin D. Howard and contributors.
// Licensed under the 2-clause BSD license.
// *** AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED FROM ${input}. DO NOT MODIFY. ***
${condstart}
-#include <${header}>
+$labelexternline
+
+extern const char $name[];
$nameline
diff --git a/include/bcl.h b/include/bcl.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..05f1631e5534
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/bcl.h
@@ -0,0 +1,184 @@
+/*
+ * *****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * SPDX-License-Identifier: BSD-2-Clause
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2018-2020 Gavin D. Howard and contributors.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
+ *
+ * * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
+ * list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ *
+ * * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
+ * this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
+ * and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
+ * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
+ * LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
+ * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
+ * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
+ * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
+ * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
+ * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
+ * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * *****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * The public header for the bc library.
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef BC_BCL_H
+#define BC_BCL_H
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+
+#define BC_SEED_ULONGS (4)
+#define BC_SEED_SIZE (sizeof(long) * BC_SEED_ULONGS)
+
+// For some reason, LONG_BIT is not defined in some versions of gcc.
+// I define it here to the minimum accepted value in the POSIX standard.
+#ifndef LONG_BIT
+#define LONG_BIT (32)
+#endif // LONG_BIT
+
+#ifndef BC_LONG_BIT
+#define BC_LONG_BIT LONG_BIT
+#endif // BC_LONG_BIT
+
+#if BC_LONG_BIT > LONG_BIT
+#error BC_LONG_BIT cannot be greater than LONG_BIT
+#endif // BC_LONG_BIT > LONG_BIT
+
+#if BC_LONG_BIT >= 64
+
+typedef uint64_t BclBigDig;
+typedef uint64_t BclRandInt;
+
+#elif BC_LONG_BIT >= 32
+
+typedef uint32_t BclBigDig;
+typedef uint32_t BclRandInt;
+
+#else
+
+#error BC_LONG_BIT must be at least 32
+
+#endif // BC_LONG_BIT >= 64
+
+typedef enum BclError {
+
+ BCL_ERROR_NONE,
+
+ BCL_ERROR_INVALID_NUM,
+ BCL_ERROR_INVALID_CONTEXT,
+ BCL_ERROR_SIGNAL,
+
+ BCL_ERROR_MATH_NEGATIVE,
+ BCL_ERROR_MATH_NON_INTEGER,
+ BCL_ERROR_MATH_OVERFLOW,
+ BCL_ERROR_MATH_DIVIDE_BY_ZERO,
+
+ BCL_ERROR_PARSE_INVALID_STR,
+
+ BCL_ERROR_FATAL_ALLOC_ERR,
+ BCL_ERROR_FATAL_UNKNOWN_ERR,
+
+ BCL_ERROR_NELEMS,
+
+} BclError;
+
+typedef struct BclNumber {
+
+ size_t i;
+
+} BclNumber;
+
+struct BclCtxt;
+
+typedef struct BclCtxt* BclContext;
+
+void bcl_handleSignal(void);
+bool bcl_running(void);
+
+BclError bcl_init(void);
+void bcl_free(void);
+
+bool bcl_abortOnFatalError(void);
+void bcl_setAbortOnFatalError(bool abrt);
+
+void bcl_gc(void);
+
+BclError bcl_pushContext(BclContext ctxt);
+void bcl_popContext(void);
+BclContext bcl_context(void);
+
+BclContext bcl_ctxt_create(void);
+void bcl_ctxt_free(BclContext ctxt);
+void bcl_ctxt_freeNums(BclContext ctxt);
+
+size_t bcl_ctxt_scale(BclContext ctxt);
+void bcl_ctxt_setScale(BclContext ctxt, size_t scale);
+size_t bcl_ctxt_ibase(BclContext ctxt);
+void bcl_ctxt_setIbase(BclContext ctxt, size_t ibase);
+size_t bcl_ctxt_obase(BclContext ctxt);
+void bcl_ctxt_setObase(BclContext ctxt, size_t obase);
+
+BclError bcl_err(BclNumber n);
+
+BclNumber bcl_num_create(void);
+void bcl_num_free(BclNumber n);
+
+bool bcl_num_neg(BclNumber n);
+void bcl_num_setNeg(BclNumber n, bool neg);
+size_t bcl_num_scale(BclNumber n);
+BclError bcl_num_setScale(BclNumber n, size_t scale);
+size_t bcl_num_len(BclNumber n);
+
+BclError bcl_copy(BclNumber d, BclNumber s);
+BclNumber bcl_dup(BclNumber s);
+
+BclError bcl_bigdig(BclNumber n, BclBigDig *result);
+BclNumber bcl_bigdig2num(BclBigDig val);
+
+BclNumber bcl_add(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_sub(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_mul(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_div(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_mod(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_pow(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_lshift(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_rshift(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+BclNumber bcl_sqrt(BclNumber a);
+BclError bcl_divmod(BclNumber a, BclNumber b, BclNumber *c, BclNumber *d);
+BclNumber bcl_modexp(BclNumber a, BclNumber b, BclNumber c);
+
+ssize_t bcl_cmp(BclNumber a, BclNumber b);
+
+void bcl_zero(BclNumber n);
+void bcl_one(BclNumber n);
+
+BclNumber bcl_parse(const char *restrict val);
+char* bcl_string(BclNumber n);
+
+BclNumber bcl_irand(BclNumber a);
+BclNumber bcl_frand(size_t places);
+BclNumber bcl_ifrand(BclNumber a, size_t places);
+
+BclError bcl_rand_seedWithNum(BclNumber n);
+BclError bcl_rand_seed(unsigned char seed[BC_SEED_SIZE]);
+void bcl_rand_reseed(void);
+BclNumber bcl_rand_seed2num(void);
+BclRandInt bcl_rand_int(void);
+BclRandInt bcl_rand_bounded(BclRandInt bound);
+
+#endif // BC_BCL_H
diff --git a/include/file.h b/include/file.h
index 0ba8caa80c98..6fa08b3f436c 100644
--- a/include/file.h
+++ b/include/file.h
@@ -62,6 +62,4 @@ void bc_file_printf(BcFile *restrict f, const char *fmt, ...);
void bc_file_vprintf(BcFile *restrict f, const char *fmt, va_list args);
void bc_file_puts(BcFile *restrict f, const char *str);
-void bc_file_ultoa(unsigned long long val, char buf[BC_FILE_ULL_LENGTH]);
-
#endif // BC_FILE_H
diff --git a/include/lex.h b/include/lex.h
index 68b72a7f59bb..ff9592b6e928 100644
--- a/include/lex.h
+++ b/include/lex.h
@@ -43,8 +43,8 @@
#include <vector.h>
#include <lang.h>
-#define bc_lex_err(l, e) (bc_vm_error((e), (l)->line))
-#define bc_lex_verr(l, e, ...) (bc_vm_error((e), (l)->line, __VA_ARGS__))
+#define bc_lex_err(l, e) (bc_vm_handleError((e), (l)->line))
+#define bc_lex_verr(l, e, ...) (bc_vm_handleError((e), (l)->line, __VA_ARGS__))
#if BC_ENABLED
diff --git a/include/library.h b/include/library.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..17c3f572caee
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/library.h
@@ -0,0 +1,165 @@
+/*
+ * *****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * SPDX-License-Identifier: BSD-2-Clause
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2018-2020 Gavin D. Howard and contributors.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
+ *
+ * * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
+ * list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ *
+ * * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
+ * this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
+ * and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
+ * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
+ * LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
+ * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
+ * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
+ * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
+ * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
+ * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
+ * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * *****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * The private header for the bc library.
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef LIBBC_PRIVATE_H
+#define LIBBC_PRIVATE_H
+
+#include <bcl.h>
+
+#include <num.h>
+
+#define BC_FUNC_HEADER_LOCK(l) \
+ do { \
+ BC_SIG_LOCK; \
+ BC_SETJMP_LOCKED(l); \
+ vm.err = BCL_ERROR_NONE; \
+ vm.running = 1; \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_FUNC_FOOTER_UNLOCK(e) \
+ do { \
+ BC_SIG_ASSERT_LOCKED; \
+ e = vm.err; \
+ vm.running = 0; \
+ BC_UNSETJMP; \
+ BC_LONGJMP_STOP; \
+ vm.sig_lock = 0; \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_FUNC_HEADER(l) \
+ do { \
+ BC_SETJMP(l); \
+ vm.err = BCL_ERROR_NONE; \
+ vm.running = 1; \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_FUNC_HEADER_INIT(l) \
+ do { \
+ BC_SETJMP_LOCKED(l); \
+ vm.err = BCL_ERROR_NONE; \
+ vm.running = 1; \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_FUNC_FOOTER_NO_ERR \
+ do { \
+ vm.running = 0; \
+ BC_UNSETJMP; \
+ BC_LONGJMP_STOP; \
+ vm.sig_lock = 0; \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_FUNC_FOOTER(e) \
+ do { \
+ e = vm.err; \
+ BC_FUNC_FOOTER_NO_ERR; \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_FUNC_RESETJMP(l) \
+ do { \
+ BC_SIG_ASSERT_LOCKED; \
+ BC_UNSETJMP; \
+ BC_SETJMP_LOCKED(l); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_MAYBE_SETUP(c, e, n, idx) \
+ do { \
+ if (BC_ERR((e) != BCL_ERROR_NONE)) { \
+ if ((n).num != NULL) bc_num_free(&(n)); \
+ idx.i = 0 - (size_t) (e); \
+ } \
+ else idx = bcl_num_insert(c, &(n)); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_CHECK_CTXT(c) \
+ do { \
+ c = bcl_context(); \
+ if (BC_ERR(c == NULL)) { \
+ BclNumber n_num; \
+ n_num.i = 0 - (size_t) BCL_ERROR_INVALID_CONTEXT; \
+ return n_num; \
+ } \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_CHECK_CTXT_ERR(c) \
+ do { \
+ c = bcl_context(); \
+ if (BC_ERR(c == NULL)) { \
+ return BCL_ERROR_INVALID_CONTEXT; \
+ } \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_CHECK_CTXT_ASSERT(c) \
+ do { \
+ c = bcl_context(); \
+ assert(c != NULL); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_CHECK_NUM(c, n) \
+ do { \
+ if (BC_ERR((n).i >= (c)->nums.len)) { \
+ if ((n).i > 0 - (size_t) BCL_ERROR_NELEMS) return (n); \
+ else { \
+ BclNumber n_num; \
+ n_num.i = 0 - (size_t) BCL_ERROR_INVALID_NUM; \
+ return n_num; \
+ } \
+ } \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_CHECK_NUM_ERR(c, n) \
+ do { \
+ if (BC_ERR((n).i >= (c)->nums.len)) { \
+ if ((n).i > 0 - (size_t) BCL_ERROR_NELEMS) \
+ return (BclError) (0 - (n).i); \
+ else return BCL_ERROR_INVALID_NUM; \
+ } \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define BC_NUM(c, n) ((BcNum*) bc_vec_item(&(c)->nums, (n).i))
+
+typedef size_t (*BcReqOp)(const BcNum*, const BcNum*, size_t);
+
+typedef struct BclCtxt {
+
+ size_t scale;
+ size_t ibase;
+ size_t obase;
+
+ BcVec nums;
+ BcVec free_nums;
+
+} BclCtxt;
+
+#endif // LIBBC_PRIVATE_H
diff --git a/include/num.h b/include/num.h
index 239daf908834..4868ae3de6a8 100644
--- a/include/num.h
+++ b/include/num.h
@@ -45,6 +45,7 @@
#include <status.h>
#include <vector.h>
+#include <bcl.h>
#ifndef BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH
#define BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH (1)
@@ -54,25 +55,10 @@
typedef unsigned long ulong;
-// For some reason, LONG_BIT is not defined in some versions of gcc.
-// I define it here to the minimum accepted value in the POSIX standard.
-#ifndef LONG_BIT
-#define LONG_BIT (32)
-#endif // LONG_BIT
-
-#ifndef BC_LONG_BIT
-#define BC_LONG_BIT LONG_BIT
-#endif // BC_LONG_BIT
-
-#if BC_LONG_BIT > LONG_BIT
-#error BC_LONG_BIT cannot be greater than LONG_BIT
-#endif // BC_LONG_BIT > LONG_BIT
+typedef BclBigDig BcBigDig;
#if BC_LONG_BIT >= 64
-typedef int_least32_t BcDig;
-typedef uint64_t BcBigDig;
-
#define BC_NUM_BIGDIG_MAX ((BcBigDig) UINT64_MAX)
#define BC_BASE_DIGS (9)
@@ -80,10 +66,9 @@ typedef uint64_t BcBigDig;
#define BC_NUM_BIGDIG_C UINT64_C
-#elif BC_LONG_BIT >= 32
+typedef int_least32_t BcDig;
-typedef int_least16_t BcDig;
-typedef uint32_t BcBigDig;
+#elif BC_LONG_BIT >= 32
#define BC_NUM_BIGDIG_MAX ((BcBigDig) UINT32_MAX)
@@ -92,6 +77,8 @@ typedef uint32_t BcBigDig;
#define BC_NUM_BIGDIG_C UINT32_C
+typedef int_least16_t BcDig;
+
#else
#error BC_LONG_BIT must be at least 32
@@ -106,7 +93,6 @@ typedef struct BcNum {
size_t scale;
size_t len;
size_t cap;
- bool neg;
} BcNum;
#if BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH
@@ -150,6 +136,30 @@ struct BcRNG;
#define BC_NUM_ROUND_POW(s) (bc_vm_growSize((s), BC_BASE_DIGS - 1))
#define BC_NUM_RDX(s) (BC_NUM_ROUND_POW(s) / BC_BASE_DIGS)
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_VAL(n) ((n)->rdx >> 1)
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_VAL_NP(n) ((n).rdx >> 1)
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_SET(n, v) \
+ ((n)->rdx = (((v) << 1) | ((n)->rdx & (BcBigDig) 1)))
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_SET_NP(n, v) \
+ ((n).rdx = (((v) << 1) | ((n).rdx & (BcBigDig) 1)))
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_SET_NEG(n, v, neg) \
+ ((n)->rdx = (((v) << 1) | (neg)))
+
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_VALID(n) \
+ (BC_NUM_ZERO(n) || BC_NUM_RDX_VAL(n) * BC_BASE_DIGS >= (n)->scale)
+#define BC_NUM_RDX_VALID_NP(n) \
+ ((!(n).len) || BC_NUM_RDX_VAL_NP(n) * BC_BASE_DIGS >= (n).scale)
+
+#define BC_NUM_NEG(n) ((n)->rdx & ((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_NP(n) ((n).rdx & ((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_CLR(n) ((n)->rdx &= ~((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_CLR_NP(n) ((n).rdx &= ~((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_SET(n) ((n)->rdx |= ((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_TGL(n) ((n)->rdx ^= ((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_TGL_NP(n) ((n).rdx ^= ((BcBigDig) 1))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_VAL(n, v) (((n)->rdx & ~((BcBigDig) 1)) | (v))
+#define BC_NUM_NEG_VAL_NP(n, v) (((n).rdx & ~((BcBigDig) 1)) | (v))
+
#define BC_NUM_SIZE(n) ((n) * sizeof(BcDig))
#if BC_DEBUG_CODE
@@ -183,7 +193,7 @@ void bc_num_bigdig2num(BcNum *restrict n, BcBigDig val);
#if BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH && BC_ENABLE_RAND
void bc_num_irand(const BcNum *restrict a, BcNum *restrict b,
- struct BcRNG *restrict rng);
+ struct BcRNG *restrict rng);
void bc_num_rng(const BcNum *restrict n, struct BcRNG *rng);
void bc_num_createFromRNG(BcNum *restrict n, struct BcRNG *rng);
#endif // BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH && BC_ENABLE_RAND
@@ -200,28 +210,34 @@ void bc_num_lshift(BcNum *a, BcNum *b, BcNum *c, size_t scale);
void bc_num_rshift(BcNum *a, BcNum *b, BcNum *c, size_t scale);
#endif // BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH
void bc_num_sqrt(BcNum *restrict a, BcNum *restrict b, size_t scale);
+void bc_num_sr(BcNum *restrict a, BcNum *restrict b, size_t scale);
void bc_num_divmod(BcNum *a, BcNum *b, BcNum *c, BcNum *d, size_t scale);
size_t bc_num_addReq(const BcNum* a, const BcNum* b, size_t scale);
size_t bc_num_mulReq(const BcNum *a, const BcNum *b, size_t scale);
+size_t bc_num_divReq(const BcNum *a, const BcNum *b, size_t scale);
size_t bc_num_powReq(const BcNum *a, const BcNum *b, size_t scale);
#if BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH
size_t bc_num_placesReq(const BcNum *a, const BcNum *b, size_t scale);
#endif // BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH
void bc_num_truncate(BcNum *restrict n, size_t places);
+void bc_num_extend(BcNum *restrict n, size_t places);
+void bc_num_shiftRight(BcNum *restrict n, size_t places);
+
ssize_t bc_num_cmp(const BcNum *a, const BcNum *b);
#if DC_ENABLED
void bc_num_modexp(BcNum *a, BcNum *b, BcNum *c, BcNum *restrict d);
#endif // DC_ENABLED
+void bc_num_zero(BcNum *restrict n);
void bc_num_one(BcNum *restrict n);
ssize_t bc_num_cmpZero(const BcNum *n);
-void bc_num_parse(BcNum *restrict n, const char *restrict val,
- BcBigDig base, bool letter);
+bool bc_num_strValid(const char *restrict val);
+void bc_num_parse(BcNum *restrict n, const char *restrict val, BcBigDig base);
void bc_num_print(BcNum *restrict n, BcBigDig base, bool newline);
#if DC_ENABLED
void bc_num_stream(BcNum *restrict n, BcBigDig base);
@@ -238,6 +254,8 @@ extern const char bc_num_hex_digits[];
extern const BcBigDig bc_num_pow10[BC_BASE_DIGS + 1];
extern const BcDig bc_num_bigdigMax[];
+extern const BcDig bc_num_bigdigMax2[];
extern const size_t bc_num_bigdigMax_size;
+extern const size_t bc_num_bigdigMax2_size;
#endif // BC_NUM_H
diff --git a/include/parse.h b/include/parse.h
index a568fab13e64..7f59885346dc 100644
--- a/include/parse.h
+++ b/include/parse.h
@@ -62,8 +62,9 @@
#define bc_parse_push(p, i) (bc_vec_pushByte(&(p)->func->code, (uchar) (i)))
#define bc_parse_pushIndex(p, idx) (bc_vec_pushIndex(&(p)->func->code, (idx)))
-#define bc_parse_err(p, e) (bc_vm_error((e), (p)->l.line))
-#define bc_parse_verr(p, e, ...) (bc_vm_error((e), (p)->l.line, __VA_ARGS__))
+#define bc_parse_err(p, e) (bc_vm_handleError((e), (p)->l.line))
+#define bc_parse_verr(p, e, ...) \
+ (bc_vm_handleError((e), (p)->l.line, __VA_ARGS__))
typedef struct BcParseNext {
uchar len;
@@ -110,7 +111,7 @@ void bc_parse_updateFunc(BcParse *p, size_t fidx);
void bc_parse_pushName(const BcParse* p, char *name, bool var);
void bc_parse_text(BcParse *p, const char *text);
-extern const char bc_parse_zero[];
-extern const char bc_parse_one[];
+extern const char bc_parse_zero[2];
+extern const char bc_parse_one[2];
#endif // BC_PARSE_H
diff --git a/include/rand.h b/include/rand.h
index 3c8aafd62ade..a2fb713803ee 100644
--- a/include/rand.h
+++ b/include/rand.h
@@ -223,6 +223,7 @@ void bc_rand_seed(BcRNG *r, ulong state1, ulong state2, ulong inc1, ulong inc2);
void bc_rand_push(BcRNG *r);
void bc_rand_pop(BcRNG *r, bool reset);
void bc_rand_getRands(BcRNG *r, BcRand *s1, BcRand *s2, BcRand *i1, BcRand *i2);
+void bc_rand_srand(BcRNGData *rng);
extern const BcRandState bc_rand_multiplier;
diff --git a/include/status.h b/include/status.h
index 279edfef8710..762ff3e25c36 100644
--- a/include/status.h
+++ b/include/status.h
@@ -46,6 +46,8 @@
#define DC_ENABLED (1)
#endif // DC_ENABLED
+#include <bcl.h>
+
typedef enum BcStatus {
BC_STATUS_SUCCESS = 0,
@@ -58,75 +60,75 @@ typedef enum BcStatus {
} BcStatus;
-typedef enum BcError {
-
- BC_ERROR_MATH_NEGATIVE,
- BC_ERROR_MATH_NON_INTEGER,
- BC_ERROR_MATH_OVERFLOW,
- BC_ERROR_MATH_DIVIDE_BY_ZERO,
-
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_ALLOC_ERR,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_IO_ERR,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_FILE_ERR,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_BIN_FILE,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_PATH_DIR,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_OPTION,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_OPTION_NO_ARG,
- BC_ERROR_FATAL_OPTION_ARG,
-
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_IBASE,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_OBASE,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_SCALE,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_READ_EXPR,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_REC_READ,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_TYPE,
-
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_STACK,
-
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_PARAMS,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_UNDEF_FUNC,
- BC_ERROR_EXEC_VOID_VAL,
-
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_EOF,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_CHAR,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_STRING,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_COMMENT,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_TOKEN,
+typedef enum BcErr {
+
+ BC_ERR_MATH_NEGATIVE,
+ BC_ERR_MATH_NON_INTEGER,
+ BC_ERR_MATH_OVERFLOW,
+ BC_ERR_MATH_DIVIDE_BY_ZERO,
+
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_ALLOC_ERR,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_IO_ERR,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_FILE_ERR,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_BIN_FILE,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_PATH_DIR,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_OPTION,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_OPTION_NO_ARG,
+ BC_ERR_FATAL_OPTION_ARG,
+
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_IBASE,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_OBASE,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_SCALE,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_READ_EXPR,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_REC_READ,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_TYPE,
+
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_STACK,
+
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_PARAMS,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_UNDEF_FUNC,
+ BC_ERR_EXEC_VOID_VAL,
+
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_EOF,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_CHAR,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_STRING,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_COMMENT,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_TOKEN,
#if BC_ENABLED
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_EXPR,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_EMPTY_EXPR,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_PRINT,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_FUNC,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_ASSIGN,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_NO_AUTO,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_DUP_LOCAL,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_BLOCK,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_RET_VOID,
- BC_ERROR_PARSE_REF_VAR,
-
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_NAME_LEN,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_COMMENT,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_KW,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_DOT,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_RET,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_BOOL,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_REL_POS,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_MULTIREL,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_FOR,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_EXP_NUM,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_REF,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_VOID,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_BRACE,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_EXPR,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_EMPTY_EXPR,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_PRINT,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_FUNC,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_ASSIGN,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_NO_AUTO,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_DUP_LOCAL,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_BLOCK,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_RET_VOID,
+ BC_ERR_PARSE_REF_VAR,
+
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_NAME_LEN,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_COMMENT,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_KW,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_DOT,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_RET,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_BOOL,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_REL_POS,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_MULTIREL,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_FOR,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_EXP_NUM,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_REF,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_VOID,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_BRACE,
#endif // BC_ENABLED
- BC_ERROR_NELEMS,
+ BC_ERR_NELEMS,
#if BC_ENABLED
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_START = BC_ERROR_POSIX_NAME_LEN,
- BC_ERROR_POSIX_END = BC_ERROR_POSIX_BRACE,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_START = BC_ERR_POSIX_NAME_LEN,
+ BC_ERR_POSIX_END = BC_ERR_POSIX_BRACE,
#endif // BC_ENABLED
-} BcError;
+} BcErr;
#define BC_ERR_IDX_MATH (0)
#define BC_ERR_IDX_PARSE (1)
@@ -163,6 +165,12 @@ typedef enum BcError {
#define BC_MUST_RETURN
#endif // __STDC_VERSION__
+#if defined(__clang__) || defined(__GNUC__)
+#define BC_FALLTHROUGH __attribute__((fallthrough));
+#else // defined(__clang__) || defined(__GNUC__)
+#define BC_FALLTHROUGH
+#endif //defined(__clang__) || defined(__GNUC__)
+
// Workarounds for AIX's POSIX incompatibility.
#ifndef SIZE_MAX
#define SIZE_MAX __SIZE_MAX__
diff --git a/include/vector.h b/include/vector.h
index bad178eede30..fdfb85d58228 100644
--- a/include/vector.h
+++ b/include/vector.h
@@ -62,6 +62,7 @@ typedef struct BcVec {
void bc_vec_init(BcVec *restrict v, size_t esize, BcVecFree dtor);
void bc_vec_expand(BcVec *restrict v, size_t req);
+void bc_vec_grow(BcVec *restrict v, size_t n);
void bc_vec_npop(BcVec *restrict v, size_t n);
void bc_vec_npopAt(BcVec *restrict v, size_t n, size_t idx);
diff --git a/include/vm.h b/include/vm.h
index f178c0390853..72a5150266a1 100644
--- a/include/vm.h
+++ b/include/vm.h
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
#ifndef BC_VM_H
#define BC_VM_H
+#include <assert.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <limits.h>
@@ -56,7 +57,10 @@
#include <parse.h>
#include <program.h>
#include <history.h>
+
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
#include <file.h>
+#endif // !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
#if !BC_ENABLED && !DC_ENABLED
#error Must define BC_ENABLED, DC_ENABLED, or both
@@ -91,6 +95,8 @@
#define isatty _isatty
#endif // _WIN32
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+
#if DC_ENABLED
#define DC_FLAG_X (UINTMAX_C(1)<<0)
#endif // DC_ENABLED
@@ -149,6 +155,8 @@
#define BC_USE_PROMPT (!BC_P && BC_TTY)
#endif // BC_ENABLED
+#endif // !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+
#define BC_MAX(a, b) ((a) > (b) ? (a) : (b))
#define BC_MIN(a, b) ((a) < (b) ? (a) : (b))
@@ -270,31 +278,75 @@
#define BC_VM_SAFE_RESULT(r) ((r)->t >= BC_RESULT_TEMP)
-#define bc_vm_err(e) (bc_vm_error((e), 0))
-#define bc_vm_verr(e, ...) (bc_vm_error((e), 0, __VA_ARGS__))
+#if BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+#define bc_vm_error(e, l, ...) (bc_vm_handleError((e)))
+#define bc_vm_err(e) (bc_vm_handleError((e)))
+#define bc_vm_verr(e, ...) (bc_vm_handleError((e)))
+#else // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+#define bc_vm_error(e, l, ...) (bc_vm_handleError((e), (l), __VA_ARGS__))
+#define bc_vm_err(e) (bc_vm_handleError((e), 0))
+#define bc_vm_verr(e, ...) (bc_vm_handleError((e), 0, __VA_ARGS__))
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
#define BC_STATUS_IS_ERROR(s) \
((s) >= BC_STATUS_ERROR_MATH && (s) <= BC_STATUS_ERROR_FATAL)
#define BC_VM_INVALID_CATALOG ((nl_catd) -1)
+#if BC_DEBUG_CODE
+#define BC_VM_FUNC_ENTER \
+ do { \
+ bc_file_printf(&vm.ferr, "Entering %s\n", __func__); \
+ bc_file_flush(&vm.ferr); \
+ } while (0);
+
+#define BC_VM_FUNC_EXIT \
+ do { \
+ bc_file_printf(&vm.ferr, "Leaving %s\n", __func__); \
+ bc_file_flush(&vm.ferr); \
+ } while (0);
+#else // BC_DEBUG_CODE
+#define BC_VM_FUNC_ENTER
+#define BC_VM_FUNC_EXIT
+#endif // BC_DEBUG_CODE
+
typedef struct BcVm {
volatile sig_atomic_t status;
volatile sig_atomic_t sig_pop;
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcParse prs;
BcProgram prog;
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcVec jmp_bufs;
BcVec temps;
+#if BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+
+ BcVec ctxts;
+ BcVec out;
+
+ BcRNG rng;
+
+ BclError err;
+ bool abrt;
+
+ unsigned int refs;
+
+ volatile sig_atomic_t running;
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
const char* file;
const char *sigmsg;
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
volatile sig_atomic_t sig_lock;
volatile sig_atomic_t sig;
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
uchar siglen;
uchar read_ret;
@@ -305,9 +357,11 @@ typedef struct BcVm {
bool no_exit_exprs;
bool eof;
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcBigDig maxes[BC_PROG_GLOBALS_LEN + BC_ENABLE_EXTRA_MATH];
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcVec files;
BcVec exprs;
@@ -325,21 +379,27 @@ typedef struct BcVm {
const char *func_header;
const char *err_ids[BC_ERR_IDX_NELEMS + BC_ENABLED];
- const char *err_msgs[BC_ERROR_NELEMS];
+ const char *err_msgs[BC_ERR_NELEMS];
const char *locale;
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcBigDig last_base;
BcBigDig last_pow;
BcBigDig last_exp;
BcBigDig last_rem;
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
char *env_args_buffer;
BcVec env_args;
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcNum max;
+ BcNum max2;
BcDig max_num[BC_NUM_BIGDIG_LOG10];
+ BcDig max2_num[BC_NUM_BIGDIG_LOG10];
+#if !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
BcFile fout;
BcFile ferr;
@@ -349,13 +409,16 @@ typedef struct BcVm {
char *buf;
size_t buf_len;
+#endif // !BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
} BcVm;
void bc_vm_info(const char* const help);
void bc_vm_boot(int argc, char *argv[], const char *env_len,
const char* const env_args);
+void bc_vm_init(void);
void bc_vm_shutdown(void);
+void bc_vm_freeTemps(void);
void bc_vm_printf(const char *fmt, ...);
void bc_vm_putchar(int c);
@@ -371,7 +434,11 @@ void bc_vm_jmp(const char *f);
void bc_vm_jmp(void);
#endif // BC_DEBUG_CODE
-void bc_vm_error(BcError e, size_t line, ...);
+#if BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+void bc_vm_handleError(BcErr e);
+#else // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
+void bc_vm_handleError(BcErr e, size_t line, ...);
+#endif // BC_ENABLE_LIBRARY
extern const char bc_copyright[];
extern const char* const bc_err_line;
diff --git a/manpage.sh b/manpage.sh
index 631d162d51c3..edde671da238 100755
--- a/manpage.sh
+++ b/manpage.sh
@@ -32,6 +32,21 @@ usage() {
exit 1
}
+print_manpage() {
+
+ _print_manpage_md="$1"
+ shift
+
+ _print_manpage_out="$1"
+ shift
+
+ cat "$manualsdir/header.txt" > "$_print_manpage_out"
+ cat "$manualsdir/header_${manpage}.txt" >> "$_print_manpage_out"
+
+ pandoc -f markdown -t man "$_print_manpage_md" >> "$_print_manpage_out"
+
+}
+
gen_manpage() {
_gen_manpage_args="$1"
@@ -84,10 +99,7 @@ gen_manpage() {
IFS="$_gen_manpage_ifs"
- cat "$manualsdir/header.txt" > "$_gen_manpage_out"
- cat "$manualsdir/header_${manpage}.txt" >> "$_gen_manpage_out"
-
- pandoc -f markdown -t man "$_gen_manpage_md" >> "$_gen_manpage_out"
+ print_manpage "$_gen_manpage_md" "$_gen_manpage_out"
}
set -e
@@ -108,6 +120,12 @@ test "$#" -eq 1 || usage
manpage="$1"
shift
-for a in $ARGS; do
- gen_manpage "$a"
-done
+if [ "$manpage" != "bcl" ]; then
+
+ for a in $ARGS; do
+ gen_manpage "$a"
+ done
+
+else
+ print_manpage "$manualsdir/${manpage}.3.md" "$manualsdir/${manpage}.3"
+fi
diff --git a/manuals/bc.1.md.in b/manuals/bc.1.md.in
index 80892e742345..efc0be037526 100644
--- a/manuals/bc.1.md.in
+++ b/manuals/bc.1.md.in
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -477,9 +477,9 @@ if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of **ibase**. This means that
{{ A H N P HN HP NP HNP }}
In addition, bc(1) accepts numbers in scientific notation. These have the form
-**\<number\>e\<integer\>**. The power (the portion after the **e**) must be an
-integer. An example is **1.89237e9**, which is equal to **1892370000**. Negative
-exponents are also allowed, so **4.2890e-3** is equal to **0.0042890**.
+**\<number\>e\<integer\>**. The exponent (the portion after the **e**) must be
+an integer. An example is **1.89237e9**, which is equal to **1892370000**.
+Negative exponents are also allowed, so **4.2890e-3** is equal to **0.0042890**.
Using scientific notation is an error or warning if the **-s** or **-w**,
respectively, command-line options (or equivalents) are given.
@@ -652,7 +652,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -1019,6 +1019,8 @@ The extended library is a **non-portable extension**.
: Calculates **x** to the power of **y**, even if **y** is not an integer, and
returns the result to the current **scale**.
+ It is an error if **y** is negative and **x** is **0**.
+
This is a transcendental function (see the *Transcendental Functions*
subsection below).
@@ -1798,7 +1800,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/A.1 b/manuals/bc/A.1
index f0966ba9d877..2e2816290587 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/A.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/A.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,13 +46,13 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.PP
-This bc(1) is a drop\-in replacement for \f[I]any\f[] bc(1), including
+This bc(1) is a drop-in replacement for \f[I]any\f[R] bc(1), including
(and especially) the GNU bc(1).
It also has many extensions and extra features beyond other
implementations.
@@ -58,9 +60,9 @@ implementations.
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
-Turns the globals \f[B]ibase\f[], \f[B]obase\f[], \f[B]scale\f[], and
-\f[B]seed\f[] into stacks.
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
+Turns the globals \f[B]ibase\f[R], \f[B]obase\f[R], \f[B]scale\f[R], and
+\f[B]seed\f[R] into stacks.
.RS
.PP
This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all four are
@@ -68,40 +70,40 @@ pushed onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when
every function returns.
This means that functions can assign to any and all of those globals
without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
-Thus, a hypothetical function named \f[B]output(x,b)\f[] that simply
-printed \f[B]x\f[] in base \f[B]b\f[] could be written like this:
+Thus, a hypothetical function named \f[B]output(x,b)\f[R] that simply
+printed \f[B]x\f[R] in base \f[B]b\f[R] could be written like this:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ x
+define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
instead of like this:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ obase=c
+define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
This makes writing functions much easier.
.PP
-(\f[B]Note\f[]: the function \f[B]output(x,b)\f[] exists in the extended
-math library.
-See the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.)
+(\f[B]Note\f[R]: the function \f[B]output(x,b)\f[R] exists in the
+extended math library.
+See the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.)
.PP
However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set
-\f[B]ibase\f[], \f[B]obase\f[], \f[B]scale\f[], or \f[B]seed\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], \f[B]obase\f[R], \f[B]scale\f[R], or \f[B]seed\f[R]
globally, functions that are made to do so cannot work anymore.
There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a solution.
.PP
@@ -112,118 +114,115 @@ Examples:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
-\f[]
+alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Second, if the purpose of a function is to set \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], \f[B]scale\f[], or \f[B]seed\f[] globally for any other
-purpose, it could be split into one to four functions (based on how many
-globals it sets) and each of those functions could return the desired
-value for a global.
-.PP
-For functions that set \f[B]seed\f[], the value assigned to
-\f[B]seed\f[] is not propagated to parent functions.
-This means that the sequence of pseudo\-random numbers that they see
-will not be the same sequence of pseudo\-random numbers that any parent
-sees.
-This is only the case once \f[B]seed\f[] has been set.
-.PP
-If a function desires to not affect the sequence of pseudo\-random
-numbers of its parents, but wants to use the same \f[B]seed\f[], it can
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], \f[B]scale\f[R], or \f[B]seed\f[R] globally for any
+other purpose, it could be split into one to four functions (based on
+how many globals it sets) and each of those functions could return the
+desired value for a global.
+.PP
+For functions that set \f[B]seed\f[R], the value assigned to
+\f[B]seed\f[R] is not propagated to parent functions.
+This means that the sequence of pseudo-random numbers that they see will
+not be the same sequence of pseudo-random numbers that any parent sees.
+This is only the case once \f[B]seed\f[R] has been set.
+.PP
+If a function desires to not affect the sequence of pseudo-random
+numbers of its parents, but wants to use the same \f[B]seed\f[R], it can
use the following line:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-seed\ =\ seed
-\f[]
+seed = seed
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then
-users could make sure to define \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] and include this
-option (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[] section for more
+users could make sure to define \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] and include this
+option (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[R] section for more
details).
.PP
-If \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-w\f[], or any equivalents are used, this option
+If \f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]-w\f[R], or any equivalents are used, this option
is ignored.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library and the extended math library before
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library and the extended math library before
running any code, including any expressions or files specified on the
command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the libraries, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the libraries, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
Disables the prompt in TTY mode.
(The prompt is only enabled in TTY mode.
-See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section) This is mostly for those users that
+See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section) This is mostly for those users that
do not want a prompt or are not used to having them in bc(1).
Most of those users would want to put this option in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[] section).
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[R] section).
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -232,61 +231,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -294,388 +293,392 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]0\f[].
-If \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], values are output in scientific
-notation, and if \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]1\f[], values are output in
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R].
+If \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], values are output in scientific
+notation, and if \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]1\f[R], values are output in
engineering notation.
Otherwise, values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-Outputting in scientific and engineering notations are
-\f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+Outputting in scientific and engineering notations are \f[B]non-portable
+extensions\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]seed\f[]
+\f[B]seed\f[R]
.IP "7." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Numbers 6 and 7 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+Numbers 6 and 7 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
-The meaning of \f[B]seed\f[] is dependent on the current pseudo\-random
+The meaning of \f[B]seed\f[R] is dependent on the current pseudo-random
number generator but is guaranteed to not change except for new major
versions.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] and sign of the value may be significant.
-.PP
-If a previously used \f[B]seed\f[] value is assigned to \f[B]seed\f[]
-and used again, the pseudo\-random number generator is guaranteed to
-produce the same sequence of pseudo\-random numbers as it did when the
-\f[B]seed\f[] value was previously used.
-.PP
-The exact value assigned to \f[B]seed\f[] is not guaranteed to be
-returned if \f[B]seed\f[] is queried again immediately.
-However, if \f[B]seed\f[] \f[I]does\f[] return a different value, both
-values, when assigned to \f[B]seed\f[], are guaranteed to produce the
-same sequence of pseudo\-random numbers.
-This means that certain values assigned to \f[B]seed\f[] will
-\f[I]not\f[] produce unique sequences of pseudo\-random numbers.
-The value of \f[B]seed\f[] will change after any use of the
-\f[B]rand()\f[] and \f[B]irand(E)\f[] operands (see the
-\f[I]Operands\f[] subsection below), except if the parameter passed to
-\f[B]irand(E)\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], \f[B]1\f[], or negative.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] and sign of the value may be significant.
+.PP
+If a previously used \f[B]seed\f[R] value is assigned to \f[B]seed\f[R]
+and used again, the pseudo-random number generator is guaranteed to
+produce the same sequence of pseudo-random numbers as it did when the
+\f[B]seed\f[R] value was previously used.
+.PP
+The exact value assigned to \f[B]seed\f[R] is not guaranteed to be
+returned if \f[B]seed\f[R] is queried again immediately.
+However, if \f[B]seed\f[R] \f[I]does\f[R] return a different value, both
+values, when assigned to \f[B]seed\f[R], are guaranteed to produce the
+same sequence of pseudo-random numbers.
+This means that certain values assigned to \f[B]seed\f[R] will
+\f[I]not\f[R] produce unique sequences of pseudo-random numbers.
+The value of \f[B]seed\f[R] will change after any use of the
+\f[B]rand()\f[R] and \f[B]irand(E)\f[R] operands (see the
+\f[I]Operands\f[R] subsection below), except if the parameter passed to
+\f[B]irand(E)\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], \f[B]1\f[R], or negative.
.PP
There is no limit to the length (number of significant decimal digits)
-or \f[I]scale\f[] of the value that can be assigned to \f[B]seed\f[].
+or \f[I]scale\f[R] of the value that can be assigned to \f[B]seed\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]rand()\f[]: A pseudo\-random integer between \f[B]0\f[] (inclusive)
-and \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX\f[] (inclusive).
-Using this operand will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]rand()\f[R]: A pseudo-random integer between \f[B]0\f[R]
+(inclusive) and \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX\f[R] (inclusive).
+Using this operand will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]irand(E)\f[]: A pseudo\-random integer between \f[B]0\f[]
-(inclusive) and the value of \f[B]E\f[] (exclusive).
-If \f[B]E\f[] is negative or is a non\-integer (\f[B]E\f[]\[aq]s
-\f[I]scale\f[] is not \f[B]0\f[]), an error is raised, and bc(1) resets
-(see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) while \f[B]seed\f[] remains unchanged.
-If \f[B]E\f[] is larger than \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX\f[], the higher bound is
-honored by generating several pseudo\-random integers, multiplying them
-by appropriate powers of \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX+1\f[], and adding them
+\f[B]irand(E)\f[R]: A pseudo-random integer between \f[B]0\f[R]
+(inclusive) and the value of \f[B]E\f[R] (exclusive).
+If \f[B]E\f[R] is negative or is a non-integer (\f[B]E\f[R]\[cq]s
+\f[I]scale\f[R] is not \f[B]0\f[R]), an error is raised, and bc(1)
+resets (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) while \f[B]seed\f[R] remains
+unchanged.
+If \f[B]E\f[R] is larger than \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX\f[R], the higher bound is
+honored by generating several pseudo-random integers, multiplying them
+by appropriate powers of \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX+1\f[R], and adding them
together.
Thus, the size of integer that can be generated with this operand is
unbounded.
-Using this operand will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[], unless the
-value of \f[B]E\f[] is \f[B]0\f[] or \f[B]1\f[].
-In that case, \f[B]0\f[] is returned, and \f[B]seed\f[] is \f[I]not\f[]
-changed.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Using this operand will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[R], unless the
+value of \f[B]E\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R] or \f[B]1\f[R].
+In that case, \f[B]0\f[R] is returned, and \f[B]seed\f[R] is
+\f[I]not\f[R] changed.
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "16." 4
-\f[B]maxrand()\f[]: The max integer returned by \f[B]rand()\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxrand()\f[R]: The max integer returned by \f[B]rand()\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-The integers generated by \f[B]rand()\f[] and \f[B]irand(E)\f[] are
+The integers generated by \f[B]rand()\f[R] and \f[B]irand(E)\f[R] are
guaranteed to be as unbiased as possible, subject to the limitations of
-the pseudo\-random number generator.
-.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: The values returned by the pseudo\-random number
-generator with \f[B]rand()\f[] and \f[B]irand(E)\f[] are guaranteed to
-\f[I]NOT\f[] be cryptographically secure.
-This is a consequence of using a seeded pseudo\-random number generator.
-However, they \f[I]are\f[] guaranteed to be reproducible with identical
-\f[B]seed\f[] values.
+the pseudo-random number generator.
+.PP
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: The values returned by the pseudo-random number
+generator with \f[B]rand()\f[R] and \f[B]irand(E)\f[R] are guaranteed to
+\f[I]NOT\f[R] be cryptographically secure.
+This is a consequence of using a seeded pseudo-random number generator.
+However, they \f[I]are\f[R] guaranteed to be reproducible with identical
+\f[B]seed\f[R] values.
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.PP
In addition, bc(1) accepts numbers in scientific notation.
-These have the form \f[B]<number>e<integer>\f[].
-The power (the portion after the \f[B]e\f[]) must be an integer.
-An example is \f[B]1.89237e9\f[], which is equal to \f[B]1892370000\f[].
-Negative exponents are also allowed, so \f[B]4.2890e\-3\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0.0042890\f[].
-.PP
-Using scientific notation is an error or warning if the \f[B]\-s\f[] or
-\f[B]\-w\f[], respectively, command\-line options (or equivalents) are
+These have the form \f[B]<number>e<integer>\f[R].
+The exponent (the portion after the \f[B]e\f[R]) must be an integer.
+An example is \f[B]1.89237e9\f[R], which is equal to
+\f[B]1892370000\f[R].
+Negative exponents are also allowed, so \f[B]4.2890e-3\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0.0042890\f[R].
+.PP
+Using scientific notation is an error or warning if the \f[B]-s\f[R] or
+\f[B]-w\f[R], respectively, command-line options (or equivalents) are
given.
.PP
-\f[B]WARNING\f[]: Both the number and the exponent in scientific
-notation are interpreted according to the current \f[B]ibase\f[], but
-the number is still multiplied by \f[B]10^exponent\f[] regardless of the
-current \f[B]ibase\f[].
-For example, if \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]16\f[] and bc(1) is given the
-number string \f[B]FFeA\f[], the resulting decimal number will be
-\f[B]2550000000000\f[], and if bc(1) is given the number string
-\f[B]10e\-4\f[], the resulting decimal number will be \f[B]0.0016\f[].
-.PP
-Accepting input as scientific notation is a \f[B]non\-portable
-extension\f[].
+\f[B]WARNING\f[R]: Both the number and the exponent in scientific
+notation are interpreted according to the current \f[B]ibase\f[R], but
+the number is still multiplied by \f[B]10\[ha]exponent\f[R] regardless
+of the current \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+For example, if \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]16\f[R] and bc(1) is given the
+number string \f[B]FFeA\f[R], the resulting decimal number will be
+\f[B]2550000000000\f[R], and if bc(1) is given the number string
+\f[B]10e-4\f[R], the resulting decimal number will be \f[B]0.0016\f[R].
+.PP
+Accepting input as scientific notation is a \f[B]non-portable
+extension\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]$\f[]
+\f[B]$\f[R]
Type: Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]truncation\f[]
+Description: \f[B]truncation\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\@\f[]
+\f[B]\[at]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]set precision\f[]
+Description: \f[B]set precision\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]<<\f[] \f[B]>>\f[]
+\f[B]<<\f[R] \f[B]>>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]shift left\f[], \f[B]shift right\f[]
+Description: \f[B]shift left\f[R], \f[B]shift right\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]<<=\f[] \f[B]>>=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[] \f[B]\@=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]<<=\f[R] \f[B]>>=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R] \f[B]\[at]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -683,270 +686,264 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]$\f[]
-The \f[B]truncation\f[] operator returns a copy of the given expression
-with all of its \f[I]scale\f[] removed.
+\f[B]$\f[R]
+The \f[B]truncation\f[R] operator returns a copy of the given expression
+with all of its \f[I]scale\f[R] removed.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\@\f[]
-The \f[B]set precision\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns a
-copy of the first with its \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the value of the
+\f[B]\[at]\f[R]
+The \f[B]set precision\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns a
+copy of the first with its \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the value of the
second expression.
That could either mean that the number is returned without change (if
-the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression matches the value of the
+the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression matches the value of the
second expression), extended (if it is less), or truncated (if it is
more).
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]) and
-non\-negative.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]) and
+non-negative.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
-.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
+.TP
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]<<\f[]
-The \f[B]left shift\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns a copy of the value of \f[B]a\f[] with its
-decimal point moved \f[B]b\f[] places to the right.
+\f[B]<<\f[R]
+The \f[B]left shift\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns a copy of the value of \f[B]a\f[R] with its
+decimal point moved \f[B]b\f[R] places to the right.
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]) and
-non\-negative.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]) and
+non-negative.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]>>\f[]
-The \f[B]right shift\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns a copy of the value of \f[B]a\f[] with its
-decimal point moved \f[B]b\f[] places to the left.
+\f[B]>>\f[R]
+The \f[B]right shift\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and returns a copy of the value of \f[B]a\f[R] with its
+decimal point moved \f[B]b\f[R] places to the left.
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]) and
-non\-negative.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]) and
+non-negative.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]<<=\f[] \f[B]>>=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[] \f[B]\@=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]<<=\f[R] \f[B]>>=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R] \f[B]\[at]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators that correspond to operators that are
-extensions are themselves \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators that correspond to operators that are
+extensions are themselves \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.PP
Both scientific notation and engineering notation are available for
printing the results of expressions.
-Scientific notation is activated by assigning \f[B]0\f[] to
-\f[B]obase\f[], and engineering notation is activated by assigning
-\f[B]1\f[] to \f[B]obase\f[].
-To deactivate them, just assign a different value to \f[B]obase\f[].
+Scientific notation is activated by assigning \f[B]0\f[R] to
+\f[B]obase\f[R], and engineering notation is activated by assigning
+\f[B]1\f[R] to \f[B]obase\f[R].
+To deactivate them, just assign a different value to \f[B]obase\f[R].
.PP
Scientific notation and engineering notation are disabled if bc(1) is
-run with either the \f[B]\-s\f[] or \f[B]\-w\f[] command\-line options
+run with either the \f[B]-s\f[R] or \f[B]-w\f[R] command-line options
(or equivalents).
.PP
Printing numbers in scientific notation and/or engineering notation is a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -956,152 +953,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -1110,23 +1107,23 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
All of the functions below, including the functions in the extended math
-library (see the \f[I]Extended Library\f[] subsection below), are
-available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line
+library (see the \f[I]Extended Library\f[R] subsection below), are
+available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line
flags are given, except that the extended math library is not available
-when the \f[B]\-s\f[] option, the \f[B]\-w\f[] option, or equivalents
+when the \f[B]-s\f[R] option, the \f[B]-w\f[R] option, or equivalents
are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
@@ -1134,545 +1131,528 @@ The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Extended Library
.PP
-The extended library is \f[I]not\f[] loaded when the
-\f[B]\-s\f[]/\f[B]\-\-standard\f[] or \f[B]\-w\f[]/\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
+The extended library is \f[I]not\f[R] loaded when the
+\f[B]-s\f[R]/\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R] or \f[B]-w\f[R]/\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
options are given since they are not part of the library defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).
.PP
-The extended library is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+The extended library is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]p(x, y)\f[]
-Calculates \f[B]x\f[] to the power of \f[B]y\f[], even if \f[B]y\f[] is
-not an integer, and returns the result to the current \f[B]scale\f[].
+\f[B]p(x, y)\f[R]
+Calculates \f[B]x\f[R] to the power of \f[B]y\f[R], even if \f[B]y\f[R]
+is not an integer, and returns the result to the current
+\f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
+It is an error if \f[B]y\f[R] is negative and \f[B]x\f[R] is
+\f[B]0\f[R].
+.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]r(x, p)\f[]
-Returns \f[B]x\f[] rounded to \f[B]p\f[] decimal places according to the
-rounding mode round half away from
-\f[B]0\f[] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rounding#Round_half_away_from_zero).
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]r(x, p)\f[R]
+Returns \f[B]x\f[R] rounded to \f[B]p\f[R] decimal places according to
+the rounding mode round half away from
+\f[B]0\f[R] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rounding#Round_half_away_from_zero).
.TP
-.B \f[B]ceil(x, p)\f[]
-Returns \f[B]x\f[] rounded to \f[B]p\f[] decimal places according to the
-rounding mode round away from
-\f[B]0\f[] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rounding#Rounding_away_from_zero).
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]ceil(x, p)\f[R]
+Returns \f[B]x\f[R] rounded to \f[B]p\f[R] decimal places according to
+the rounding mode round away from
+\f[B]0\f[R] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rounding#Rounding_away_from_zero).
.TP
-.B \f[B]f(x)\f[]
-Returns the factorial of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]f(x)\f[R]
+Returns the factorial of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]perm(n, k)\f[]
-Returns the permutation of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]n\f[] of
-the truncated absolute value of \f[B]k\f[], if \f[B]k <= n\f[].
-If not, it returns \f[B]0\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]perm(n, k)\f[R]
+Returns the permutation of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]n\f[R]
+of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]k\f[R], if \f[B]k <= n\f[R].
+If not, it returns \f[B]0\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]comb(n, k)\f[]
-Returns the combination of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]n\f[] of
-the truncated absolute value of \f[B]k\f[], if \f[B]k <= n\f[].
-If not, it returns \f[B]0\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]comb(n, k)\f[R]
+Returns the combination of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]n\f[R]
+of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]k\f[R], if \f[B]k <= n\f[R].
+If not, it returns \f[B]0\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]l2(x)\f[]
-Returns the logarithm base \f[B]2\f[] of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l2(x)\f[R]
+Returns the logarithm base \f[B]2\f[R] of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l10(x)\f[]
-Returns the logarithm base \f[B]10\f[] of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l10(x)\f[R]
+Returns the logarithm base \f[B]10\f[R] of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]log(x, b)\f[]
-Returns the logarithm base \f[B]b\f[] of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]log(x, b)\f[R]
+Returns the logarithm base \f[B]b\f[R] of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]cbrt(x)\f[]
-Returns the cube root of \f[B]x\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]cbrt(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cube root of \f[B]x\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]root(x, n)\f[]
-Calculates the truncated value of \f[B]n\f[], \f[B]r\f[], and returns
-the \f[B]r\f[]th root of \f[B]x\f[] to the current \f[B]scale\f[].
+\f[B]root(x, n)\f[R]
+Calculates the truncated value of \f[B]n\f[R], \f[B]r\f[R], and returns
+the \f[B]r\f[R]th root of \f[B]x\f[R] to the current \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]r\f[] is \f[B]0\f[] or negative, this raises an error and causes
-bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
-It also raises an error and causes bc(1) to reset if \f[B]r\f[] is even
-and \f[B]x\f[] is negative.
+If \f[B]r\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R] or negative, this raises an error and
+causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
+It also raises an error and causes bc(1) to reset if \f[B]r\f[R] is even
+and \f[B]x\f[R] is negative.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]pi(p)\f[]
-Returns \f[B]pi\f[] to \f[B]p\f[] decimal places.
+\f[B]pi(p)\f[R]
+Returns \f[B]pi\f[R] to \f[B]p\f[R] decimal places.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]t(x)\f[]
-Returns the tangent of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]t(x)\f[R]
+Returns the tangent of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
-.RE
-.TP
-.B \f[B]a2(y, x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]y/x\f[], in radians.
-If both \f[B]y\f[] and \f[B]x\f[] are equal to \f[B]0\f[], it raises an
-error and causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
-Otherwise, if \f[B]x\f[] is greater than \f[B]0\f[], it returns
-\f[B]a(y/x)\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is less than \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is greater than or
-equal to \f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)+pi\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is less than \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is less than
-\f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)\-pi\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is greater than
-\f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]pi/2\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is less than
-\f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]\-pi/2\f[].
-.RS
-.PP
-This function is the same as the \f[B]atan2()\f[] function in many
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
+.RE
+.TP
+\f[B]a2(y, x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]y/x\f[R], in radians.
+If both \f[B]y\f[R] and \f[B]x\f[R] are equal to \f[B]0\f[R], it raises
+an error and causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
+Otherwise, if \f[B]x\f[R] is greater than \f[B]0\f[R], it returns
+\f[B]a(y/x)\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is less than \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is greater than
+or equal to \f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)+pi\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is less than \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is less than
+\f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)-pi\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is greater than
+\f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]pi/2\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is less than
+\f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]-pi/2\f[R].
+.RS
+.PP
+This function is the same as the \f[B]atan2()\f[R] function in many
programming languages.
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]sin(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]sin(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
-This is an alias of \f[B]s(x)\f[].
+This is an alias of \f[B]s(x)\f[R].
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]cos(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]cos(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
-This is an alias of \f[B]c(x)\f[].
+This is an alias of \f[B]c(x)\f[R].
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]tan(x)\f[]
-Returns the tangent of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]tan(x)\f[R]
+Returns the tangent of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is equal to \f[B]1\f[] or \f[B]\-1\f[], this raises an
-error and causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is equal to \f[B]1\f[R] or \f[B]-1\f[R], this raises an
+error and causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is an alias of \f[B]t(x)\f[].
+This is an alias of \f[B]t(x)\f[R].
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]atan(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]atan(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
-This is an alias of \f[B]a(x)\f[].
+This is an alias of \f[B]a(x)\f[R].
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
-.RE
-.TP
-.B \f[B]atan2(y, x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]y/x\f[], in radians.
-If both \f[B]y\f[] and \f[B]x\f[] are equal to \f[B]0\f[], it raises an
-error and causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
-Otherwise, if \f[B]x\f[] is greater than \f[B]0\f[], it returns
-\f[B]a(y/x)\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is less than \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is greater than or
-equal to \f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)+pi\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is less than \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is less than
-\f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)\-pi\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is greater than
-\f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]pi/2\f[].
-If \f[B]x\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], and \f[B]y\f[] is less than
-\f[B]0\f[], it returns \f[B]\-pi/2\f[].
-.RS
-.PP
-This function is the same as the \f[B]atan2()\f[] function in many
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
+.RE
+.TP
+\f[B]atan2(y, x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]y/x\f[R], in radians.
+If both \f[B]y\f[R] and \f[B]x\f[R] are equal to \f[B]0\f[R], it raises
+an error and causes bc(1) to reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
+Otherwise, if \f[B]x\f[R] is greater than \f[B]0\f[R], it returns
+\f[B]a(y/x)\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is less than \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is greater than
+or equal to \f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)+pi\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is less than \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is less than
+\f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]a(y/x)-pi\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is greater than
+\f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]pi/2\f[R].
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], and \f[B]y\f[R] is less than
+\f[B]0\f[R], it returns \f[B]-pi/2\f[R].
+.RS
+.PP
+This function is the same as the \f[B]atan2()\f[R] function in many
programming languages.
.PP
-This is an alias of \f[B]a2(y, x)\f[].
+This is an alias of \f[B]a2(y, x)\f[R].
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]r2d(x)\f[]
-Converts \f[B]x\f[] from radians to degrees and returns the result.
+\f[B]r2d(x)\f[R]
+Converts \f[B]x\f[R] from radians to degrees and returns the result.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]d2r(x)\f[]
-Converts \f[B]x\f[] from degrees to radians and returns the result.
+\f[B]d2r(x)\f[R]
+Converts \f[B]x\f[R] from degrees to radians and returns the result.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]frand(p)\f[]
-Generates a pseudo\-random number between \f[B]0\f[] (inclusive) and
-\f[B]1\f[] (exclusive) with the number of decimal digits after the
-decimal point equal to the truncated absolute value of \f[B]p\f[].
-If \f[B]p\f[] is not \f[B]0\f[], then calling this function will change
-the value of \f[B]seed\f[].
-If \f[B]p\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], then \f[B]0\f[] is returned, and
-\f[B]seed\f[] is \f[I]not\f[] changed.
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]frand(p)\f[R]
+Generates a pseudo-random number between \f[B]0\f[R] (inclusive) and
+\f[B]1\f[R] (exclusive) with the number of decimal digits after the
+decimal point equal to the truncated absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R].
+If \f[B]p\f[R] is not \f[B]0\f[R], then calling this function will
+change the value of \f[B]seed\f[R].
+If \f[B]p\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], then \f[B]0\f[R] is returned, and
+\f[B]seed\f[R] is \f[I]not\f[R] changed.
.TP
-.B \f[B]ifrand(i, p)\f[]
-Generates a pseudo\-random number that is between \f[B]0\f[] (inclusive)
-and the truncated absolute value of \f[B]i\f[] (exclusive) with the
+\f[B]ifrand(i, p)\f[R]
+Generates a pseudo-random number that is between \f[B]0\f[R] (inclusive)
+and the truncated absolute value of \f[B]i\f[R] (exclusive) with the
number of decimal digits after the decimal point equal to the truncated
-absolute value of \f[B]p\f[].
-If the absolute value of \f[B]i\f[] is greater than or equal to
-\f[B]2\f[], and \f[B]p\f[] is not \f[B]0\f[], then calling this function
-will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[]; otherwise, \f[B]0\f[] is
-returned and \f[B]seed\f[] is not changed.
-.RS
-.RE
+absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R].
+If the absolute value of \f[B]i\f[R] is greater than or equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R], and \f[B]p\f[R] is not \f[B]0\f[R], then calling this
+function will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[R]; otherwise, \f[B]0\f[R]
+is returned and \f[B]seed\f[R] is not changed.
.TP
-.B \f[B]srand(x)\f[]
-Returns \f[B]x\f[] with its sign flipped with probability \f[B]0.5\f[].
-In other words, it randomizes the sign of \f[B]x\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]srand(x)\f[R]
+Returns \f[B]x\f[R] with its sign flipped with probability
+\f[B]0.5\f[R].
+In other words, it randomizes the sign of \f[B]x\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]brand()\f[]
-Returns a random boolean value (either \f[B]0\f[] or \f[B]1\f[]).
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]brand()\f[R]
+Returns a random boolean value (either \f[B]0\f[R] or \f[B]1\f[R]).
.TP
-.B \f[B]ubytes(x)\f[]
+\f[B]ubytes(x)\f[R]
Returns the numbers of unsigned integer bytes required to hold the
-truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]sbytes(x)\f[]
-Returns the numbers of signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer bytes
-required to hold the truncated value of \f[B]x\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]sbytes(x)\f[R]
+Returns the numbers of signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer bytes
+required to hold the truncated value of \f[B]x\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]hex(x)\f[]
-Outputs the hexadecimal (base \f[B]16\f[]) representation of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]hex(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the hexadecimal (base \f[B]16\f[R]) representation of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]binary(x)\f[]
-Outputs the binary (base \f[B]2\f[]) representation of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]binary(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the binary (base \f[B]2\f[R]) representation of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]output(x, b)\f[]
-Outputs the base \f[B]b\f[] representation of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]output(x, b)\f[R]
+Outputs the base \f[B]b\f[R] representation of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]uint(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
+\f[B]uint(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
an unsigned integer in as few power of two bytes as possible.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer or is negative, an error message is
-printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[]
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer or is negative, an error message is
+printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R]
section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]int(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-a signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer in as few power of two bytes as
+\f[B]int(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+a signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer in as few power of two bytes as
possible.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer, an error message is printed instead,
-but bc(1) is not reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer, an error message is printed instead,
+but bc(1) is not reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]uintn(x, n)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-an unsigned integer in \f[B]n\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]uintn(x, n)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+an unsigned integer in \f[B]n\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
-\f[B]n\f[] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
+\f[B]n\f[R] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]intn(x, n)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-a signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer in \f[B]n\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]intn(x, n)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+a signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer in \f[B]n\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]n\f[] bytes, an
-error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]n\f[R] bytes,
+an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]uint8(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-an unsigned integer in \f[B]1\f[] byte.
+\f[B]uint8(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+an unsigned integer in \f[B]1\f[R] byte.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
-\f[B]1\f[] byte, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
+\f[B]1\f[R] byte, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]int8(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-a signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer in \f[B]1\f[] byte.
+\f[B]int8(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+a signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer in \f[B]1\f[R] byte.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]1\f[] byte, an
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]1\f[R] byte, an
error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]uint16(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-an unsigned integer in \f[B]2\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]uint16(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+an unsigned integer in \f[B]2\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
-\f[B]2\f[] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
+\f[B]2\f[R] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]int16(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-a signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer in \f[B]2\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]int16(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+a signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer in \f[B]2\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]2\f[] bytes, an
-error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]2\f[R] bytes,
+an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]uint32(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-an unsigned integer in \f[B]4\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]uint32(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+an unsigned integer in \f[B]4\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
-\f[B]4\f[] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
+\f[B]4\f[R] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]int32(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-a signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer in \f[B]4\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]int32(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+a signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer in \f[B]4\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]4\f[] bytes, an
-error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]4\f[R] bytes,
+an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]uint64(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-an unsigned integer in \f[B]8\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]uint64(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+an unsigned integer in \f[B]8\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
-\f[B]8\f[] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer, is negative, or cannot fit into
+\f[B]8\f[R] bytes, an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]int64(x)\f[]
-Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[] as
-a signed, two\[aq]s\-complement integer in \f[B]8\f[] bytes.
+\f[B]int64(x)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation, in binary and hexadecimal, of \f[B]x\f[R] as
+a signed, two\[cq]s-complement integer in \f[B]8\f[R] bytes.
Both outputs are split into bytes separated by spaces.
.RS
.PP
-If \f[B]x\f[] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]8\f[] bytes, an
-error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If \f[B]x\f[R] is not an integer or cannot fit into \f[B]8\f[R] bytes,
+an error message is printed instead, but bc(1) is not reset (see the
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]hex_uint(x, n)\f[]
-Outputs the representation of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[]
-as an unsigned integer in hexadecimal using \f[B]n\f[] bytes.
-Not all of the value will be output if \f[B]n\f[] is too small.
+\f[B]hex_uint(x, n)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation of the truncated absolute value of
+\f[B]x\f[R] as an unsigned integer in hexadecimal using \f[B]n\f[R]
+bytes.
+Not all of the value will be output if \f[B]n\f[R] is too small.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]binary_uint(x, n)\f[]
-Outputs the representation of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[]
-as an unsigned integer in binary using \f[B]n\f[] bytes.
-Not all of the value will be output if \f[B]n\f[] is too small.
+\f[B]binary_uint(x, n)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation of the truncated absolute value of
+\f[B]x\f[R] as an unsigned integer in binary using \f[B]n\f[R] bytes.
+Not all of the value will be output if \f[B]n\f[R] is too small.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]output_uint(x, n)\f[]
-Outputs the representation of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[]
-as an unsigned integer in the current \f[B]obase\f[] (see the
-\f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) using \f[B]n\f[] bytes.
-Not all of the value will be output if \f[B]n\f[] is too small.
+\f[B]output_uint(x, n)\f[R]
+Outputs the representation of the truncated absolute value of
+\f[B]x\f[R] as an unsigned integer in the current \f[B]obase\f[R] (see
+the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) using \f[B]n\f[R] bytes.
+Not all of the value will be output if \f[B]n\f[R] is too small.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]output_byte(x, i)\f[]
-Outputs byte \f[B]i\f[] of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[],
-where \f[B]0\f[] is the least significant byte and \f[B]number_of_bytes
-\- 1\f[] is the most significant byte.
+\f[B]output_byte(x, i)\f[R]
+Outputs byte \f[B]i\f[R] of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R],
+where \f[B]0\f[R] is the least significant byte and \f[B]number_of_bytes
+- 1\f[R] is the most significant byte.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[]
-subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+This is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R]
+subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -1684,55 +1664,55 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.PP
The transcendental functions in the extended math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l2(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l2(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l10(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l10(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]log(x, b)\f[]
+\f[B]log(x, b)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]pi(p)\f[]
+\f[B]pi(p)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]t(x)\f[]
+\f[B]t(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a2(y, x)\f[]
+\f[B]a2(y, x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]sin(x)\f[]
+\f[B]sin(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]cos(x)\f[]
+\f[B]cos(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]tan(x)\f[]
+\f[B]tan(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]atan(x)\f[]
+\f[B]atan(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]atan2(y, x)\f[]
+\f[B]atan2(y, x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]r2d(x)\f[]
+\f[B]r2d(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]d2r(x)\f[]
+\f[B]d2r(x)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -1745,7 +1725,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -1753,269 +1733,238 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_RAND_MAX\f[]
-The maximum integer (inclusive) returned by the \f[B]rand()\f[] operand.
-Set at \f[B]2^BC_LONG_BIT\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_RAND_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum integer (inclusive) returned by the \f[B]rand()\f[R]
+operand.
+Set at \f[B]2\[ha]BC_LONG_BIT-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, using a negative number as a bound for the
-pseudo\-random number generator, attempting to convert a negative number
+pseudo-random number generator, attempting to convert a negative number
to a hardware integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware
-integer, and attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is
+integer, and attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is
required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]), places (\f[B]\@\f[]), left shift (\f[B]<<\f[]), and
-right shift (\f[B]>>\f[]) operators and their corresponding assignment
-operators.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]), places (\f[B]\[at]\f[R]), left shift
+(\f[B]<<\f[R]), and right shift (\f[B]>>\f[R]) operators and their
+corresponding assignment operators.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
TTY mode is required for history to be enabled (see the \f[B]COMMAND
-LINE HISTORY\f[] section).
-It is also required to enable special handling for \f[B]SIGINT\f[]
+LINE HISTORY\f[R] section).
+It is also required to enable special handling for \f[B]SIGINT\f[R]
signals.
.PP
The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
@@ -2023,65 +1972,65 @@ The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
-The one exception is \f[B]SIGHUP\f[]; in that case, when bc(1) is in TTY
-mode, a \f[B]SIGHUP\f[] will cause bc(1) to clean up and exit.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+The one exception is \f[B]SIGHUP\f[R]; in that case, when bc(1) is in
+TTY mode, a \f[B]SIGHUP\f[R] will cause bc(1) to clean up and exit.
.SH COMMAND LINE HISTORY
.PP
-bc(1) supports interactive command\-line editing.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), history is
+bc(1) supports interactive command-line editing.
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), history is
enabled.
Previous lines can be recalled and edited with the arrow keys.
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: tabs are converted to 8 spaces.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: tabs are converted to 8 spaces.
.SH LOCALES
.PP
This bc(1) ships with support for adding error messages for different
-locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.PP
This bc(1) supports error messages for different locales, and thus, it
-supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -2089,4 +2038,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/A.1.md b/manuals/bc/A.1.md
index e67c20656e23..5e5b75bb3821 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/A.1.md
+++ b/manuals/bc/A.1.md
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -419,9 +419,9 @@ if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of **ibase**. This means that
**35**.
In addition, bc(1) accepts numbers in scientific notation. These have the form
-**\<number\>e\<integer\>**. The power (the portion after the **e**) must be an
-integer. An example is **1.89237e9**, which is equal to **1892370000**. Negative
-exponents are also allowed, so **4.2890e-3** is equal to **0.0042890**.
+**\<number\>e\<integer\>**. The exponent (the portion after the **e**) must be
+an integer. An example is **1.89237e9**, which is equal to **1892370000**.
+Negative exponents are also allowed, so **4.2890e-3** is equal to **0.0042890**.
Using scientific notation is an error or warning if the **-s** or **-w**,
respectively, command-line options (or equivalents) are given.
@@ -584,7 +584,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -933,6 +933,8 @@ The extended library is a **non-portable extension**.
: Calculates **x** to the power of **y**, even if **y** is not an integer, and
returns the result to the current **scale**.
+ It is an error if **y** is negative and **x** is **0**.
+
This is a transcendental function (see the *Transcendental Functions*
subsection below).
@@ -1681,7 +1683,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/E.1 b/manuals/bc/E.1
index d85db650606c..6bacb680af67 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/E.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/E.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,147 +46,145 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.PP
-This bc(1) is a drop\-in replacement for \f[I]any\f[] bc(1), including
+This bc(1) is a drop-in replacement for \f[I]any\f[R] bc(1), including
(and especially) the GNU bc(1).
.SH OPTIONS
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.PP
-\f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-Turns\ the\ globals\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ and\ **scale**\ into\ stacks.
+Turns the globals **ibase**, **obase**, and **scale** into stacks.
-This\ has\ the\ effect\ that\ a\ copy\ of\ the\ current\ value\ of\ all\ three\ are\ pushed
-onto\ a\ stack\ for\ every\ function\ call,\ as\ well\ as\ popped\ when\ every\ function
-returns.\ This\ means\ that\ functions\ can\ assign\ to\ any\ and\ all\ of\ those
-globals\ without\ worrying\ that\ the\ change\ will\ affect\ other\ functions.
-Thus,\ a\ hypothetical\ function\ named\ **output(x,b)**\ that\ simply\ printed
-**x**\ in\ base\ **b**\ could\ be\ written\ like\ this:
+This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all three are pushed
+onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when every function
+returns. This means that functions can assign to any and all of those
+globals without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
+Thus, a hypothetical function named **output(x,b)** that simply printed
+**x** in base **b** could be written like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
+ }
-instead\ of\ like\ this:
+instead of like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=c
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
+ }
-This\ makes\ writing\ functions\ much\ easier.
+This makes writing functions much easier.
-However,\ since\ using\ this\ flag\ means\ that\ functions\ cannot\ set\ **ibase**,
-**obase**,\ or\ **scale**\ globally,\ functions\ that\ are\ made\ to\ do\ so\ cannot
-work\ anymore.\ There\ are\ two\ possible\ use\ cases\ for\ that,\ and\ each\ has\ a
+However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set **ibase**,
+**obase**, or **scale** globally, functions that are made to do so cannot
+work anymore. There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a
solution.
-First,\ if\ a\ function\ is\ called\ on\ startup\ to\ turn\ bc(1)\ into\ a\ number
-converter,\ it\ is\ possible\ to\ replace\ that\ capability\ with\ various\ shell
-aliases.\ Examples:
+First, if a function is called on startup to turn bc(1) into a number
+converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell
+aliases. Examples:
-\ \ \ \ alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-\ \ \ \ alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
+ alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+ alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
-Second,\ if\ the\ purpose\ of\ a\ function\ is\ to\ set\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ or
-**scale**\ globally\ for\ any\ other\ purpose,\ it\ could\ be\ split\ into\ one\ to
-three\ functions\ (based\ on\ how\ many\ globals\ it\ sets)\ and\ each\ of\ those
-functions\ could\ return\ the\ desired\ value\ for\ a\ global.
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set **ibase**, **obase**, or
+**scale** globally for any other purpose, it could be split into one to
+three functions (based on how many globals it sets) and each of those
+functions could return the desired value for a global.
-If\ the\ behavior\ of\ this\ option\ is\ desired\ for\ every\ run\ of\ bc(1),\ then\ users
-could\ make\ sure\ to\ define\ **BC_ENV_ARGS**\ and\ include\ this\ option\ (see\ the
-**ENVIRONMENT\ VARIABLES**\ section\ for\ more\ details).
+If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users
+could make sure to define **BC_ENV_ARGS** and include this option (see the
+**ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES** section for more details).
-If\ **\-s**,\ **\-w**,\ or\ any\ equivalents\ are\ used,\ this\ option\ is\ ignored.
+If **-s**, **-w**, or any equivalents are used, this option is ignored.
-This\ is\ a\ **non\-portable\ extension**.
-\f[]
+This is a **non-portable extension**.
+\f[R]
.fi
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library before running any code, including any
-expressions or files specified on the command line.
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library before running any code, including
+any expressions or files specified on the command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
Disables the prompt in TTY mode.
(The prompt is only enabled in TTY mode.
-See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section) This is mostly for those users that
+See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section) This is mostly for those users that
do not want a prompt or are not used to having them in bc(1).
Most of those users would want to put this option in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[] section).
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[R] section).
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -193,61 +193,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -255,268 +255,270 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
Values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Number 6 is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Number 6 is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -524,205 +526,199 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -732,152 +728,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -886,73 +882,73 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
-All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or
-\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line flags are given.
+All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line flags are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -964,27 +960,27 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -997,7 +993,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -1005,259 +1001,230 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, attempting to convert a negative number to a hardware
integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware integer, and
-attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is required.
+attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]) operator and the corresponding assignment operator.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]) operator and the corresponding assignment
+operator.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
TTY mode is required for history to be enabled (see the \f[B]COMMAND
-LINE HISTORY\f[] section).
-It is also required to enable special handling for \f[B]SIGINT\f[]
+LINE HISTORY\f[R] section).
+It is also required to enable special handling for \f[B]SIGINT\f[R]
signals.
.PP
The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
@@ -1265,65 +1232,65 @@ The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
-The one exception is \f[B]SIGHUP\f[]; in that case, when bc(1) is in TTY
-mode, a \f[B]SIGHUP\f[] will cause bc(1) to clean up and exit.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+The one exception is \f[B]SIGHUP\f[R]; in that case, when bc(1) is in
+TTY mode, a \f[B]SIGHUP\f[R] will cause bc(1) to clean up and exit.
.SH COMMAND LINE HISTORY
.PP
-bc(1) supports interactive command\-line editing.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), history is
+bc(1) supports interactive command-line editing.
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), history is
enabled.
Previous lines can be recalled and edited with the arrow keys.
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: tabs are converted to 8 spaces.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: tabs are converted to 8 spaces.
.SH LOCALES
.PP
This bc(1) ships with support for adding error messages for different
-locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.PP
This bc(1) supports error messages for different locales, and thus, it
-supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -1331,4 +1298,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/E.1.md b/manuals/bc/E.1.md
index ab432274fa52..3bec29912b77 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/E.1.md
+++ b/manuals/bc/E.1.md
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -457,7 +457,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -1075,7 +1075,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EH.1 b/manuals/bc/EH.1
index c9b196f7452a..ed19e9769bd7 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EH.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/EH.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,144 +46,142 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.SH OPTIONS
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.PP
-\f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-Turns\ the\ globals\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ and\ **scale**\ into\ stacks.
+Turns the globals **ibase**, **obase**, and **scale** into stacks.
-This\ has\ the\ effect\ that\ a\ copy\ of\ the\ current\ value\ of\ all\ three\ are\ pushed
-onto\ a\ stack\ for\ every\ function\ call,\ as\ well\ as\ popped\ when\ every\ function
-returns.\ This\ means\ that\ functions\ can\ assign\ to\ any\ and\ all\ of\ those
-globals\ without\ worrying\ that\ the\ change\ will\ affect\ other\ functions.
-Thus,\ a\ hypothetical\ function\ named\ **output(x,b)**\ that\ simply\ printed
-**x**\ in\ base\ **b**\ could\ be\ written\ like\ this:
+This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all three are pushed
+onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when every function
+returns. This means that functions can assign to any and all of those
+globals without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
+Thus, a hypothetical function named **output(x,b)** that simply printed
+**x** in base **b** could be written like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
+ }
-instead\ of\ like\ this:
+instead of like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=c
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
+ }
-This\ makes\ writing\ functions\ much\ easier.
+This makes writing functions much easier.
-However,\ since\ using\ this\ flag\ means\ that\ functions\ cannot\ set\ **ibase**,
-**obase**,\ or\ **scale**\ globally,\ functions\ that\ are\ made\ to\ do\ so\ cannot
-work\ anymore.\ There\ are\ two\ possible\ use\ cases\ for\ that,\ and\ each\ has\ a
+However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set **ibase**,
+**obase**, or **scale** globally, functions that are made to do so cannot
+work anymore. There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a
solution.
-First,\ if\ a\ function\ is\ called\ on\ startup\ to\ turn\ bc(1)\ into\ a\ number
-converter,\ it\ is\ possible\ to\ replace\ that\ capability\ with\ various\ shell
-aliases.\ Examples:
+First, if a function is called on startup to turn bc(1) into a number
+converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell
+aliases. Examples:
-\ \ \ \ alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-\ \ \ \ alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
+ alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+ alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
-Second,\ if\ the\ purpose\ of\ a\ function\ is\ to\ set\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ or
-**scale**\ globally\ for\ any\ other\ purpose,\ it\ could\ be\ split\ into\ one\ to
-three\ functions\ (based\ on\ how\ many\ globals\ it\ sets)\ and\ each\ of\ those
-functions\ could\ return\ the\ desired\ value\ for\ a\ global.
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set **ibase**, **obase**, or
+**scale** globally for any other purpose, it could be split into one to
+three functions (based on how many globals it sets) and each of those
+functions could return the desired value for a global.
-If\ the\ behavior\ of\ this\ option\ is\ desired\ for\ every\ run\ of\ bc(1),\ then\ users
-could\ make\ sure\ to\ define\ **BC_ENV_ARGS**\ and\ include\ this\ option\ (see\ the
-**ENVIRONMENT\ VARIABLES**\ section\ for\ more\ details).
+If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users
+could make sure to define **BC_ENV_ARGS** and include this option (see the
+**ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES** section for more details).
-If\ **\-s**,\ **\-w**,\ or\ any\ equivalents\ are\ used,\ this\ option\ is\ ignored.
+If **-s**, **-w**, or any equivalents are used, this option is ignored.
-This\ is\ a\ **non\-portable\ extension**.
-\f[]
+This is a **non-portable extension**.
+\f[R]
.fi
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library before running any code, including any
-expressions or files specified on the command line.
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library before running any code, including
+any expressions or files specified on the command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
Disables the prompt in TTY mode.
(The prompt is only enabled in TTY mode.
-See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section) This is mostly for those users that
+See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section) This is mostly for those users that
do not want a prompt or are not used to having them in bc(1).
Most of those users would want to put this option in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[] section).
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[R] section).
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -190,61 +190,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -252,268 +252,270 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
Values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Number 6 is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Number 6 is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -521,205 +523,199 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -729,152 +725,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -883,73 +879,73 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
-All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or
-\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line flags are given.
+All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line flags are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -961,27 +957,27 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -994,7 +990,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -1002,310 +998,281 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, attempting to convert a negative number to a hardware
integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware integer, and
-attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is required.
+attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]) operator and the corresponding assignment operator.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]) operator and the corresponding assignment
+operator.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
.PP
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
.SH LOCALES
.PP
This bc(1) ships with support for adding error messages for different
-locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.PP
This bc(1) supports error messages for different locales, and thus, it
-supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -1313,4 +1280,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EH.1.md b/manuals/bc/EH.1.md
index 32ef6e0d009f..32d95f48fcee 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EH.1.md
+++ b/manuals/bc/EH.1.md
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -454,7 +454,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -1059,7 +1059,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EHN.1 b/manuals/bc/EHN.1
index 0117a4cd0b68..39846195d4b3 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EHN.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/EHN.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,144 +46,142 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.SH OPTIONS
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.PP
-\f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-Turns\ the\ globals\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ and\ **scale**\ into\ stacks.
+Turns the globals **ibase**, **obase**, and **scale** into stacks.
-This\ has\ the\ effect\ that\ a\ copy\ of\ the\ current\ value\ of\ all\ three\ are\ pushed
-onto\ a\ stack\ for\ every\ function\ call,\ as\ well\ as\ popped\ when\ every\ function
-returns.\ This\ means\ that\ functions\ can\ assign\ to\ any\ and\ all\ of\ those
-globals\ without\ worrying\ that\ the\ change\ will\ affect\ other\ functions.
-Thus,\ a\ hypothetical\ function\ named\ **output(x,b)**\ that\ simply\ printed
-**x**\ in\ base\ **b**\ could\ be\ written\ like\ this:
+This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all three are pushed
+onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when every function
+returns. This means that functions can assign to any and all of those
+globals without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
+Thus, a hypothetical function named **output(x,b)** that simply printed
+**x** in base **b** could be written like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
+ }
-instead\ of\ like\ this:
+instead of like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=c
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
+ }
-This\ makes\ writing\ functions\ much\ easier.
+This makes writing functions much easier.
-However,\ since\ using\ this\ flag\ means\ that\ functions\ cannot\ set\ **ibase**,
-**obase**,\ or\ **scale**\ globally,\ functions\ that\ are\ made\ to\ do\ so\ cannot
-work\ anymore.\ There\ are\ two\ possible\ use\ cases\ for\ that,\ and\ each\ has\ a
+However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set **ibase**,
+**obase**, or **scale** globally, functions that are made to do so cannot
+work anymore. There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a
solution.
-First,\ if\ a\ function\ is\ called\ on\ startup\ to\ turn\ bc(1)\ into\ a\ number
-converter,\ it\ is\ possible\ to\ replace\ that\ capability\ with\ various\ shell
-aliases.\ Examples:
+First, if a function is called on startup to turn bc(1) into a number
+converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell
+aliases. Examples:
-\ \ \ \ alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-\ \ \ \ alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
+ alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+ alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
-Second,\ if\ the\ purpose\ of\ a\ function\ is\ to\ set\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ or
-**scale**\ globally\ for\ any\ other\ purpose,\ it\ could\ be\ split\ into\ one\ to
-three\ functions\ (based\ on\ how\ many\ globals\ it\ sets)\ and\ each\ of\ those
-functions\ could\ return\ the\ desired\ value\ for\ a\ global.
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set **ibase**, **obase**, or
+**scale** globally for any other purpose, it could be split into one to
+three functions (based on how many globals it sets) and each of those
+functions could return the desired value for a global.
-If\ the\ behavior\ of\ this\ option\ is\ desired\ for\ every\ run\ of\ bc(1),\ then\ users
-could\ make\ sure\ to\ define\ **BC_ENV_ARGS**\ and\ include\ this\ option\ (see\ the
-**ENVIRONMENT\ VARIABLES**\ section\ for\ more\ details).
+If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users
+could make sure to define **BC_ENV_ARGS** and include this option (see the
+**ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES** section for more details).
-If\ **\-s**,\ **\-w**,\ or\ any\ equivalents\ are\ used,\ this\ option\ is\ ignored.
+If **-s**, **-w**, or any equivalents are used, this option is ignored.
-This\ is\ a\ **non\-portable\ extension**.
-\f[]
+This is a **non-portable extension**.
+\f[R]
.fi
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library before running any code, including any
-expressions or files specified on the command line.
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library before running any code, including
+any expressions or files specified on the command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
Disables the prompt in TTY mode.
(The prompt is only enabled in TTY mode.
-See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section) This is mostly for those users that
+See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section) This is mostly for those users that
do not want a prompt or are not used to having them in bc(1).
Most of those users would want to put this option in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[] section).
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[R] section).
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -190,61 +190,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -252,268 +252,270 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
Values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Number 6 is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Number 6 is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -521,205 +523,199 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -729,152 +725,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -883,73 +879,73 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
-All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or
-\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line flags are given.
+All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line flags are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -961,27 +957,27 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -994,7 +990,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -1002,303 +998,274 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, attempting to convert a negative number to a hardware
integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware integer, and
-attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is required.
+attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]) operator and the corresponding assignment operator.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]) operator and the corresponding assignment
+operator.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
.PP
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -1306,4 +1273,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EHN.1.md b/manuals/bc/EHN.1.md
index 38b7cf78d76a..2eaf8145c90e 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EHN.1.md
+++ b/manuals/bc/EHN.1.md
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -454,7 +454,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -1051,7 +1051,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EHNP.1 b/manuals/bc/EHNP.1
index 02b96492075d..231dc1d404c4 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EHNP.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/EHNP.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,139 +46,137 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.SH OPTIONS
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.PP
-\f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-Turns\ the\ globals\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ and\ **scale**\ into\ stacks.
+Turns the globals **ibase**, **obase**, and **scale** into stacks.
-This\ has\ the\ effect\ that\ a\ copy\ of\ the\ current\ value\ of\ all\ three\ are\ pushed
-onto\ a\ stack\ for\ every\ function\ call,\ as\ well\ as\ popped\ when\ every\ function
-returns.\ This\ means\ that\ functions\ can\ assign\ to\ any\ and\ all\ of\ those
-globals\ without\ worrying\ that\ the\ change\ will\ affect\ other\ functions.
-Thus,\ a\ hypothetical\ function\ named\ **output(x,b)**\ that\ simply\ printed
-**x**\ in\ base\ **b**\ could\ be\ written\ like\ this:
+This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all three are pushed
+onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when every function
+returns. This means that functions can assign to any and all of those
+globals without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
+Thus, a hypothetical function named **output(x,b)** that simply printed
+**x** in base **b** could be written like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
+ }
-instead\ of\ like\ this:
+instead of like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=c
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
+ }
-This\ makes\ writing\ functions\ much\ easier.
+This makes writing functions much easier.
-However,\ since\ using\ this\ flag\ means\ that\ functions\ cannot\ set\ **ibase**,
-**obase**,\ or\ **scale**\ globally,\ functions\ that\ are\ made\ to\ do\ so\ cannot
-work\ anymore.\ There\ are\ two\ possible\ use\ cases\ for\ that,\ and\ each\ has\ a
+However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set **ibase**,
+**obase**, or **scale** globally, functions that are made to do so cannot
+work anymore. There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a
solution.
-First,\ if\ a\ function\ is\ called\ on\ startup\ to\ turn\ bc(1)\ into\ a\ number
-converter,\ it\ is\ possible\ to\ replace\ that\ capability\ with\ various\ shell
-aliases.\ Examples:
+First, if a function is called on startup to turn bc(1) into a number
+converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell
+aliases. Examples:
-\ \ \ \ alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-\ \ \ \ alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
+ alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+ alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
-Second,\ if\ the\ purpose\ of\ a\ function\ is\ to\ set\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ or
-**scale**\ globally\ for\ any\ other\ purpose,\ it\ could\ be\ split\ into\ one\ to
-three\ functions\ (based\ on\ how\ many\ globals\ it\ sets)\ and\ each\ of\ those
-functions\ could\ return\ the\ desired\ value\ for\ a\ global.
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set **ibase**, **obase**, or
+**scale** globally for any other purpose, it could be split into one to
+three functions (based on how many globals it sets) and each of those
+functions could return the desired value for a global.
-If\ the\ behavior\ of\ this\ option\ is\ desired\ for\ every\ run\ of\ bc(1),\ then\ users
-could\ make\ sure\ to\ define\ **BC_ENV_ARGS**\ and\ include\ this\ option\ (see\ the
-**ENVIRONMENT\ VARIABLES**\ section\ for\ more\ details).
+If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users
+could make sure to define **BC_ENV_ARGS** and include this option (see the
+**ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES** section for more details).
-If\ **\-s**,\ **\-w**,\ or\ any\ equivalents\ are\ used,\ this\ option\ is\ ignored.
+If **-s**, **-w**, or any equivalents are used, this option is ignored.
-This\ is\ a\ **non\-portable\ extension**.
-\f[]
+This is a **non-portable extension**.
+\f[R]
.fi
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library before running any code, including any
-expressions or files specified on the command line.
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library before running any code, including
+any expressions or files specified on the command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
-This option is a no\-op.
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
+This option is a no-op.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -185,61 +185,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -247,268 +247,270 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
Values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Number 6 is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Number 6 is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -516,205 +518,199 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -724,152 +720,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -878,73 +874,73 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
-All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or
-\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line flags are given.
+All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line flags are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -956,27 +952,27 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -989,7 +985,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -997,301 +993,272 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, attempting to convert a negative number to a hardware
integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware integer, and
-attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is required.
+attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]) operator and the corresponding assignment operator.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]) operator and the corresponding assignment
+operator.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -1299,4 +1266,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EHNP.1.md b/manuals/bc/EHNP.1.md
index df608db015b4..4138ffb98c5e 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EHNP.1.md
+++ b/manuals/bc/EHNP.1.md
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -450,7 +450,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -1045,7 +1045,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EHP.1 b/manuals/bc/EHP.1
index cc2920f84403..7dcc83b7bddd 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EHP.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/EHP.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,139 +46,137 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.SH OPTIONS
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.PP
-\f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-Turns\ the\ globals\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ and\ **scale**\ into\ stacks.
+Turns the globals **ibase**, **obase**, and **scale** into stacks.
-This\ has\ the\ effect\ that\ a\ copy\ of\ the\ current\ value\ of\ all\ three\ are\ pushed
-onto\ a\ stack\ for\ every\ function\ call,\ as\ well\ as\ popped\ when\ every\ function
-returns.\ This\ means\ that\ functions\ can\ assign\ to\ any\ and\ all\ of\ those
-globals\ without\ worrying\ that\ the\ change\ will\ affect\ other\ functions.
-Thus,\ a\ hypothetical\ function\ named\ **output(x,b)**\ that\ simply\ printed
-**x**\ in\ base\ **b**\ could\ be\ written\ like\ this:
+This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all three are pushed
+onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when every function
+returns. This means that functions can assign to any and all of those
+globals without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
+Thus, a hypothetical function named **output(x,b)** that simply printed
+**x** in base **b** could be written like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
+ }
-instead\ of\ like\ this:
+instead of like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=c
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
+ }
-This\ makes\ writing\ functions\ much\ easier.
+This makes writing functions much easier.
-However,\ since\ using\ this\ flag\ means\ that\ functions\ cannot\ set\ **ibase**,
-**obase**,\ or\ **scale**\ globally,\ functions\ that\ are\ made\ to\ do\ so\ cannot
-work\ anymore.\ There\ are\ two\ possible\ use\ cases\ for\ that,\ and\ each\ has\ a
+However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set **ibase**,
+**obase**, or **scale** globally, functions that are made to do so cannot
+work anymore. There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a
solution.
-First,\ if\ a\ function\ is\ called\ on\ startup\ to\ turn\ bc(1)\ into\ a\ number
-converter,\ it\ is\ possible\ to\ replace\ that\ capability\ with\ various\ shell
-aliases.\ Examples:
+First, if a function is called on startup to turn bc(1) into a number
+converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell
+aliases. Examples:
-\ \ \ \ alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-\ \ \ \ alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
+ alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+ alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
-Second,\ if\ the\ purpose\ of\ a\ function\ is\ to\ set\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ or
-**scale**\ globally\ for\ any\ other\ purpose,\ it\ could\ be\ split\ into\ one\ to
-three\ functions\ (based\ on\ how\ many\ globals\ it\ sets)\ and\ each\ of\ those
-functions\ could\ return\ the\ desired\ value\ for\ a\ global.
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set **ibase**, **obase**, or
+**scale** globally for any other purpose, it could be split into one to
+three functions (based on how many globals it sets) and each of those
+functions could return the desired value for a global.
-If\ the\ behavior\ of\ this\ option\ is\ desired\ for\ every\ run\ of\ bc(1),\ then\ users
-could\ make\ sure\ to\ define\ **BC_ENV_ARGS**\ and\ include\ this\ option\ (see\ the
-**ENVIRONMENT\ VARIABLES**\ section\ for\ more\ details).
+If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users
+could make sure to define **BC_ENV_ARGS** and include this option (see the
+**ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES** section for more details).
-If\ **\-s**,\ **\-w**,\ or\ any\ equivalents\ are\ used,\ this\ option\ is\ ignored.
+If **-s**, **-w**, or any equivalents are used, this option is ignored.
-This\ is\ a\ **non\-portable\ extension**.
-\f[]
+This is a **non-portable extension**.
+\f[R]
.fi
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library before running any code, including any
-expressions or files specified on the command line.
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library before running any code, including
+any expressions or files specified on the command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
-This option is a no\-op.
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
+This option is a no-op.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -185,61 +185,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -247,268 +247,270 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
Values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Number 6 is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Number 6 is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -516,205 +518,199 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -724,152 +720,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -878,73 +874,73 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
-All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or
-\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line flags are given.
+All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line flags are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -956,27 +952,27 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -989,7 +985,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -997,308 +993,279 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, attempting to convert a negative number to a hardware
integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware integer, and
-attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is required.
+attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]) operator and the corresponding assignment operator.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]) operator and the corresponding assignment
+operator.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
.SH LOCALES
.PP
This bc(1) ships with support for adding error messages for different
-locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+locales and thus, supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.PP
This bc(1) supports error messages for different locales, and thus, it
-supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[].
+supports \f[B]LC_MESSAGES\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -1306,4 +1273,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EHP.1.md b/manuals/bc/EHP.1.md
index 0ce1f5209c21..c012f68fed43 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EHP.1.md
+++ b/manuals/bc/EHP.1.md
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
# NAME
-bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
# SYNOPSIS
@@ -450,7 +450,7 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below.
: The **power** operator (not the **exclusive or** operator, as it would be in
C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the power of the value of
- the second.
+ the second. The *scale* of the result is equal to **scale**.
The second expression must be an integer (no *scale*), and if it is
negative, the first value must be non-zero.
@@ -1053,7 +1053,7 @@ None are known. Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
# AUTHORS
-Gavin D. Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Gavin D. Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
[1]: https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html
[2]: https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EN.1 b/manuals/bc/EN.1
index d7f967d96cd5..d11c6f7742a1 100644
--- a/manuals/bc/EN.1
+++ b/manuals/bc/EN.1
@@ -25,18 +25,20 @@
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
-.TH "BC" "1" "July 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
+.TH "BC" "1" "October 2020" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual"
.SH NAME
.PP
-bc \- arbitrary\-precision arithmetic language and calculator
+bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
-\f[B]bc\f[] [\f[B]\-ghilPqsvVw\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-help\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]] [\f[B]\-\-version\f[]] [\f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[]]
-[\f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]...] [\f[B]\-f\f[]
-\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[B]\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]...] [\f[I]file\f[]...]
+\f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-ghilPqsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]help\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]] [\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]version\f[R]] [\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R]]
+[\f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-f\f[R]
+\f[I]file\f[R]\&...] [\f[B]-file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
+[\f[I]file\f[R]\&...]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
@@ -44,147 +46,145 @@ bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in
(The current standard is
here (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html).)
The language provides unlimited precision decimal arithmetic and is
-somewhat C\-like, but there are differences.
+somewhat C-like, but there are differences.
Such differences will be noted in this document.
.PP
After parsing and handling options, this bc(1) reads any files given on
-the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[].
+the command line and executes them before reading from \f[B]stdin\f[R].
.PP
-This bc(1) is a drop\-in replacement for \f[I]any\f[] bc(1), including
+This bc(1) is a drop-in replacement for \f[I]any\f[R] bc(1), including
(and especially) the GNU bc(1).
.SH OPTIONS
.PP
The following are the options that bc(1) accepts.
.PP
-\f[B]\-g\f[], \f[B]\-\-global\-stacks\f[]
+\f[B]-g\f[R], \f[B]\[en]global-stacks\f[R]
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-Turns\ the\ globals\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ and\ **scale**\ into\ stacks.
+Turns the globals **ibase**, **obase**, and **scale** into stacks.
-This\ has\ the\ effect\ that\ a\ copy\ of\ the\ current\ value\ of\ all\ three\ are\ pushed
-onto\ a\ stack\ for\ every\ function\ call,\ as\ well\ as\ popped\ when\ every\ function
-returns.\ This\ means\ that\ functions\ can\ assign\ to\ any\ and\ all\ of\ those
-globals\ without\ worrying\ that\ the\ change\ will\ affect\ other\ functions.
-Thus,\ a\ hypothetical\ function\ named\ **output(x,b)**\ that\ simply\ printed
-**x**\ in\ base\ **b**\ could\ be\ written\ like\ this:
+This has the effect that a copy of the current value of all three are pushed
+onto a stack for every function call, as well as popped when every function
+returns. This means that functions can assign to any and all of those
+globals without worrying that the change will affect other functions.
+Thus, a hypothetical function named **output(x,b)** that simply printed
+**x** in base **b** could be written like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ obase=b
+ x
+ }
-instead\ of\ like\ this:
+instead of like this:
-\ \ \ \ define\ void\ output(x,\ b)\ {
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ auto\ c
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c=obase
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=b
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ obase=c
-\ \ \ \ }
+ define void output(x, b) {
+ auto c
+ c=obase
+ obase=b
+ x
+ obase=c
+ }
-This\ makes\ writing\ functions\ much\ easier.
+This makes writing functions much easier.
-However,\ since\ using\ this\ flag\ means\ that\ functions\ cannot\ set\ **ibase**,
-**obase**,\ or\ **scale**\ globally,\ functions\ that\ are\ made\ to\ do\ so\ cannot
-work\ anymore.\ There\ are\ two\ possible\ use\ cases\ for\ that,\ and\ each\ has\ a
+However, since using this flag means that functions cannot set **ibase**,
+**obase**, or **scale** globally, functions that are made to do so cannot
+work anymore. There are two possible use cases for that, and each has a
solution.
-First,\ if\ a\ function\ is\ called\ on\ startup\ to\ turn\ bc(1)\ into\ a\ number
-converter,\ it\ is\ possible\ to\ replace\ that\ capability\ with\ various\ shell
-aliases.\ Examples:
+First, if a function is called on startup to turn bc(1) into a number
+converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell
+aliases. Examples:
-\ \ \ \ alias\ d2o="bc\ \-e\ ibase=A\ \-e\ obase=8"
-\ \ \ \ alias\ h2b="bc\ \-e\ ibase=G\ \-e\ obase=2"
+ alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq]
+ alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq]
-Second,\ if\ the\ purpose\ of\ a\ function\ is\ to\ set\ **ibase**,\ **obase**,\ or
-**scale**\ globally\ for\ any\ other\ purpose,\ it\ could\ be\ split\ into\ one\ to
-three\ functions\ (based\ on\ how\ many\ globals\ it\ sets)\ and\ each\ of\ those
-functions\ could\ return\ the\ desired\ value\ for\ a\ global.
+Second, if the purpose of a function is to set **ibase**, **obase**, or
+**scale** globally for any other purpose, it could be split into one to
+three functions (based on how many globals it sets) and each of those
+functions could return the desired value for a global.
-If\ the\ behavior\ of\ this\ option\ is\ desired\ for\ every\ run\ of\ bc(1),\ then\ users
-could\ make\ sure\ to\ define\ **BC_ENV_ARGS**\ and\ include\ this\ option\ (see\ the
-**ENVIRONMENT\ VARIABLES**\ section\ for\ more\ details).
+If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users
+could make sure to define **BC_ENV_ARGS** and include this option (see the
+**ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES** section for more details).
-If\ **\-s**,\ **\-w**,\ or\ any\ equivalents\ are\ used,\ this\ option\ is\ ignored.
+If **-s**, **-w**, or any equivalents are used, this option is ignored.
-This\ is\ a\ **non\-portable\ extension**.
-\f[]
+This is a **non-portable extension**.
+\f[R]
.fi
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-h\f[], \f[B]\-\-help\f[]
+\f[B]-h\f[R], \f[B]\[en]help\f[R]
Prints a usage message and quits.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-i\f[], \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[]
+\f[B]-i\f[R], \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R]
Forces interactive mode.
-(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section.)
+(See the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section.)
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-l\f[], \f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[]
-Sets \f[B]scale\f[] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section) to \f[B]20\f[] and
-loads the included math library before running any code, including any
-expressions or files specified on the command line.
+\f[B]-l\f[R], \f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R]
+Sets \f[B]scale\f[R] (see the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section) to \f[B]20\f[R]
+and loads the included math library before running any code, including
+any expressions or files specified on the command line.
.RS
.PP
-To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[] section.
+To learn what is in the library, see the \f[B]LIBRARY\f[R] section.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-P\f[], \f[B]\-\-no\-prompt\f[]
+\f[B]-P\f[R], \f[B]\[en]no-prompt\f[R]
Disables the prompt in TTY mode.
(The prompt is only enabled in TTY mode.
-See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section) This is mostly for those users that
+See the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section) This is mostly for those users that
do not want a prompt or are not used to having them in bc(1).
Most of those users would want to put this option in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[] section).
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] (see the \f[B]ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\f[R] section).
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-q\f[], \f[B]\-\-quiet\f[]
+\f[B]-q\f[R], \f[B]\[en]quiet\f[R]
This option is for compatibility with the GNU
-bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no\-op.
+bc(1) (https://www.gnu.org/software/bc/); it is a no-op.
Without this option, GNU bc(1) prints a copyright header.
This bc(1) only prints the copyright header if one or more of the
-\f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], or \f[B]\-\-version\f[] options are given.
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]version\f[R] options are given.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-s\f[], \f[B]\-\-standard\f[]
+\f[B]-s\f[R], \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]
Process exactly the language defined by the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
and error if any extensions are used.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-v\f[], \f[B]\-V\f[], \f[B]\-\-version\f[]
+\f[B]-v\f[R], \f[B]-V\f[R], \f[B]\[en]version\f[R]
Print the version information (copyright header) and exit.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-w\f[], \f[B]\-\-warn\f[]
-Like \f[B]\-s\f[] and \f[B]\-\-standard\f[], except that warnings (and
-not errors) are printed for non\-standard extensions and execution
+\f[B]-w\f[R], \f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]
+Like \f[B]-s\f[R] and \f[B]\[en]standard\f[R], except that warnings (and
+not errors) are printed for non-standard extensions and execution
continues normally.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-e\f[] \f[I]expr\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[]=\f[I]expr\f[]
-Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[].
+\f[B]-e\f[R] \f[I]expr\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R]=\f[I]expr\f[R]
+Evaluates \f[I]expr\f[R].
If multiple expressions are given, they are evaluated in order.
If files are given as well (see below), the expressions and files are
evaluated in the order given.
@@ -193,61 +193,61 @@ read in and evaluated first.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
-However, if any other \f[B]\-e\f[], \f[B]\-\-expression\f[],
-\f[B]\-f\f[], or \f[B]\-\-file\f[] arguments are given after that, bc(1)
-will give a fatal error and exit.
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
+However, if any other \f[B]-e\f[R], \f[B]\[en]expression\f[R],
+\f[B]-f\f[R], or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R] arguments are given after that,
+bc(1) will give a fatal error and exit.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-f\f[] \f[I]file\f[], \f[B]\-\-file\f[]=\f[I]file\f[]
-Reads in \f[I]file\f[] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it were
-read through \f[B]stdin\f[].
+\f[B]-f\f[R] \f[I]file\f[R], \f[B]\[en]file\f[R]=\f[I]file\f[R]
+Reads in \f[I]file\f[R] and evaluates it, line by line, as though it
+were read through \f[B]stdin\f[R].
If expressions are also given (see above), the expressions are evaluated
in the order given.
.RS
.PP
After processing all expressions and files, bc(1) will exit, unless
-\f[B]\-\f[] (\f[B]stdin\f[]) was given as an argument at least once to
-\f[B]\-f\f[] or \f[B]\-\-file\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R] (\f[B]stdin\f[R]) was given as an argument at least once to
+\f[B]-f\f[R] or \f[B]\[en]file\f[R].
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.PP
-All long options are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.SH STDOUT
.PP
-Any non\-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[].
+Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stdout\f[], so if \f[B]stdout\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
->&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
-This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[] is
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
+This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is
redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stdout\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH STDERR
.PP
-Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[].
+Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue
-a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section) if it cannot write
-to \f[B]stderr\f[], so if \f[B]stderr\f[] is closed, as in \f[B]bc
-2>&\-\f[], it will quit with an error.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will
+issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot
+write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in
+\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error.
This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when
-\f[B]stderr\f[] is redirected to a file.
+\f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file.
.PP
If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1)
implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to
-redirect \f[B]stderr\f[] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[].
+redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R].
.SH SYNTAX
.PP
-The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C\-like, with some differences.
+The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences.
This bc(1) follows the POSIX
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
which is a much more thorough resource for the language this bc(1)
@@ -255,268 +255,270 @@ accepts.
This section is meant to be a summary and a listing of all the
extensions to the standard.
.PP
-In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[] means expression, \f[B]S\f[] means
-statement, and \f[B]I\f[] means identifier.
+In the sections below, \f[B]E\f[R] means expression, \f[B]S\f[R] means
+statement, and \f[B]I\f[R] means identifier.
.PP
-Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
-followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\-1\f[]) of lowercase
-letters (\f[B]a\-z\f[]), digits (\f[B]0\-9\f[]), and underscores
-(\f[B]_\f[]).
-The regex is \f[B][a\-z][a\-z0\-9_]*\f[].
+Identifiers (\f[B]I\f[R]) start with a lowercase letter and can be
+followed by any number (up to \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX-1\f[R]) of lowercase
+letters (\f[B]a-z\f[R]), digits (\f[B]0-9\f[R]), and underscores
+(\f[B]_\f[R]).
+The regex is \f[B][a-z][a-z0-9_]*\f[R].
Identifiers with more than one character (letter) are a
-\f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is a global variable determining how to interpret
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to interpret
constant numbers.
-It is the "input" base, or the number base used for interpreting input
+It is the \[lq]input\[rq] base, or the number base used for interpreting
+input numbers.
+\f[B]ibase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+If the \f[B]-s\f[R] (\f[B]\[en]standard\f[R]) and \f[B]-w\f[R]
+(\f[B]\[en]warn\f[R]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
+allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]36\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[R].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[R] can be queried in bc(1)
+programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[R] built-in function.
+.PP
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is a global variable determining how to output results.
+It is the \[lq]output\[rq] base, or the number base used for outputting
numbers.
-\f[B]ibase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-If the \f[B]\-s\f[] (\f[B]\-\-standard\f[]) and \f[B]\-w\f[]
-(\f[B]\-\-warn\f[]) flags were not given on the command line, the max
-allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]36\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]16\f[].
-The min allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]ibase\f[] can be queried in bc(1)
-programs with the \f[B]maxibase()\f[] built\-in function.
-.PP
-\f[B]obase\f[] is a global variable determining how to output results.
-It is the "output" base, or the number base used for outputting numbers.
-\f[B]obase\f[] is initially \f[B]10\f[].
-The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[] built\-in
+\f[B]obase\f[R] is initially \f[B]10\f[R].
+The max allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R] and
+can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxobase()\f[R] built-in
function.
-The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[] is \f[B]2\f[].
+The min allowable value for \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]2\f[R].
Values are output in the specified base.
.PP
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of an expression is the number of digits in the
-result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[]
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of an expression is the number of digits in the
+result of the expression right of the decimal point, and \f[B]scale\f[R]
is a global variable that sets the precision of any operations, with
exceptions.
-\f[B]scale\f[] is initially \f[B]0\f[].
-\f[B]scale\f[] cannot be negative.
-The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[] and
-can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[] built\-in
-function.
-.PP
-bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[] variables and \f[I]local\f[] variables.
-All \f[I]local\f[] variables are local to the function; they are
-parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[] list of a function
-(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
+\f[B]scale\f[R] is initially \f[B]0\f[R].
+\f[B]scale\f[R] cannot be negative.
+The max allowable value for \f[B]scale\f[R] is \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+and can be queried in bc(1) programs with the \f[B]maxscale()\f[R]
+built-in function.
+.PP
+bc(1) has both \f[I]global\f[R] variables and \f[I]local\f[R] variables.
+All \f[I]local\f[R] variables are local to the function; they are
+parameters or are introduced in the \f[B]auto\f[R] list of a function
+(see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
If a variable is accessed which is not a parameter or in the
-\f[B]auto\f[] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[].
-If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[] variable version of a variable
-that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[], the value of that
-\f[I]global\f[] variable in the child function is the value of the
+\f[B]auto\f[R] list, it is assumed to be \f[I]global\f[R].
+If a parent function has a \f[I]local\f[R] variable version of a
+variable that a child function considers \f[I]global\f[R], the value of
+that \f[I]global\f[R] variable in the child function is the value of the
variable in the parent function, not the value of the actual
-\f[I]global\f[] variable.
+\f[I]global\f[R] variable.
.PP
All of the above applies to arrays as well.
.PP
The value of a statement that is an expression (i.e., any of the named
expressions or operands) is printed unless the lowest precedence
-operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[] the expression is
+operator is an assignment operator \f[I]and\f[R] the expression is
notsurrounded by parentheses.
.PP
The value that is printed is also assigned to the special variable
-\f[B]last\f[].
-A single dot (\f[B].\f[]) may also be used as a synonym for
-\f[B]last\f[].
-These are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+A single dot (\f[B].\f[R]) may also be used as a synonym for
+\f[B]last\f[R].
+These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
.PP
Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements.
.SS Comments
.PP
There are two kinds of comments:
.IP "1." 3
-Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[] and \f[B]*/\f[].
+Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R].
.IP "2." 3
-Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[] until, and not including, the next
+Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next
newline.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Named Expressions
.PP
The following are named expressions in bc(1):
.IP "1." 3
-Variables: \f[B]I\f[]
+Variables: \f[B]I\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[]
+Array Elements: \f[B]I[E]\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]ibase\f[]
+\f[B]ibase\f[R]
.IP "4." 3
-\f[B]obase\f[]
+\f[B]obase\f[R]
.IP "5." 3
-\f[B]scale\f[]
+\f[B]scale\f[R]
.IP "6." 3
-\f[B]last\f[] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[])
+\f[B]last\f[R] or a single dot (\f[B].\f[R])
.PP
-Number 6 is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+Number 6 is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.PP
Variables and arrays do not interfere; users can have arrays named the
same as variables.
-This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section), so
+This also applies to functions (see the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section), so
a user can have a variable, array, and function that all have the same
name, and they will not shadow each other, whether inside of functions
or not.
.PP
Named expressions are required as the operand of
-\f[B]increment\f[]/\f[B]decrement\f[] operators and as the left side of
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]increment\f[R]/\f[B]decrement\f[R] operators and as the left side
+of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R]
+subsection).
.SS Operands
.PP
The following are valid operands in bc(1):
.IP " 1." 4
-Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[] subsection below).
+Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below).
.IP " 2." 4
-Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[]).
+Array indices (\f[B]I[E]\f[R]).
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B](E)\f[]: The value of \f[B]E\f[] (used to change precedence).
+\f[B](E)\f[R]: The value of \f[B]E\f[R] (used to change precedence).
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[].
-\f[B]E\f[] must be non\-negative.
+\f[B]sqrt(E)\f[R]: The square root of \f[B]E\f[R].
+\f[B]E\f[R] must be non-negative.
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]length(E)\f[]: The number of significant decimal digits in
-\f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]length(E)\f[R]: The number of significant decimal digits in
+\f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]length(I[])\f[]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]length(I[])\f[R]: The number of elements in the array \f[B]I\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 7." 4
-\f[B]scale(E)\f[]: The \f[I]scale\f[] of \f[B]E\f[].
+\f[B]scale(E)\f[R]: The \f[I]scale\f[R] of \f[B]E\f[R].
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]abs(E)\f[]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]abs(E)\f[R]: The absolute value of \f[B]E\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a non\-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a non-\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]read()\f[]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[] and uses that as an
+\f[B]read()\f[R]: Reads a line from \f[B]stdin\f[R] and uses that as an
expression.
-The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[]
+The result of that expression is the result of the \f[B]read()\f[R]
operand.
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]maxibase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxibase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]maxobase()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxobase()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]obase\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.IP "13." 4
-\f[B]maxscale()\f[]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[].
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+\f[B]maxscale()\f[R]: The max allowable \f[B]scale\f[R].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Numbers
.PP
Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most
-\f[B]1\f[] period for a radix.
-Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[] digits.
-Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[] + their position in the
-alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] equals \f[B]10\f[], or \f[B]9+1\f[]).
+\f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix.
+Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits.
+Uppercase letters are equal to \f[B]9\f[R] + their position in the
+alphabet (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] equals \f[B]10\f[R], or \f[B]9+1\f[R]).
If a digit or letter makes no sense with the current value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R], they are set to the value of the highest valid digit in
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
.PP
-Single\-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[] alone) take the value that
+Single-character numbers (i.e., \f[B]A\f[R] alone) take the value that
they would have if they were valid digits, regardless of the value of
-\f[B]ibase\f[].
-This means that \f[B]A\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[] and
-\f[B]Z\f[] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[].
+\f[B]ibase\f[R].
+This means that \f[B]A\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]10\f[R] and
+\f[B]Z\f[R] alone always equals decimal \f[B]35\f[R].
.SS Operators
.PP
The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used.
They are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
Operators in the same group have the same precedence.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
Type: Prefix and Postfix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]increment\f[], \f[B]decrement\f[]
+Description: \f[B]increment\f[R], \f[B]decrement\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[] \f[B]!\f[]
+\f[B]-\f[R] \f[B]!\f[R]
Type: Prefix
.RS
.PP
Associativity: None
.PP
-Description: \f[B]negation\f[], \f[B]boolean not\f[]
+Description: \f[B]negation\f[R], \f[B]boolean not\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]power\f[]
+Description: \f[B]power\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[] \f[B]/\f[] \f[B]%\f[]
+\f[B]*\f[R] \f[B]/\f[R] \f[B]%\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]multiply\f[], \f[B]divide\f[], \f[B]modulus\f[]
+Description: \f[B]multiply\f[R], \f[B]divide\f[R], \f[B]modulus\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[] \f[B]\-\f[]
+\f[B]+\f[R] \f[B]-\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]add\f[], \f[B]subtract\f[]
+Description: \f[B]add\f[R], \f[B]subtract\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Right
.PP
-Description: \f[B]assignment\f[]
+Description: \f[B]assignment\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]relational\f[]
+Description: \f[B]relational\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean and\f[R]
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
+\f[B]||\f[R]
Type: Binary
.RS
.PP
Associativity: Left
.PP
-Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[]
+Description: \f[B]boolean or\f[R]
.RE
.PP
The operators will be described in more detail below.
.TP
-.B \f[B]++\f[] \f[B]\-\-\f[]
-The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[] and \f[B]decrement\f[]
+\f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]\[en]\f[R]
+The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R]
operators behave exactly like they would in C.
-They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[]
+They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R]
subsection) as an operand.
.RS
.PP
@@ -524,205 +526,199 @@ The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them
where possible.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]negation\f[] operator returns \f[B]0\f[] if a user attempts to
-negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]negation\f[R] operator returns \f[B]0\f[R] if a user attempts
+to negate any expression with the value \f[B]0\f[R].
Otherwise, a copy of the expression with its sign flipped is returned.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]!\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean not\f[] operator returns \f[B]1\f[] if the expression
-is \f[B]0\f[], or \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]!\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean not\f[R] operator returns \f[B]1\f[R] if the expression
+is \f[B]0\f[R], or \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]^\f[]
-The \f[B]power\f[] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[] operator, as
-it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
+\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]
+The \f[B]power\f[R] operator (not the \f[B]exclusive or\f[R] operator,
+as it would be in C) takes two expressions and raises the first to the
power of the value of the second.
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[]), and if it
-is negative, the first value must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be an integer (no \f[I]scale\f[R]), and if it
+is negative, the first value must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]*\f[]
-The \f[B]multiply\f[] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
+\f[B]*\f[R]
+The \f[B]multiply\f[R] operator takes two expressions, multiplies them,
and returns the product.
-If \f[B]a\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the first expression and
-\f[B]b\f[] is the \f[I]scale\f[] of the second expression, the
-\f[I]scale\f[] of the result is equal to
-\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[] where \f[B]min()\f[] and \f[B]max()\f[]
-return the obvious values.
-.RS
-.RE
+If \f[B]a\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the first expression and
+\f[B]b\f[R] is the \f[I]scale\f[R] of the second expression, the
+\f[I]scale\f[R] of the result is equal to
+\f[B]min(a+b,max(scale,a,b))\f[R] where \f[B]min()\f[R] and
+\f[B]max()\f[R] return the obvious values.
.TP
-.B \f[B]/\f[]
-The \f[B]divide\f[] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
+\f[B]/\f[R]
+The \f[B]divide\f[R] operator takes two expressions, divides them, and
returns the quotient.
-The \f[I]scale\f[] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[].
+The \f[I]scale\f[R] of the result shall be the value of \f[B]scale\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]%\f[]
-The \f[B]modulus\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[] to current
-\f[B]scale\f[] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
-\f[B]a\-(a/b)*b\f[] to \f[I]scale\f[]
-\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[].
+\f[B]%\f[R]
+The \f[B]modulus\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and evaluates them by 1) Computing \f[B]a/b\f[R] to current
+\f[B]scale\f[R] and 2) Using the result of step 1 to calculate
+\f[B]a-(a/b)*b\f[R] to \f[I]scale\f[R]
+\f[B]max(scale+scale(b),scale(a))\f[R].
.RS
.PP
-The second expression must be non\-zero.
+The second expression must be non-zero.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]+\f[]
-The \f[B]add\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to the max
-of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]+\f[R]
+The \f[B]add\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the sum, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to the
+max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]\-\f[]
-The \f[B]subtract\f[] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[] equal to
-the max of the \f[I]scale\f[]s of \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]-\f[R]
+The \f[B]subtract\f[R] operator takes two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R], and returns the difference, with a \f[I]scale\f[R] equal to
+the max of the \f[I]scale\f[R]s of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]=\f[] \f[B]+=\f[] \f[B]\-=\f[] \f[B]*=\f[] \f[B]/=\f[] \f[B]%=\f[] \f[B]^=\f[]
-The \f[B]assignment\f[] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[] and
-\f[B]b\f[] where \f[B]a\f[] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
-Expressions\f[] subsection).
+\f[B]=\f[R] \f[B]+=\f[R] \f[B]-=\f[R] \f[B]*=\f[R] \f[B]/=\f[R] \f[B]%=\f[R] \f[B]\[ha]=\f[R]
+The \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators take two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R] and
+\f[B]b\f[R] where \f[B]a\f[R] is a named expression (see the \f[I]Named
+Expressions\f[R] subsection).
.RS
.PP
-For \f[B]=\f[], \f[B]b\f[] is copied and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
-For all others, \f[B]a\f[] and \f[B]b\f[] are applied as operands to the
-corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
-\f[B]a\f[].
+For \f[B]=\f[R], \f[B]b\f[R] is copied and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
+For all others, \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] are applied as operands to
+the corresponding arithmetic operator and the result is assigned to
+\f[B]a\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]==\f[] \f[B]<=\f[] \f[B]>=\f[] \f[B]!=\f[] \f[B]<\f[] \f[B]>\f[]
-The \f[B]relational\f[] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[]
-and \f[B]b\f[], and if the relation holds, according to C language
-semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[].
-Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[].
+\f[B]==\f[R] \f[B]<=\f[R] \f[B]>=\f[R] \f[B]!=\f[R] \f[B]<\f[R] \f[B]>\f[R]
+The \f[B]relational\f[R] operators compare two expressions, \f[B]a\f[R]
+and \f[B]b\f[R], and if the relation holds, according to C language
+semantics, the result is \f[B]1\f[R].
+Otherwise, it is \f[B]0\f[R].
.RS
.PP
Note that unlike in C, these operators have a lower precedence than the
-\f[B]assignment\f[] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[] is
-interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[].
+\f[B]assignment\f[R] operators, which means that \f[B]a=b>c\f[R] is
+interpreted as \f[B](a=b)>c\f[R].
.PP
Also, unlike the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
requires, these operators can appear anywhere any other expressions can
be used.
-This allowance is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This allowance is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]&&\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean and\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if both expressions are non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]&&\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean and\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if both expressions are non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R] otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]||\f[]
-The \f[B]boolean or\f[] operator takes two expressions and returns
-\f[B]1\f[] if one of the expressions is non\-zero, \f[B]0\f[] otherwise.
+\f[B]||\f[R]
+The \f[B]boolean or\f[R] operator takes two expressions and returns
+\f[B]1\f[R] if one of the expressions is non-zero, \f[B]0\f[R]
+otherwise.
.RS
.PP
-This is \f[I]not\f[] a short\-circuit operator.
+This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.RE
.SS Statements
.PP
The following items are statements:
.IP " 1." 4
-\f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]E\f[R]
.IP " 2." 4
-\f[B]{\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B];\f[] ...
-\f[B];\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]}\f[]
+\f[B]{\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \&... \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]}\f[R]
.IP " 3." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 4." 4
-\f[B]if\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[] \f[B]else\f[]
-\f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]if\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
+\f[B]else\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 5." 4
-\f[B]while\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]while\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 6." 4
-\f[B]for\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B];\f[]
-\f[B]E\f[] \f[B])\f[] \f[B]S\f[]
+\f[B]for\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
+\f[B];\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B])\f[R] \f[B]S\f[R]
.IP " 7." 4
An empty statement
.IP " 8." 4
-\f[B]break\f[]
+\f[B]break\f[R]
.IP " 9." 4
-\f[B]continue\f[]
+\f[B]continue\f[R]
.IP "10." 4
-\f[B]quit\f[]
+\f[B]quit\f[R]
.IP "11." 4
-\f[B]halt\f[]
+\f[B]halt\f[R]
.IP "12." 4
-\f[B]limits\f[]
+\f[B]limits\f[R]
.IP "13." 4
A string of characters, enclosed in double quotes
.IP "14." 4
-\f[B]print\f[] \f[B]E\f[] \f[B],\f[] ...
-\f[B],\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]print\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R] \f[B],\f[R] \&... \f[B],\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.IP "15." 4
-\f[B]I()\f[], \f[B]I(E)\f[], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[], and so on, where
-\f[B]I\f[] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[] function (see the
-\f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section).
-The \f[B]E\f[] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form \f[B]I[]\f[],
-which will automatically be turned into array references (see the
-\f[I]Array References\f[] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[] section)
-if the corresponding parameter in the function definition is an array
-reference.
-.PP
-Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non\-portable extensions\f[].
-.PP
-Also, as a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], any or all of the
+\f[B]I()\f[R], \f[B]I(E)\f[R], \f[B]I(E, E)\f[R], and so on, where
+\f[B]I\f[R] is an identifier for a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the
+\f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section).
+The \f[B]E\f[R] argument(s) may also be arrays of the form
+\f[B]I[]\f[R], which will automatically be turned into array references
+(see the \f[I]Array References\f[R] subsection of the
+\f[B]FUNCTIONS\f[R] section) if the corresponding parameter in the
+function definition is an array reference.
+.PP
+Numbers 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R].
+.PP
+Also, as a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], any or all of the
expressions in the header of a for loop may be omitted.
If the condition (second expression) is omitted, it is assumed to be a
-constant \f[B]1\f[].
+constant \f[B]1\f[R].
.PP
-The \f[B]break\f[] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
+The \f[B]break\f[R] statement causes a loop to stop iterating and resume
execution immediately following a loop.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]continue\f[] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
+The \f[B]continue\f[R] statement causes a loop iteration to stop early
and returns to the start of the loop, including testing the loop
condition.
This is only allowed in loops.
.PP
-The \f[B]if\f[] \f[B]else\f[] statement does the same thing as in C.
+The \f[B]if\f[R] \f[B]else\f[R] statement does the same thing as in C.
.PP
-The \f[B]quit\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
-branch that will not be executed (it is a compile\-time command).
+The \f[B]quit\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, even if it is on a
+branch that will not be executed (it is a compile-time command).
.PP
-The \f[B]halt\f[] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
-(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[] statement
+The \f[B]halt\f[R] statement causes bc(1) to quit, if it is executed.
+(Unlike \f[B]quit\f[R] if it is on a branch of an \f[B]if\f[R] statement
that is not executed, bc(1) does not quit.)
.PP
-The \f[B]limits\f[] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
+The \f[B]limits\f[R] statement prints the limits that this bc(1) is
subject to.
-This is like the \f[B]quit\f[] statement in that it is a compile\-time
+This is like the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement in that it is a compile-time
command.
.PP
An expression by itself is evaluated and printed, followed by a newline.
.SS Print Statement
.PP
-The "expressions" in a \f[B]print\f[] statement may also be strings.
+The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be
+strings.
If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted
specially.
What those sequences are, and what they cause to be printed, are shown
@@ -732,152 +728,152 @@ below:
tab(@);
l l.
T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\a\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]a\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\b\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]b\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\[rs]\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\e\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]e\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\f\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]f\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\n\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]n\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\q\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]q\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]"\f[]
+\f[B]\[dq]\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\r\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]r\f[R]
T}
T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}@T{
-\f[B]\\t\f[]
+\f[B]\[rs]t\f[R]
T}
.TE
.PP
Any other character following a backslash causes the backslash and
-character to be printed as\-is.
+character to be printed as-is.
.PP
-Any non\-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
-\f[B]last\f[], like any other expression that is printed.
+Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to
+\f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed.
.SS Order of Evaluation
.PP
All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as
necessary to maintain order of operations.
-This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[] is equal to
-\f[B]0\f[], in the expression
+This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]0\f[R], in the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-a[i++]\ =\ i++
-\f[]
+a[i++] = i++
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[] is set to \f[B]1\f[], and
-\f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] at the end of the expression.
+the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and
+\f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression.
.PP
This includes function arguments.
-Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]0\f[], this means that in the
-expression
+Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in
+the expression
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-x(i++,\ i++)
-\f[]
+x(i++, i++)
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[] is \f[B]0\f[], and the second
-argument is \f[B]1\f[], while \f[B]i\f[] is equal to \f[B]2\f[] before
-the function starts executing.
+the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the
+second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to
+\f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing.
.SH FUNCTIONS
.PP
Function definitions are as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return(E)
+define I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return(E)
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[] list may be
-replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[] var an
-array, and any \f[B]I\f[] in the parameter list may be replaced with
-\f[B]*I[]\f[] to make a parameter an array reference.
+Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be
+replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an
+array, and any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list may be replaced with
+\f[B]*I[]\f[R] to make a parameter an array reference.
Callers of functions that take array references should not put an
-asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[] like
+asterisk in the call; they must be called with just \f[B]I[]\f[R] like
normal array parameters and will be automatically converted into
references.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the opening brace of a
-\f[B]define\f[] statement may appear on the next line.
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the opening brace of a
+\f[B]define\f[R] statement may appear on the next line.
.PP
-As a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[], the return statement may also be
+As a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R], the return statement may also be
in one of the following forms:
.IP "1." 3
-\f[B]return\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R]
.IP "2." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B](\f[] \f[B])\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B](\f[R] \f[B])\f[R]
.IP "3." 3
-\f[B]return\f[] \f[B]E\f[]
+\f[B]return\f[R] \f[B]E\f[R]
.PP
-The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[] statement, is
-equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[], unless the function is a
-\f[B]void\f[] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[] subsection
+The first two, or not specifying a \f[B]return\f[R] statement, is
+equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a
+\f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection
below).
.SS Void Functions
.PP
-Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[] functions, defined as follows:
+Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-define\ void\ I(I,...,I){
-\ \ \ \ auto\ I,...,I
-\ \ \ \ S;...;S
-\ \ \ \ return
+define void I(I,...,I){
+ auto I,...,I
+ S;...;S
+ return
}
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an
expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement.
.PP
-Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[] statements
+Void functions can only use the first two \f[B]return\f[R] statements
listed above.
They can also omit the return statement entirely.
.PP
-The word "void" is not treated as a keyword; it is still possible to
-have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[].
-The word "void" is only treated specially right after the
-\f[B]define\f[] keyword.
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is not treated as a keyword; it is still
+possible to have variables, arrays, and functions named \f[B]void\f[R].
+The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the
+\f[B]define\f[R] keyword.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SS Array References
.PP
For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the
@@ -886,73 +882,73 @@ form
.nf
\f[C]
*I[]
-\f[]
+\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-it is a \f[B]reference\f[].
+it is a \f[B]reference\f[R].
Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the
function returns, to the array that was passed in.
.PP
Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value.
.PP
-This is a \f[B]non\-portable extension\f[].
+This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R].
.SH LIBRARY
.PP
-All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]\-l\f[] or
-\f[B]\-\-mathlib\f[] command\-line flags are given.
+All of the functions below are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[en]mathlib\f[R] command-line flags are given.
.SS Standard Library
.PP
The
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
defines the following functions for the math library:
.TP
-.B \f[B]s(x)\f[]
-Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
+Returns the sine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]c(x)\f[]
-Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[], which is assumed to be in radians.
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
+Returns the cosine of \f[B]x\f[R], which is assumed to be in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]a(x)\f[]
-Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[], in radians.
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
+Returns the arctangent of \f[B]x\f[R], in radians.
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]l(x)\f[]
-Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
+Returns the natural logarithm of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]e(x)\f[]
-Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[] raised to the power of
-\f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
+Returns the mathematical constant \f[B]e\f[R] raised to the power of
+\f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
-Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[].
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
+Returns the bessel integer order \f[B]n\f[R] (truncated) of \f[B]x\f[R].
.RS
.PP
This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental
-Functions\f[] subsection below).
+Functions\f[R] subsection below).
.RE
.SS Transcendental Functions
.PP
@@ -964,27 +960,27 @@ why it is impossible and unnecessary to calculate exact results for the
transcendental functions.
.PP
Because of the possible inaccuracy, I recommend that users call those
-functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) set to at least 1 higher
+functions with the precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) set to at least 1 higher
than is necessary.
-If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[] required, users can double the
-precision (\f[B]scale\f[]) and then truncate.
+If exact results are \f[I]absolutely\f[R] required, users can double the
+precision (\f[B]scale\f[R]) and then truncate.
.PP
The transcendental functions in the standard math library are:
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]s(x)\f[]
+\f[B]s(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]c(x)\f[]
+\f[B]c(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]a(x)\f[]
+\f[B]a(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]l(x)\f[]
+\f[B]l(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]e(x)\f[]
+\f[B]e(x)\f[R]
.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]j(x, n)\f[]
+\f[B]j(x, n)\f[R]
.SH RESET
.PP
-When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non\-default
+When bc(1) encounters an error or a signal that it has a non-default
handler for, it resets.
This means that several things happen.
.PP
@@ -997,7 +993,7 @@ Then the execution point is set so that any code waiting to execute
Thus, when bc(1) resets, it skips any remaining code waiting to be
executed.
Then, if it is interactive mode, and the error was not a fatal error
-(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[] section), it asks for more input;
+(see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section), it asks for more input;
otherwise, it exits with the appropriate return code.
.PP
Note that this reset behavior is different from the GNU bc(1), which
@@ -1005,259 +1001,230 @@ attempts to start executing the statement right after the one that
caused an error.
.SH PERFORMANCE
.PP
-Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[] types to calculate the
-value of \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
+Most bc(1) implementations use \f[B]char\f[R] types to calculate the
+value of \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit at a time, but that can be slow.
This bc(1) does something different.
.PP
-It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[] decimal digit
+It uses large integers to calculate more than \f[B]1\f[R] decimal digit
at a time.
-If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] (see the
-\f[B]LIMITS\f[] section) is \f[B]64\f[], then each integer has
-\f[B]9\f[] decimal digits.
-If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] is \f[B]32\f[]
-then each integer has \f[B]4\f[] decimal digits.
+If built in a environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] (see the
+\f[B]LIMITS\f[R] section) is \f[B]64\f[R], then each integer has
+\f[B]9\f[R] decimal digits.
+If built in an environment where \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] is \f[B]32\f[R]
+then each integer has \f[B]4\f[R] decimal digits.
This value (the number of decimal digits per large integer) is called
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[] can
-be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R] and \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
+can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
In addition, this bc(1) uses an even larger integer for overflow
checking.
-This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[], but is
+This integer type depends on the value of \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R], but is
always at least twice as large as the integer type used to store digits.
.SH LIMITS
.PP
The following are the limits on bc(1):
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[]
-The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[] type in the environment where
+\f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R]
+The number of bits in the \f[B]long\f[R] type in the environment where
bc(1) was built.
This determines how many decimal digits can be stored in a single large
-integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-.RS
-.RE
+integer (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]
The number of decimal digits per large integer (see the
-\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[] section).
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R] section).
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R]
The max decimal number that each large integer can store (see
-\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[]) plus \f[B]1\f[].
-Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R]) plus \f[B]1\f[R].
+Depends on \f[B]BC_BASE_DIGS\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[]
-The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[]
+\f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R]
+The max number that the overflow type (see the \f[B]PERFORMANCE\f[R]
section) can hold.
-Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Depends on \f[B]BC_LONG_BIT\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_BASE_MAX\f[R]
The maximum output base.
-Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_BASE_POW\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_DIM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum size of arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[]
-The maximum \f[B]scale\f[].
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+\f[B]BC_SCALE_MAX\f[R]
+The maximum \f[B]scale\f[R].
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_STRING_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of strings.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NAME_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of identifiers.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[]
+\f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R]
The maximum length of a number (in decimal digits), which includes
digits after the decimal point.
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX-1\f[R].
.TP
-.B Exponent
+Exponent
The maximum allowable exponent (positive or negative).
-Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]BC_OVERFLOW_MAX\f[R].
.TP
-.B Number of vars
+Number of vars
The maximum number of vars/arrays.
-Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX\-1\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+Set at \f[B]SIZE_MAX-1\f[R].
.PP
-The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[] statement.
+The actual values can be queried with the \f[B]limits\f[R] statement.
.PP
-These limits are meant to be effectively non\-existent; the limits are
-so large (at least on 64\-bit machines) that there should not be any
-point at which they become a problem.
+These limits are meant to be effectively non-existent; the limits are so
+large (at least on 64-bit machines) that there should not be any point
+at which they become a problem.
In fact, memory should be exhausted before these limits should be hit.
.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
.PP
bc(1) recognizes the following environment variables:
.TP
-.B \f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[]
+\f[B]POSIXLY_CORRECT\f[R]
If this variable exists (no matter the contents), bc(1) behaves as if
-the \f[B]\-s\f[] option was given.
-.RS
-.RE
+the \f[B]-s\f[R] option was given.
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[]
-This is another way to give command\-line arguments to bc(1).
-They should be in the same format as all other command\-line arguments.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R]
+This is another way to give command-line arguments to bc(1).
+They should be in the same format as all other command-line arguments.
These are always processed first, so any files given in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will be processed before arguments and files given
-on the command\-line.
-This gives the user the ability to set up "standard" options and files
-to be used at every invocation.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will be processed before arguments and files given
+on the command-line.
+This gives the user the ability to set up \[lq]standard\[rq] options and
+files to be used at every invocation.
The most useful thing for such files to contain would be useful
functions that the user might want every time bc(1) runs.
.RS
.PP
-The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] will correctly handle quoted
+The code that parses \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] will correctly handle quoted
arguments, but it does not understand escape sequences.
-For example, the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some bc file.bc"\f[] will be
-correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]"/home/gavin/some "bc"
-file.bc"\f[] will include the backslashes.
-.PP
-The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[aq]\f[] or
-\f[B]"\f[].
-Thus, if you have a file with any number of single quotes in the name,
-you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as in \f[B]"some
-\[aq]bc\[aq] file.bc"\f[], and vice versa if you have a file with double
-quotes.
+For example, the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some bc file.bc\[rq]\f[R]
+will be correctly parsed, but the string \f[B]\[lq]/home/gavin/some
+\[dq]bc\[dq] file.bc\[rq]\f[R] will include the backslashes.
+.PP
+The quote parsing will handle either kind of quotes, \f[B]\[cq]\f[R] or
+\f[B]\[lq]\f[R]. Thus, if you have a file with any number of single
+quotes in the name, you can use double quotes as the outside quotes, as
+in \f[B]\[rq]some `bc' file.bc\[dq]\f[R], and vice versa if you have a
+file with double quotes.
However, handling a file with both kinds of quotes in
-\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[] is not supported due to the complexity of the
-parsing, though such files are still supported on the command\-line
-where the parsing is done by the shell.
+\f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] is not supported due to the complexity of the
+parsing, though such files are still supported on the command-line where
+the parsing is done by the shell.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[]
+\f[B]BC_LINE_LENGTH\f[R]
If this environment variable exists and contains an integer that is
-greater than \f[B]1\f[] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[]
-(\f[B]2^16\-1\f[]), bc(1) will output lines to that length, including
-the backslash (\f[B]\\\f[]).
-The default line length is \f[B]70\f[].
-.RS
-.RE
+greater than \f[B]1\f[R] and is less than \f[B]UINT16_MAX\f[R]
+(\f[B]2\[ha]16-1\f[R]), bc(1) will output lines to that length,
+including the backslash (\f[B]\[rs]\f[R]).
+The default line length is \f[B]70\f[R].
.SH EXIT STATUS
.PP
bc(1) returns the following exit statuses:
.TP
-.B \f[B]0\f[]
+\f[B]0\f[R]
No error.
-.RS
-.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]1\f[]
+\f[B]1\f[R]
A math error occurred.
-This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[] for expected errors,
+This follows standard practice of using \f[B]1\f[R] for expected errors,
since math errors will happen in the process of normal execution.
.RS
.PP
-Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[], taking the square root of a
+Math errors include divide by \f[B]0\f[R], taking the square root of a
negative number, attempting to convert a negative number to a hardware
integer, overflow when converting a number to a hardware integer, and
-attempting to use a non\-integer where an integer is required.
+attempting to use a non-integer where an integer is required.
.PP
Converting to a hardware integer happens for the second operand of the
-power (\f[B]^\f[]) operator and the corresponding assignment operator.
+power (\f[B]\[ha]\f[R]) operator and the corresponding assignment
+operator.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]2\f[]
+\f[B]2\f[R]
A parse error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[], using an invalid
+Parse errors include unexpected \f[B]EOF\f[R], using an invalid
character, failing to find the end of a string or comment, using a token
where it is invalid, giving an invalid expression, giving an invalid
print statement, giving an invalid function definition, attempting to
assign to an expression that is not a named expression (see the
-\f[I]Named Expressions\f[] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[] section),
-giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[] list, having a duplicate
-\f[B]auto\f[]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
-block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[] function,
+\f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection of the \f[B]SYNTAX\f[R] section),
+giving an invalid \f[B]auto\f[R] list, having a duplicate
+\f[B]auto\f[R]/function parameter, failing to find the end of a code
+block, attempting to return a value from a \f[B]void\f[R] function,
attempting to use a variable as a reference, and using any extensions
-when the option \f[B]\-s\f[] or any equivalents were given.
+when the option \f[B]-s\f[R] or any equivalents were given.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]3\f[]
+\f[B]3\f[R]
A runtime error occurred.
.RS
.PP
-Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[],
-\f[B]obase\f[], or \f[B]scale\f[]; give a bad expression to a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[] inside of a
-\f[B]read()\f[] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of arguments
-to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and attempting
-to use a \f[B]void\f[] function call as a value in an expression.
+Runtime errors include assigning an invalid number to \f[B]ibase\f[R],
+\f[B]obase\f[R], or \f[B]scale\f[R]; give a bad expression to a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, calling \f[B]read()\f[R] inside of a
+\f[B]read()\f[R] call, type errors, passing the wrong number of
+arguments to functions, attempting to call an undefined function, and
+attempting to use a \f[B]void\f[R] function call as a value in an
+expression.
.RE
.TP
-.B \f[B]4\f[]
+\f[B]4\f[R]
A fatal error occurred.
.RS
.PP
Fatal errors include memory allocation errors, I/O errors, failing to
open files, attempting to use files that do not have only ASCII
characters (bc(1) only accepts ASCII characters), attempting to open a
-directory as a file, and giving invalid command\-line options.
+directory as a file, and giving invalid command-line options.
.RE
.PP
-The exit status \f[B]4\f[] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
-always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
+The exit status \f[B]4\f[R] is special; when a fatal error occurs, bc(1)
+always exits and returns \f[B]4\f[R], no matter what mode bc(1) is in.
.PP
The other statuses will only be returned when bc(1) is not in
-interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[] section), since
-bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section) and accepts more
-input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
+interactive mode (see the \f[B]INTERACTIVE MODE\f[R] section), since
+bc(1) resets its state (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section) and accepts
+more input when one of those errors occurs in interactive mode.
This is also the case when interactive mode is forced by the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.PP
These exit statuses allow bc(1) to be used in shell scripting with error
checking, and its normal behavior can be forced by using the
-\f[B]\-i\f[] flag or \f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option.
+\f[B]-i\f[R] flag or \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option.
.SH INTERACTIVE MODE
.PP
Per the
standard (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non\-interactive mode.
-Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[] and
-\f[B]stdout\f[] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]\-i\f[] flag and
-\f[B]\-\-interactive\f[] option can turn it on in other cases.
+bc(1) has an interactive mode and a non-interactive mode.
+Interactive mode is turned on automatically when both \f[B]stdin\f[R]
+and \f[B]stdout\f[R] are hooked to a terminal, but the \f[B]-i\f[R] flag
+and \f[B]\[en]interactive\f[R] option can turn it on in other cases.
.PP
In interactive mode, bc(1) attempts to recover from errors (see the
-\f[B]RESET\f[] section), and in normal execution, flushes
-\f[B]stdout\f[] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
+\f[B]RESET\f[R] section), and in normal execution, flushes
+\f[B]stdout\f[R] as soon as execution is done for the current input.
.SH TTY MODE
.PP
-If \f[B]stdin\f[], \f[B]stdout\f[], and \f[B]stderr\f[] are all
-connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on "TTY mode."
+If \f[B]stdin\f[R], \f[B]stdout\f[R], and \f[B]stderr\f[R] are all
+connected to a TTY, bc(1) turns on \[lq]TTY mode.\[rq]
.PP
TTY mode is required for history to be enabled (see the \f[B]COMMAND
-LINE HISTORY\f[] section).
-It is also required to enable special handling for \f[B]SIGINT\f[]
+LINE HISTORY\f[R] section).
+It is also required to enable special handling for \f[B]SIGINT\f[R]
signals.
.PP
The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
@@ -1265,58 +1232,58 @@ The prompt is enabled in TTY mode.
TTY mode is different from interactive mode because interactive mode is
required in the bc(1)
specification (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html),
-and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[] and \f[B]stdout\f[] to
-be connected to a terminal.
+and interactive mode requires only \f[B]stdin\f[R] and \f[B]stdout\f[R]
+to be connected to a terminal.
.SH SIGNAL HANDLING
.PP
-Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
+Sending a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] will cause bc(1) to stop execution of the
current input.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), it will
-reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[] section).
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), it will
+reset (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section).
Otherwise, it will clean up and exit.
.PP
-Note that "current input" can mean one of two things.
-If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[] in TTY mode, it will
+Note that \[lq]current input\[rq] can mean one of two things.
+If bc(1) is processing input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] in TTY mode, it will
ask for more input.
If bc(1) is processing input from a file in TTY mode, it will stop
processing the file and start processing the next file, if one exists,
-or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[] if no other file exists.
+or ask for input from \f[B]stdin\f[R] if no other file exists.
.PP
-This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[] is sent to bc(1) as it is executing
-a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the signal since
-it will immediately start executing the next file.
+This means that if a \f[B]SIGINT\f[R] is sent to bc(1) as it is
+executing a file, it can seem as though bc(1) did not respond to the
+signal since it will immediately start executing the next file.
This is by design; most files that users execute when interacting with
bc(1) have function definitions, which are quick to parse.
If a file takes a long time to execute, there may be a bug in that file.
The rest of the files could still be executed without problem, allowing
the user to continue.
.PP
-\f[B]SIGTERM\f[] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[] cause bc(1) to clean up and exit,
-and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
-The one exception is \f[B]SIGHUP\f[]; in that case, when bc(1) is in TTY
-mode, a \f[B]SIGHUP\f[] will cause bc(1) to clean up and exit.
+\f[B]SIGTERM\f[R] and \f[B]SIGQUIT\f[R] cause bc(1) to clean up and
+exit, and it uses the default handler for all other signals.
+The one exception is \f[B]SIGHUP\f[R]; in that case, when bc(1) is in
+TTY mode, a \f[B]SIGHUP\f[R] will cause bc(1) to clean up and exit.
.SH COMMAND LINE HISTORY
.PP
-bc(1) supports interactive command\-line editing.
-If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[] section), history is
+bc(1) supports interactive command-line editing.
+If bc(1) is in TTY mode (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section), history is
enabled.
Previous lines can be recalled and edited with the arrow keys.
.PP
-\f[B]Note\f[]: tabs are converted to 8 spaces.
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: tabs are converted to 8 spaces.
.SH SEE ALSO
.PP
dc(1)
.SH STANDARDS
.PP
-bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1\-2017
-(“POSIX.1\-2017”) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
+bc(1) is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
+(\[lq]POSIX.1-2017\[rq]) (https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/bc.html)
specification.
-The flags \f[B]\-efghiqsvVw\f[], all long options, and the extensions
+The flags \f[B]-efghiqsvVw\f[R], all long options, and the extensions
noted above are extensions to that specification.
.PP
Note that the specification explicitly says that bc(1) only accepts
-numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[]) as a radix point, regardless of
-the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[].
+numbers that use a period (\f[B].\f[R]) as a radix point, regardless of
+the value of \f[B]LC_NUMERIC\f[R].
.SH BUGS
.PP
None are known.
@@ -1324,4 +1291,4 @@ Report bugs at https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc.
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
Gavin D.
-Howard <yzena.tech@gmail.com> and contributors.
+Howard <gavin@yzena.com> and contributors.
diff --git a/manuals/bc/EN.1.md b/manuals/bc/EN.1.md
index 55ca344ddeb2..e7ba17a98401 100644
--- a/