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/* $OpenBSD: netcat.c,v 1.109 2012/07/07 15:33:02 haesbaert Exp $ */
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2001 Eric Jackson <ericj@monkey.org>
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
 *   derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
 * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
 * IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
 * INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
 * NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
 * DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
 * THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
 * (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF
 * THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

/*
 * Re-written nc(1) for OpenBSD. Original implementation by
 * *Hobbit* <hobbit@avian.org>.
 */

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/un.h>

#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <arpa/telnet.h>

#include <err.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <poll.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include "atomicio.h"

#ifndef SUN_LEN
#define SUN_LEN(su) \
	(sizeof(*(su)) - sizeof((su)->sun_path) + strlen((su)->sun_path))
#endif

#define PORT_MAX	65535
#define PORT_MAX_LEN	6
#define UNIX_DG_TMP_SOCKET_SIZE	19

/* Command Line Options */
int	dflag;					/* detached, no stdin */
unsigned int iflag;				/* Interval Flag */
int	kflag;					/* More than one connect */
int	lflag;					/* Bind to local port */
int	nflag;					/* Don't do name look up */
char   *Pflag;					/* Proxy username */
char   *pflag;					/* Localport flag */
int	rflag;					/* Random ports flag */
char   *sflag;					/* Source Address */
int	tflag;					/* Telnet Emulation */
int	uflag;					/* UDP - Default to TCP */
int	vflag;					/* Verbosity */
int	xflag;					/* Socks proxy */
int	zflag;					/* Port Scan Flag */
int	Dflag;					/* sodebug */
int	Iflag;					/* TCP receive buffer size */
int	Oflag;					/* TCP send buffer size */
int	Sflag;					/* TCP MD5 signature option */
int	Tflag = -1;				/* IP Type of Service */
u_int	rtableid;

int timeout = -1;
int family = AF_UNSPEC;
char *portlist[PORT_MAX+1];
char *unix_dg_tmp_socket;

void	atelnet(int, unsigned char *, unsigned int);
void	build_ports(char *);
void	help(void);
int	local_listen(char *, char *, struct addrinfo);
void	readwrite(int);
int	remote_connect(const char *, const char *, struct addrinfo);
int	timeout_connect(int, const struct sockaddr *, socklen_t);
int	socks_connect(const char *, const char *, struct addrinfo,
	    const char *, const char *, struct addrinfo, int, const char *);
int	udptest(int);
int	unix_bind(char *);
int	unix_connect(char *);
int	unix_listen(char *);
void	set_common_sockopts(int);
int	map_tos(char *, int *);
void	report_connect(const struct sockaddr *, socklen_t);
void	usage(int);

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	int ch, s, ret, socksv;
	char *host, *uport;
	struct addrinfo hints;
	struct servent *sv;
	socklen_t len;
	struct sockaddr_storage cliaddr;
	char *proxy;
	const char *errstr, *proxyhost = "", *proxyport = NULL;
	struct addrinfo proxyhints;
	char unix_dg_tmp_socket_buf[UNIX_DG_TMP_SOCKET_SIZE];

	ret = 1;
	s = 0;
	socksv = 5;
	host = NULL;
	uport = NULL;
	sv = NULL;

	while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv,
	    "46DdhI:i:klnO:P:p:rSs:tT:UuV:vw:X:x:z")) != -1) {
		switch (ch) {
		case '4':
			family = AF_INET;
			break;
		case '6':
			family = AF_INET6;
			break;
		case 'U':
			family = AF_UNIX;
			break;
		case 'X':
			if (strcasecmp(optarg, "connect") == 0)
				socksv = -1; /* HTTP proxy CONNECT */
			else if (strcmp(optarg, "4") == 0)
				socksv = 4; /* SOCKS v.4 */
			else if (strcmp(optarg, "5") == 0)
				socksv = 5; /* SOCKS v.5 */
			else
				errx(1, "unsupported proxy protocol");
			break;
		case 'd':
			dflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'h':
			help();
			break;
		case 'i':
			iflag = strtonum(optarg, 0, UINT_MAX, &errstr);
			if (errstr)
				errx(1, "interval %s: %s", errstr, optarg);
			break;
		case 'k':
			kflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'l':
			lflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'n':
			nflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'P':
			Pflag = optarg;
			break;
		case 'p':
			pflag = optarg;
			break;
		case 'r':
			rflag = 1;
			break;
		case 's':
			sflag = optarg;
			break;
		case 't':
			tflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'u':
			uflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'V':
			rtableid = (unsigned int)strtonum(optarg, 0,
			    RT_TABLEID_MAX, &errstr);
			if (errstr)
				errx(1, "rtable %s: %s", errstr, optarg);
			break;
		case 'v':
			vflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'w':
			timeout = strtonum(optarg, 0, INT_MAX / 1000, &errstr);
			if (errstr)
				errx(1, "timeout %s: %s", errstr, optarg);
			timeout *= 1000;
			break;
		case 'x':
			xflag = 1;
			if ((proxy = strdup(optarg)) == NULL)
				err(1, NULL);
			break;
		case 'z':
			zflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'D':
			Dflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'I':
			Iflag = strtonum(optarg, 1, 65536 << 14, &errstr);
			if (errstr != NULL)
				errx(1, "TCP receive window %s: %s",
				    errstr, optarg);
			break;
		case 'O':
			Oflag = strtonum(optarg, 1, 65536 << 14, &errstr);
			if (errstr != NULL)
				errx(1, "TCP send window %s: %s",
				    errstr, optarg);
			break;
		case 'S':
			Sflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'T':
			errstr = NULL;
			errno = 0;
			if (map_tos(optarg, &Tflag))
				break;
			if (strlen(optarg) > 1 && optarg[0] == '0' &&
			    optarg[1] == 'x')
				Tflag = (int)strtol(optarg, NULL, 16);
			else
				Tflag = (int)strtonum(optarg, 0, 255,
				    &errstr);
			if (Tflag < 0 || Tflag > 255 || errstr || errno)
				errx(1, "illegal tos value %s", optarg);
			break;
		default:
			usage(1);
		}
	}
	argc -= optind;
	argv += optind;

	/* Cruft to make sure options are clean, and used properly. */
	if (argv[0] && !argv[1] && family == AF_UNIX) {
		host = argv[0];
		uport = NULL;
	} else if (argv[0] && !argv[1]) {
		if  (!lflag)
			usage(1);
		uport = argv[0];
		host = NULL;
	} else if (argv[0] && argv[1]) {
		host = argv[0];
		uport = argv[1];
	} else
		usage(1);

	if (lflag && sflag)
		errx(1, "cannot use -s and -l");
	if (lflag && pflag)
		errx(1, "cannot use -p and -l");
	if (lflag && zflag)
		errx(1, "cannot use -z and -l");
	if (!lflag && kflag)
		errx(1, "must use -l with -k");

	/* Get name of temporary socket for unix datagram client */
	if ((family == AF_UNIX) && uflag && !lflag) {
		if (sflag) {
			unix_dg_tmp_socket = sflag;
		} else {
			strlcpy(unix_dg_tmp_socket_buf, "/tmp/nc.XXXXXXXXXX",
				UNIX_DG_TMP_SOCKET_SIZE);
			if (mktemp(unix_dg_tmp_socket_buf) == NULL)
				err(1, "mktemp");
			unix_dg_tmp_socket = unix_dg_tmp_socket_buf;
		}
	}

	/* Initialize addrinfo structure. */
	if (family != AF_UNIX) {
		memset(&hints, 0, sizeof(struct addrinfo));
		hints.ai_family = family;
		hints.ai_socktype = uflag ? SOCK_DGRAM : SOCK_STREAM;
		hints.ai_protocol = uflag ? IPPROTO_UDP : IPPROTO_TCP;
		if (nflag)
			hints.ai_flags |= AI_NUMERICHOST;
	}

	if (xflag) {
		if (uflag)
			errx(1, "no proxy support for UDP mode");

		if (lflag)
			errx(1, "no proxy support for listen");

		if (family == AF_UNIX)
			errx(1, "no proxy support for unix sockets");

		/* XXX IPv6 transport to proxy would probably work */
		if (family == AF_INET6)
			errx(1, "no proxy support for IPv6");

		if (sflag)
			errx(1, "no proxy support for local source address");

		proxyhost = strsep(&proxy, ":");
		proxyport = proxy;

		memset(&proxyhints, 0, sizeof(struct addrinfo));
		proxyhints.ai_family = family;
		proxyhints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM;
		proxyhints.ai_protocol = IPPROTO_TCP;
		if (nflag)
			proxyhints.ai_flags |= AI_NUMERICHOST;
	}

	if (lflag) {
		int connfd;
		ret = 0;

		if (family == AF_UNIX) {
			if (uflag)
				s = unix_bind(host);
			else
				s = unix_listen(host);
		}

		/* Allow only one connection at a time, but stay alive. */
		for (;;) {
			if (family != AF_UNIX)
				s = local_listen(host, uport, hints);
			if (s < 0)
				err(1, NULL);
			/*
			 * For UDP and -k, don't connect the socket, let it
			 * receive datagrams from multiple socket pairs.
			 */
			if (uflag && kflag)
				readwrite(s);
			/*
			 * For UDP and not -k, we will use recvfrom() initially
			 * to wait for a caller, then use the regular functions
			 * to talk to the caller.
			 */
			else if (uflag && !kflag) {
				int rv, plen;
				char buf[16384];
				struct sockaddr_storage z;

				len = sizeof(z);
				plen = 2048;
				rv = recvfrom(s, buf, plen, MSG_PEEK,
				    (struct sockaddr *)&z, &len);
				if (rv < 0)
					err(1, "recvfrom");

				rv = connect(s, (struct sockaddr *)&z, len);
				if (rv < 0)
					err(1, "connect");

				if (vflag)
					report_connect((struct sockaddr *)&z, len);

				readwrite(s);
			} else {
				len = sizeof(cliaddr);
				connfd = accept(s, (struct sockaddr *)&cliaddr,
				    &len);
				if (connfd == -1)
					err(1, "accept");

				if (vflag)
					report_connect((struct sockaddr *)&cliaddr, len);

				readwrite(connfd);
				close(connfd);
			}

			if (family != AF_UNIX)
				close(s);
			else if (uflag) {
				if (connect(s, NULL, 0) < 0)
					err(1, "connect");
			}

			if (!kflag)
				break;
		}
	} else if (family == AF_UNIX) {
		ret = 0;

		if ((s = unix_connect(host)) > 0 && !zflag) {
			readwrite(s);
			close(s);
		} else
			ret = 1;

		if (uflag)
			unlink(unix_dg_tmp_socket);
		exit(ret);

	} else {
		int i = 0;

		/* Construct the portlist[] array. */
		build_ports(uport);

		/* Cycle through portlist, connecting to each port. */
		for (i = 0; portlist[i] != NULL; i++) {
			if (s)
				close(s);

			if (xflag)
				s = socks_connect(host, portlist[i], hints,
				    proxyhost, proxyport, proxyhints, socksv,
				    Pflag);
			else
				s = remote_connect(host, portlist[i], hints);

			if (s < 0)
				continue;

			ret = 0;
			if (vflag || zflag) {
				/* For UDP, make sure we are connected. */
				if (uflag) {
					if (udptest(s) == -1) {
						ret = 1;
						continue;
					}
				}

				/* Don't look up port if -n. */
				if (nflag)
					sv = NULL;
				else {
					sv = getservbyport(
					    ntohs(atoi(portlist[i])),
					    uflag ? "udp" : "tcp");
				}

				fprintf(stderr,
				    "Connection to %s %s port [%s/%s] "
				    "succeeded!\n", host, portlist[i],
				    uflag ? "udp" : "tcp",
				    sv ? sv->s_name : "*");
			}
			if (!zflag)
				readwrite(s);
		}
	}

	if (s)
		close(s);

	exit(ret);
}

/*
 * unix_bind()
 * Returns a unix socket bound to the given path
 */
int
unix_bind(char *path)
{
	struct sockaddr_un sun;
	int s;

	/* Create unix domain socket. */
	if ((s = socket(AF_UNIX, uflag ? SOCK_DGRAM : SOCK_STREAM,
	     0)) < 0)
		return (-1);

	memset(&sun, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));
	sun.sun_family = AF_UNIX;

	if (strlcpy(sun.sun_path, path, sizeof(sun.sun_path)) >=
	    sizeof(sun.sun_path)) {
		close(s);
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return (-1);
	}

	if (bind(s, (struct sockaddr *)&sun, SUN_LEN(&sun)) < 0) {
		close(s);
		return (-1);
	}
	return (s);
}

/*
 * unix_connect()
 * Returns a socket connected to a local unix socket. Returns -1 on failure.
 */
int
unix_connect(char *path)
{
	struct sockaddr_un sun;
	int s;

	if (uflag) {
		if ((s = unix_bind(unix_dg_tmp_socket)) < 0)
			return (-1);
	} else {
		if ((s = socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM, 0)) < 0)
			return (-1);
	}
	(void)fcntl(s, F_SETFD, 1);

	memset(&sun, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));
	sun.sun_family = AF_UNIX;

	if (strlcpy(sun.sun_path, path, sizeof(sun.sun_path)) >=
	    sizeof(sun.sun_path)) {
		close(s);
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return (-1);
	}
	if (connect(s, (struct sockaddr *)&sun, SUN_LEN(&sun)) < 0) {
		close(s);
		return (-1);
	}
	return (s);

}

/*
 * unix_listen()
 * Create a unix domain socket, and listen on it.
 */
int
unix_listen(char *path)
{
	int s;
	if ((s = unix_bind(path)) < 0)
		return (-1);

	if (listen(s, 5) < 0) {
		close(s);
		return (-1);
	}
	return (s);
}

/*
 * remote_connect()
 * Returns a socket connected to a remote host. Properly binds to a local
 * port or source address if needed. Returns -1 on failure.
 */
int
remote_connect(const char *host, const char *port, struct addrinfo hints)
{
	struct addrinfo *res, *res0;
	int s, error, on = 1;

	if ((error = getaddrinfo(host, port, &hints, &res)))
		errx(1, "getaddrinfo: %s", gai_strerror(error));

	res0 = res;
	do {
		if ((s = socket(res0->ai_family, res0->ai_socktype,
		    res0->ai_protocol)) < 0)
			continue;

		if (rtableid) {
			if (setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_RTABLE, &rtableid,
			    sizeof(rtableid)) == -1)
				err(1, "setsockopt SO_RTABLE");
		}

		/* Bind to a local port or source address if specified. */
		if (sflag || pflag) {
			struct addrinfo ahints, *ares;

			/* try SO_BINDANY, but don't insist */
			setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_BINDANY, &on, sizeof(on));
			memset(&ahints, 0, sizeof(struct addrinfo));
			ahints.ai_family = res0->ai_family;
			ahints.ai_socktype = uflag ? SOCK_DGRAM : SOCK_STREAM;
			ahints.ai_protocol = uflag ? IPPROTO_UDP : IPPROTO_TCP;
			ahints.ai_flags = AI_PASSIVE;
			if ((error = getaddrinfo(sflag, pflag, &ahints, &ares)))
				errx(1, "getaddrinfo: %s", gai_strerror(error));

			if (bind(s, (struct sockaddr *)ares->ai_addr,
			    ares->ai_addrlen) < 0)
				errx(1, "bind failed: %s", strerror(errno));
			freeaddrinfo(ares);
		}

		set_common_sockopts(s);

		if (timeout_connect(s, res0->ai_addr, res0->ai_addrlen) == 0)
			break;
		else if (vflag)
			warn("connect to %s port %s (%s) failed", host, port,
			    uflag ? "udp" : "tcp");

		close(s);
		s = -1;
	} while ((res0 = res0->ai_next) != NULL);

	freeaddrinfo(res);

	return (s);
}

int
timeout_connect(int s, const struct sockaddr *name, socklen_t namelen)
{
	struct pollfd pfd;
	socklen_t optlen;
	int flags, optval;
	int ret;

	if (timeout != -1) {
		flags = fcntl(s, F_GETFL, 0);
		if (fcntl(s, F_SETFL, flags | O_NONBLOCK) == -1)
			err(1, "set non-blocking mode");
	}

	if ((ret = connect(s, name, namelen)) != 0 && errno == EINPROGRESS) {
		pfd.fd = s;
		pfd.events = POLLOUT;
		if ((ret = poll(&pfd, 1, timeout)) == 1) {
			optlen = sizeof(optval);
			if ((ret = getsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ERROR,
			    &optval, &optlen)) == 0) {
				errno = optval;
				ret = optval == 0 ? 0 : -1;
			}
		} else if (ret == 0) {
			errno = ETIMEDOUT;
			ret = -1;
		} else
			err(1, "poll failed");
	}

	if (timeout != -1 && fcntl(s, F_SETFL, flags) == -1)
		err(1, "restoring flags");

	return (ret);
}

/*
 * local_listen()
 * Returns a socket listening on a local port, binds to specified source
 * address. Returns -1 on failure.
 */
int
local_listen(char *host, char *port, struct addrinfo hints)
{
	struct addrinfo *res, *res0;
	int s, ret, x = 1;
	int error;

	/* Allow nodename to be null. */
	hints.ai_flags |= AI_PASSIVE;

	/*
	 * In the case of binding to a wildcard address
	 * default to binding to an ipv4 address.
	 */
	if (host == NULL && hints.ai_family == AF_UNSPEC)
		hints.ai_family = AF_INET;

	if ((error = getaddrinfo(host, port, &hints, &res)))
		errx(1, "getaddrinfo: %s", gai_strerror(error));

	res0 = res;
	do {
		if ((s = socket(res0->ai_family, res0->ai_socktype,
		    res0->ai_protocol)) < 0)
			continue;

		if (rtableid) {
			if (setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, SO_RTABLE, &rtableid,
			    sizeof(rtableid)) == -1)
				err(1, "setsockopt SO_RTABLE");
		}

		ret = setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEPORT, &x, sizeof(x));
		if (ret == -1)
			err(1, NULL);

		set_common_sockopts(s);

		if (bind(s, (struct sockaddr *)res0->ai_addr,
		    res0->ai_addrlen) == 0)
			break;

		close(s);
		s = -1;
	} while ((res0 = res0->ai_next) != NULL);

	if (!uflag && s != -1) {
		if (listen(s, 1) < 0)
			err(1, "listen");
	}

	freeaddrinfo(res);

	return (s);
}

/*
 * readwrite()
 * Loop that polls on the network file descriptor and stdin.
 */
void
readwrite(int nfd)
{
	struct pollfd pfd[2];
	unsigned char buf[16384];
	int n, wfd = fileno(stdin);
	int lfd = fileno(stdout);
	int plen;

	plen = 2048;

	/* Setup Network FD */
	pfd[0].fd = nfd;
	pfd[0].events = POLLIN;

	/* Set up STDIN FD. */
	pfd[1].fd = wfd;
	pfd[1].events = POLLIN;

	while (pfd[0].fd != -1) {
		if (iflag)
			sleep(iflag);

		if ((n = poll(pfd, 2 - dflag, timeout)) < 0) {
			close(nfd);
			err(1, "Polling Error");
		}

		if (n == 0)
			return;

		if (pfd[0].revents & POLLIN) {
			if ((n = read(nfd, buf, plen)) < 0)
				return;
			else if (n == 0) {
				shutdown(nfd, SHUT_RD);
				pfd[0].fd = -1;
				pfd[0].events = 0;
			} else {
				if (tflag)
					atelnet(nfd, buf, n);
				if (atomicio(vwrite, lfd, buf, n) != n)
					return;
			}
		}

		if (!dflag && pfd[1].revents & POLLIN) {
			if ((n = read(wfd, buf, plen)) < 0)
				return;
			else if (n == 0) {
				shutdown(nfd, SHUT_WR);
				pfd[1].fd = -1;
				pfd[1].events = 0;
			} else {
				if (atomicio(vwrite, nfd, buf, n) != n)
					return;
			}
		}
	}
}

/* Deal with RFC 854 WILL/WONT DO/DONT negotiation. */
void
atelnet(int nfd, unsigned char *buf, unsigned int size)
{
	unsigned char *p, *end;
	unsigned char obuf[4];

	if (size < 3)
		return;
	end = buf + size - 2;

	for (p = buf; p < end; p++) {
		if (*p != IAC)
			continue;

		obuf[0] = IAC;
		p++;
		if ((*p == WILL) || (*p == WONT))
			obuf[1] = DONT;
		else if ((*p == DO) || (*p == DONT))
			obuf[1] = WONT;
		else
			continue;

		p++;
		obuf[2] = *p;
		if (atomicio(vwrite, nfd, obuf, 3) != 3)
			warn("Write Error!");
	}
}

/*
 * build_ports()
 * Build an array of ports in portlist[], listing each port
 * that we should try to connect to.
 */
void
build_ports(char *p)
{
	const char *errstr;
	char *n;
	int hi, lo, cp;
	int x = 0;

	if ((n = strchr(p, '-')) != NULL) {
		*n = '\0';
		n++;

		/* Make sure the ports are in order: lowest->highest. */
		hi = strtonum(n, 1, PORT_MAX, &errstr);
		if (errstr)
			errx(1, "port number %s: %s", errstr, n);
		lo = strtonum(p, 1, PORT_MAX, &errstr);
		if (errstr)
			errx(1, "port number %s: %s", errstr, p);

		if (lo > hi) {
			cp = hi;
			hi = lo;
			lo = cp;
		}

		/* Load ports sequentially. */
		for (cp = lo; cp <= hi; cp++) {
			portlist[x] = calloc(1, PORT_MAX_LEN);
			if (portlist[x] == NULL)
				err(1, NULL);
			snprintf(portlist[x], PORT_MAX_LEN, "%d", cp);
			x++;
		}

		/* Randomly swap ports. */
		if (rflag) {
			int y;
			char *c;

			for (x = 0; x <= (hi - lo); x++) {
				y = (arc4random() & 0xFFFF) % (hi - lo);
				c = portlist[x];
				portlist[x] = portlist[y];
				portlist[y] = c;
			}
		}
	} else {
		hi = strtonum(p, 1, PORT_MAX, &errstr);
		if (errstr)
			errx(1, "port number %s: %s", errstr, p);
		portlist[0] = strdup(p);
		if (portlist[0] == NULL)
			err(1, NULL);
	}
}

/*
 * udptest()
 * Do a few writes to see if the UDP port is there.
 * Fails once PF state table is full.
 */
int
udptest(int s)
{
	int i, ret;

	for (i = 0; i <= 3; i++) {
		if (write(s, "X", 1) == 1)
			ret = 1;
		else
			ret = -1;
	}
	return (ret);
}

void
set_common_sockopts(int s)
{
	int x = 1;

	if (Sflag) {
		if (setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_TCP, TCP_MD5SIG,
			&x, sizeof(x)) == -1)
			err(1, NULL);
	}
	if (Dflag) {
		if (setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_DEBUG,
			&x, sizeof(x)) == -1)
			err(1, NULL);
	}
	if (Tflag != -1) {
		if (setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TOS,
		    &Tflag, sizeof(Tflag)) == -1)
			err(1, "set IP ToS");
	}
	if (Iflag) {
		if (setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVBUF,
		    &Iflag, sizeof(Iflag)) == -1)
			err(1, "set TCP receive buffer size");
	}
	if (Oflag) {
		if (setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF,
		    &Oflag, sizeof(Oflag)) == -1)
			err(1, "set TCP send buffer size");
	}
}

int
map_tos(char *s, int *val)
{
	/* DiffServ Codepoints and other TOS mappings */
	const struct toskeywords {
		const char	*keyword;
		int		 val;
	} *t, toskeywords[] = {
		{ "af11",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF11 },
		{ "af12",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF12 },
		{ "af13",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF13 },
		{ "af21",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF21 },
		{ "af22",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF22 },
		{ "af23",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF23 },
		{ "af31",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF31 },
		{ "af32",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF32 },
		{ "af33",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF33 },
		{ "af41",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF41 },
		{ "af42",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF42 },
		{ "af43",		IPTOS_DSCP_AF43 },
		{ "critical",		IPTOS_PREC_CRITIC_ECP },
		{ "cs0",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS0 },
		{ "cs1",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS1 },
		{ "cs2",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS2 },
		{ "cs3",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS3 },
		{ "cs4",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS4 },
		{ "cs5",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS5 },
		{ "cs6",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS6 },
		{ "cs7",		IPTOS_DSCP_CS7 },
		{ "ef",			IPTOS_DSCP_EF },
		{ "inetcontrol",	IPTOS_PREC_INTERNETCONTROL },
		{ "lowdelay",		IPTOS_LOWDELAY },
		{ "netcontrol",		IPTOS_PREC_NETCONTROL },
		{ "reliability",	IPTOS_RELIABILITY },
		{ "throughput",		IPTOS_THROUGHPUT },
		{ NULL, 		-1 },
	};

	for (t = toskeywords; t->keyword != NULL; t++) {
		if (strcmp(s, t->keyword) == 0) {
			*val = t->val;
			return (1);
		}
	}

	return (0);
}

void
report_connect(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen)
{
	char remote_host[NI_MAXHOST];
	char remote_port[NI_MAXSERV];
	int herr;
	int flags = NI_NUMERICSERV;
	
	if (nflag)
		flags |= NI_NUMERICHOST;
	
	if ((herr = getnameinfo(sa, salen,
	    remote_host, sizeof(remote_host),
	    remote_port, sizeof(remote_port),
	    flags)) != 0) {
		if (herr == EAI_SYSTEM)
			err(1, "getnameinfo");
		else
			errx(1, "getnameinfo: %s", gai_strerror(herr));
	}
	
	fprintf(stderr,
	    "Connection from %s %s "
	    "received!\n", remote_host, remote_port);
}

void
help(void)
{
	usage(0);
	fprintf(stderr, "\tCommand Summary:\n\
	\t-4		Use IPv4\n\
	\t-6		Use IPv6\n\
	\t-D		Enable the debug socket option\n\
	\t-d		Detach from stdin\n\
	\t-h		This help text\n\
	\t-I length	TCP receive buffer length\n\
	\t-i secs\t	Delay interval for lines sent, ports scanned\n\
	\t-k		Keep inbound sockets open for multiple connects\n\
	\t-l		Listen mode, for inbound connects\n\
	\t-n		Suppress name/port resolutions\n\
	\t-O length	TCP send buffer length\n\
	\t-P proxyuser\tUsername for proxy authentication\n\
	\t-p port\t	Specify local port for remote connects\n\
	\t-r		Randomize remote ports\n\
	\t-S		Enable the TCP MD5 signature option\n\
	\t-s addr\t	Local source address\n\
	\t-T toskeyword\tSet IP Type of Service\n\
	\t-t		Answer TELNET negotiation\n\
	\t-U		Use UNIX domain socket\n\
	\t-u		UDP mode\n\
	\t-V rtable	Specify alternate routing table\n\
	\t-v		Verbose\n\
	\t-w secs\t	Timeout for connects and final net reads\n\
	\t-X proto	Proxy protocol: \"4\", \"5\" (SOCKS) or \"connect\"\n\
	\t-x addr[:port]\tSpecify proxy address and port\n\
	\t-z		Zero-I/O mode [used for scanning]\n\
	Port numbers can be individual or ranges: lo-hi [inclusive]\n");
	exit(1);
}

void
usage(int ret)
{
	fprintf(stderr,
	    "usage: nc [-46DdhklnrStUuvz] [-I length] [-i interval] [-O length]\n"
	    "\t  [-P proxy_username] [-p source_port] [-s source] [-T ToS]\n"
	    "\t  [-V rtable] [-w timeout] [-X proxy_protocol]\n"
	    "\t  [-x proxy_address[:port]] [destination] [port]\n");
	if (ret)
		exit(1);
}