aboutsummaryrefslogblamecommitdiffstats
path: root/doc/user/cvs-crossover-guide.html
blob: d038a3999efa1f2dade994b98aa5007fa0d7a306 (plain) (tree)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































                                                                                                                                 
<!--

 Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
 or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
 distributed with this work for additional information
 regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
 to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
 "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
 with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
 software distributed under the License is distributed on an
 "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
 KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
 specific language governing permissions and limitations
 under the License.

-->
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
   "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
<title>CVS to SVN Crossover Guide</title>
<style type="text/css">
body {
  font-family: sans-serif;
}
h1 {
  text-align: center;
}
h2 {
  background: #b0c0f0;
  margin: 0;
}
.h2 {
  border-left: 4px #b0c0f0 solid;
  margin-bottom: 2em;
}
hr {
  height: 1px;
  width: 80%;
}
p, h3, dl {
  padding-left: 1em;
}
dd {
  margin-left: 2em;
}
.sidebyside {
  padding: 0 2em;
  width: 100%;
  font-size: 80%;
}
.sidebyside th, .sidebyside td {
  width: 50%;
  border-width: 0 1px 2px 0;
  border-style: solid;
  border-color: black;
  background: #b0c0f0;
  vertical-align: top;
}
.sidebyside th {
  text-align: center;
  background: #90a0d0;
}
.bookref {
  font-size: 80%;
}
</style>
</head>

<body>

<h1>CVS to SVN Crossover Guide</h1>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Purpose</h2>

<p>This document provides an alternate method of learning Subversion.
   Many users dislike learning new technology via a theoretical "top
   down" approach, as provided by the <a
   href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com">Subversion Book</a>.  Instead,
   this document presents Subversion from the "bottom up": it shows a
   CVS command or task, and then shows the equivalent task in
   Subversion (along with relevant book links.) It's essentially a
   re-indexing of topics covered by the book, keyed on CVS tasks.</p>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Table of Contents</h2>

<h3>Setup</h3>
<ul>
  <li><a href="#repos_creation">Repository creation</a></li>
  <li><a href="#import">Importing data</a></li>
  <li><a href="#installing">Installing a server</a></li>
  <li><a href="#authenticating">Authenticating to a server</a></li>
  <li><a href="#browsing">Browsing a repository</a></li>
  <li><a href="#checkingout">Checking out a working copy</a></li>
</ul>

<h3>Basic Work Cycle</h3>
<ul>
  <li><a href="#changeditems">Seeing locally changed items</a></li>
  <li><a href="#outofdate">Seeing out-of-date items</a></li>
  <li><a href="#scheduling">Scheduling additions or deletions</a></li>
  <li><a href="#copying">Copying and moving</a></li>
  <li>Undoing local changes</li>
  <li>Updating and committing</li>
  <li>Resolving conflicts</li>
  <li>Adding a binary file</li>
  <li>Using native line-endings</li>
</ul>

<h3>Examining history</h3>
<ul>
  <li>Seeing history of an item</li>
  <li>Comparing two versions of an item</li>
</ul>

<h3>Branching/Tagging/Merging</h3>
<ul>
  <li>Creating a branch</li>
  <li>Moving a working copy to a branch</li>
  <li>Finding the beginning of a branch</li>
  <li>Porting a single change</li>
  <li>Merging a whole branch</li>
  <li>Reverting a committed change</li>
  <li>Resurrecting deleted items</li>
  <li>Creating a tag</li>
  <li>Tweaking a tag</li>
  <li>Seeing all tags</li>
  <li>Comparing two tags</li>
  <li>Seeing logs between two tags</li>
</ul>

<h3>Other tasks</h3>
<ul>
  <li>Using modules</li>
  <li>Line endings and keywords</li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="repos_creation">Repository creation</h2>

<p>Create a new repository for holding versioned data.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;-d&nbsp;/usr/local/repos&nbsp;init</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>
      <dd>Creates a new directory <tt>repos</tt> ready to hold RCS
          files and config scripts.</dd>
    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svnadmin&nbsp;create&nbsp;/usr/local/repos</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>
      <dd>Creates a new directory <tt>repos</tt> containing BerkeleyDB
          files and config scripts.</dd>
    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch05s02.html">Repository Creation and Configuration</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="import">Importing data</h2>

<p>Populate a new repository with initial data.  Assuming that you
   have a tree of code in the local directory <tt>myproj/</tt>, and
   you want to move this tree into the repository.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cd&nbsp;myproj</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;-d&nbsp;/usr/local/repos&nbsp;import&nbsp;myproj/&nbsp;none&nbsp;start</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>This copies the contents of the current working directory to
      a new directory (<tt>myproj</tt>) in the CVS repository.  The
      CVS repository now contains a directory <tt>/myproj/</tt> at the
      top level.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;mkdir&nbsp;file:///usr/local/repos/tags</tt></dd>       
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;mkdir&nbsp;file:///usr/local/repos/branches</tt></dd>       
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;import&nbsp;myproj/&nbsp;file:///usr/local/repos/trunk</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Though not strictly required, we deliberately create
      <tt>/tags</tt> and <tt>/branches</tt> top-level directories in
      the repository, to hold tags and branches later on.  Then we
      import the contents of the local <tt>myproj/</tt> directory into
      a newly created <tt>/trunk</tt> directory in the
      repository.</dd>
    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch05s04.html#svn-ch-5-sect-6.1">Choosing a repository layout</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re12.html">svn import</a></dd>
</dl>
</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="installing">Installing a server</h2>

<p>Make the repository available to clients via a network.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd>(too complex to demonstrate here)</dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>
      <dd>Export the repository via the cvs <em>pserver</em> program.
      It can be launched by either <strong>inetd</strong> or a
      client's <strong>ssh</strong> remote request.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd>(too complex to demonstrate here)</dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>
      <dd>Export the repository with the <em>Apache 2.0.x</em> server,
      or via the <em>svnserve</em> program.  The latter can run as a
      standalone daemon, can be launched by <strong>inetd</strong>, or
      invoked by a client's <strong>ssh</strong> remote request.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch06.html">Server configuration</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="authenticating">Authenticating to a server</h2>

<p>Have a network client prove its identity to a version
      control server.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;-d&nbsp;:pserver:user@host:/repos&nbsp;<em>command</em>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>When contacting a repository, the client pre-emptively
      "pushes" its authentication credentials at the server.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;<em>command</em>&nbsp;<em>URL</em>&hellip;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>Password&nbsp;for&nbsp;'user':&nbsp;&nbsp;XXXXXXX</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>The client's authentication credentials are "pulled" from
      the user interactively, and only when the server deems that a
      challenge needs to be made.  (And contrary to popular belief,
      the <tt>--username</tt> and <tt>--password</tt> options are
      merely values to be used <em>if</em> the server issues a
      challenge; they do not "push" the credentials at the
      server.)</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch06s02.html">Network Model</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="browsing">Browsing a repository</h2>

<p>Browse the repository as a filesystem, perusing file
      contents and history as well (older versions of files or
      trees.)</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd>(not possible with commandline client)</dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Not possible with commandline client.  A third-party web
      server tool such as ViewCVS must be used.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;list&nbsp;<em>URL</em>&nbsp;[-r&nbsp;<em>rev</em>]&nbsp;[-v]</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;cat&nbsp;<em>URL</em>&nbsp;[-r&nbsp;<em>rev</em>]</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>The <tt>svn list</tt> and <tt>svn cat</tt> commands allow
      interactive browsing of a repository (and all previous states of
      a repository) from the commandline.  (The <tt>--verbose [-v]</tt>
      switch displays full listing information.)  If Apache is being
      used as a Subversion server process (i.e. clients access via
      <strong>http://</strong>), then the latest version of the
      repository can be directly browsed by entering <em>URL</em> into
      any web browser.  Additionally, a third-party web server tool
      (such as ViewCVS) can be used with Subversion.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re14.html">svn list</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="checkingout">Checking out a working copy</h2>

<p>Create a workspace on local disk which mirrors a directory
      in the repository.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;-d&nbsp;/usr/local/repos&nbsp;checkout&nbsp;myproj</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>U&nbsp;myproj/foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>U&nbsp;myproj/bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Creates a local directory <tt>myproj</tt> which is a mirror
      of the repository directory <tt>/myproj</tt>.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;checkout&nbsp;file:///usr/local/repos/trunk&nbsp;myproj</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;myproj/foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;myproj/bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Assuming that the original project data was imported into
      the repository <tt>/trunk</tt> directory, this creates a local
      directory <tt>myproj</tt> which is a mirror of the repository
      directory <tt>/trunk</tt>.  Standard Subversion convention is to
      do "mainline" development in <tt>/trunk</tt>.  See branching and
      tagging sections for more details.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch03s04.html">Initial Checkout</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re04.html">svn checkout</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="changeditems">Seeing locally changed items</h2>

<p>Discover which items in the working copy have local
      modifications or are scheduled for addition/deletion.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;status</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>File: baz.c&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Status:&nbsp;Up-to-date</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;update</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>M foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>U bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>The <tt>cvs status</tt> command shows whether a file is
      locally modified or out of date, including information about
      working revision and branch info.  Unfortunately, because the
      output is so verbose and hard to read, many users run <tt>cvs
      update</tt> instead, which shows a more compact listing of
      modified files (and of course, it also causes the server to
      merge changes into your working copy.)</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;status</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Shows modified files only.  Very fast, as it does not use
      the network.  Does not update your working copy, yet still shows
      a single-line display, much like <tt>svn update</tt>.  To see
      working revision and branch information, run <tt>svn info</tt>.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch03s05.html#svn-ch-3-sect-4.3.1">Examine Your Changes</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re26.html">svn status</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="outofdate">Seeing out-of-date items</h2>

<p>Discover which items in the working copy are out-of-date
      (i.e. newer versions exist in the repository.)</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;status</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>File: baz.c&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Status:&nbsp;Needs&nbsp;Patch</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;-n&nbsp;update</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>M foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>U bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>The <tt>cvs status</tt> command shows whether a file is
      locally modified or out of date, including information about
      working revision and branch info.  A less verbose option is to
      run <tt>cvs -n update</tt> instead, which shows a compact
      listing of both out-of-date and locally modified files, without
      actually updating the working copy.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;status&nbsp;-u</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;46&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>M&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;46&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;46&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;baz.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Shows modified files (<tt>M</tt>) as well as out-of-date
      files (<tt>*</tt>).  Contacts repository, but doesn't modify the
      working copy.  To see working revision and branch information,
      run <tt>svn info</tt>.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch03s05.html#svn-ch-3-sect-4.3.1">Examine Your Changes</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re26.html">svn status</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="scheduling">Scheduling additions or deletions</h2>

<p>Schedule a working-copy file or directory to be added or
      removed from the repository.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;touch&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;add&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>cvs&nbsp;server:&nbsp;scheduling&nbsp;file&nbsp;`blah'&nbsp;for&nbsp;addition</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>cvs&nbsp;server:&nbsp;use&nbsp;'cvs&nbsp;commit'&nbsp;to&nbsp;add&nbsp;this&nbsp;file&nbsp;permanently</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;mkdir&nbsp;new-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;add&nbsp;new-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>Directory&nbsp;new-dir&nbsp;added&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;repository</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;rm&nbsp;bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;rm&nbsp;bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>cvs&nbsp;remove:&nbsp;scheduling&nbsp;`bar.c'&nbsp;for&nbsp;removal</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>cvs&nbsp;remove:&nbsp;use&nbsp;'cvs&nbsp;commit'&nbsp;to&nbsp;remove&nbsp;this&nbsp;file&nbsp;permanently</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;rm&nbsp;-rf&nbsp;old-dir/*</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;cvs&nbsp;rm&nbsp;old-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>cvs&nbsp;remove:&nbsp;Removing&nbsp;3bits</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>


      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Schedules a file or directory for addition or removal
      to/from the repository.  The repository will not be changed
      until the user runs <tt>cvs commit</tt>, except for the case of
      adding a directory, which immediately changes the repository.
      Also, directories cannot be truly removed from the repository,
      just emptied out.  (<tt>cvs update -P</tt> will prune empty
      directories from your working copy.)</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;touch&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;add&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;foo.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;mkdir&nbsp;new-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;add&nbsp;new-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;new-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;rm&nbsp;bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>D&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;rm&nbsp;old-dir</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>D&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;old-dir/file1</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>D&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;old-dir/file2</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Schedules a file or directory for addition or removal
      to/from the repository.  The repository will not be changed
      until the user runs <tt>svn commit</tt>.  The scheduled
      operations are shown as <tt>A</tt> or <tt>D</tt> by <tt>svn
      status</tt>, and <tt>svn revert</tt> can un-do the scheduling.
      Directories really can be deleted (though as with all deleted
      items, continues to exist in history.)</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt> 
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch03s05.html#svn-ch-3-sect-4.2">Make Changes to Your Working Copy</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re01.html">svn add</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re08.html">svn delete</a></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2 id="copying">Copying and moving</h2>

<p>Copy or move/rename a file or directory.</p>

<table class="sidebyside">
<tr>
  <th>CVS</th>
  <th>Subversion</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd>(not possible.)</dd>


      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>Not possible, unless an administrator directly mucks with
      RCS files in the repository.  (And in that case, no history
      records the act of copying or renaming.)</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
  <td>
    <dl>
      <dt>Commands:</dt>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;copy&nbsp;foo.c&nbsp;foo2.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;foo2.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;copy&nbsp;dir&nbsp;dir2</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;dir2</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;move&nbsp;bar.c&nbsp;baz.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;baz.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>D&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bar.c</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&nbsp;</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>$&nbsp;svn&nbsp;move&nbsp;dirA&nbsp;dirB</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>A&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;dirB</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>D&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;dirA/file1</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>D&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;dirA/file2</tt></dd>
      <dd><tt>&hellip;</tt></dd>

      <dt>Explanation:</dt>

      <dd>The <tt>svn copy</tt> command schedules a file or directory
      for addition to the repository, recording the "source" of the
      copy.  After committing, <tt>svn log</tt> on the copied item
      will trace history back through the original copy-source.  The
      <tt>svn move</tt> command is exactly equivalent to running
      <tt>svn copy</tt>, followed by an <tt>svn delete</tt> on the
      copy-source: the result is a new item scheduled for addition
      (with copy-history attached) and the original item scheduled for
      deletion.</dd>

    </dl>
  </td>
</tr>
</table>

<dl class="bookref">
  <dt>Book References:</dt> 
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/ch03s05.html#svn-ch-3-sect-4.2">Make Changes to Your Working Copy</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re07.html">svn copy</a></dd>
  <dd><a href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/svnbook/re18.html">svn move</a></dd>
</dl>


</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Finding the beginning of a branch</h2>

<p>If you're attempting to merge an entire branch into another, you
need to compare the "root" and "tip" of the source branch, and then
merge those differences into a working copy of the target branch.
Obviously the "tip" of the branch can be represented by using the
<tt>HEAD</tt> keyword.  But how do you find the "birth" revision of
the source branch?</p>

<p>The easiest solution is to run</p>

<pre>
   $ svn log -v --stop-on-copy source-branch-URL
   &hellip;
</pre>

<p>This command will display every change ever made to the branch, but
<tt>--stop-on-copy</tt> option will cause the output to stop as soon
as detects a copy operation in the branch's history.  By definition,
then, the very last log entry printed will show the copy being made.
It will look something like:</p>

<pre>
r9189 | joe | 2004-03-22 10:10:47 -0600 (Mon, 22 Mar 2004) | 1 line
Changed paths:
   A /branches/mybranch (from /trunk:9188)
</pre>

<p>In this case, you would then know to compare revisions 9189 and
HEAD of the branch in order to perform the merge:</p>

<pre>
   $ svn merge -r9189:HEAD source-branch-URL target-branch-WC
   &hellip;
</pre>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Seeing all of a project's tags</h2>

<p>Assuming you've been following a consistent policy for creating
tag-copies, then this is just a matter of running <tt>svn ls</tt> on a
directory containing your tags.  Typically you would run it on the
<tt>/tags</tt> directory in your repository, although you're certainly
free to organize this directory in a more complex way, or invent a
different convention altogether.</p>

<p>As an example, you can see all of Subversion's tags by running:</p>

<pre>
   $ svn ls --verbose http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/subversion/tags
     &hellip;
       7739 kfogel              Nov 13 22:05 0.33.0/
       7796 josander            Nov 18 12:15 0.33.1/
       7932 josander            Dec 03 17:54 0.34.0/
       8045 josander            Dec 19 15:13 0.35.0/
       8063 josander            Dec 20 11:20 0.35.1/
       8282 josander            Jan 13 14:15 0.36.0/
       8512 josander            Jan 24 17:31 0.37.0/
       8810 kfogel              Feb 23 03:44 1.0.0/
     &hellip;
</pre>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Seeing the differences between two tags</h2>

<p>Just use <tt>svn diff</tt> in its fully expanded form, which
compares any two URLs:</p>

<pre>
   $ svn diff tagURL1 tagURL2
   &hellip;
</pre>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Seeing logs between two tags</h2>

<p>This is a somewhat common practice in CVS, and is doable in Subversion,
but requires a little bit more work.  Assuming that you've made two
tags of <tt>/trunk</tt> at different points in time, the ultimate goal
here is to run </p>

<pre>
   $ svn log -rX:Y trunkURL
</pre>

<p>&hellip;where X and Y are the revisions from which the two tags were
copied.  To discover X and Y, you can use the same technique
described in the previous section ("finding the beginning of a
branch".)  Just use the <tt>--stop-on-copy</tt> option when logging the
history of each tag.  No commits happen on tag directories, so the
following commands should each produce exactly <em>one</em> log
entry:</p>

<pre>
   $ svn log -v --stop-on-copy tag1-URL

   r3520 | joe | 2004-03-12 15:28:43 -0600 (Fri, 12 Mar 2004) | 1 line
   &hellip;

   $ svn log -v --stop-on-copy tag2-URL
   a
   r4177 | joe | 2004-03-12 15:28:43 -0600 (Fri, 12 Mar 2004) | 1 line
   &hellip;
</pre>

<p>So in this example, the values of X and Y are 3520 and 4177.  Now
you can view all <tt>/trunk</tt> changes between those two points in time:</p>

<pre>
   $ svn log -r3520:4177 trunkURL
   &hellip;
</pre>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Fixing an incorrect tag</h2>

<p>If your tag is a bit off, you can "adjust" it just as people often
do in CVS.  Simply check out a working copy of the tag directory, make
any changes you wish, and commit.</p>

<p>Remember, because branches and tags are directories, they can also
be deleted when they're no longer of any use to your project.  They'll
continue to exist in the repository's history.</p>


</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
<div class="h2">
<h2>Creating/using "modules"</h2>

<p>Compare CVS Modules vs. svn:externals.</p>

</div>

<!-- ==================================================================== -->
</body>
</html>