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 Updating Information for FreeBSD current users.

This file is maintained and copyrighted by M. Warner Losh <imp@freebsd.org>.
See end of file for further details.  For commonly done items, please see the
COMMON ITEMS: section later in the file.  These instructions assume that you
basically know what you are doing.  If not, then please consult the FreeBSD
handbook:

    https://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/makeworld.html

Items affecting the ports and packages system can be found in
/usr/ports/UPDATING.  Please read that file before running portupgrade.

NOTE TO PEOPLE WHO THINK THAT FreeBSD 13.x IS SLOW:
	FreeBSD 13.x has many debugging features turned on, in both the kernel
	and userland.  These features attempt to detect incorrect use of
	system primitives, and encourage loud failure through extra sanity
	checking and fail stop semantics.  They also substantially impact
	system performance.  If you want to do performance measurement,
	benchmarking, and optimization, you'll want to turn them off.  This
	includes various WITNESS- related kernel options, INVARIANTS, malloc
	debugging flags in userland, and various verbose features in the
	kernel.  Many developers choose to disable these features on build
	machines to maximize performance.  (To completely disable malloc
	debugging, define WITH_MALLOC_PRODUCTION in /etc/src.conf and rebuild
	world, or to merely disable the most expensive debugging functionality
	at runtime, run "ln -s 'abort:false,junk:false' /etc/malloc.conf".)

20201216:
	The services database has been updated to cover more of the basic
	services expected in a modern system. The database is big enough
	that it will cause issues in mergemaster in Releases previous to
	12.2 and 11.3, or in very old current systems from before r358154.

20201215:
	Obsolete in-tree GDB 6.1.1 has been removed.  GDB (including kgdb)
	may be installed from ports or packages.

20201124:
	ping6 has been merged into ping.  It can now be called as "ping -6".
	See ping(8) for details.

20201108:
	Default value of net.add_addr_allfibs has been changed to 0.
	If you have multi-fib configuration and rely on existence of all
	interface routes in every fib, you need to set the above sysctl to 1.
20201030:
	The internal pre-processor in the calendar(1) program has been
	extended to support more C pre-processor commands (e.g. #ifdef, #else,
	and #undef) and to detect unbalanced conditional statements.
	Error messages have been extended to include the filename and line
	number if processing stops to help fixing malformed data files.

20201026:
	All the data files for the calendar(1) program, except calendar.freebsd,
	have been moved to the deskutils/calendar-data port, much like the
	jewish calendar entries were moved to deskutils/hebcal years ago. After
	make delete-old-files, you need to install it to retain full
	functionality. calendar(1) will issue a reminder for files it can't
	find.

20200923:
	LINT files are no longer generated. We now include the relevant NOTES
	files. Note: This may cause conflicts with updating in some cases.
	        find sys -name LINT\* -delete
	is suggested across this commit	to remove the generated	LINT files.

	If you have tried to update with generated files there, the svn
	command you want to un-auger the tree is
		cd sys/amd64/conf
		svn revert -R .
	and then do the above find from the top level. Substitute 'amd64'
	above with where the error message indicates a conflict.

20200824:
	OpenZFS support has been integrated. Do not upgrade root pools until
	the loader is updated to support zstd. Furthermore, we caution against
	'zpool upgrade' for the next few weeks. The change should be transparent
	unless you  want to use new features.

	Not all "NO_CLEAN" build scenarios work across these changes. Many
	scenarios have been tested and fixed, but rebuilding kernels without
	rebuilding world may fail.

	The ZFS cache file has moved from /boot to /etc to match the OpenZFS
	upstream default. A fallback to /boot has been added for mountroot.

	Pool auto import behavior at boot has been moved from the kernel module
	to an explicit "zpool import -a" in one of the rc scripts enabled by
	zfs_enable=YES. This means your non-root zpools won't auto import until
	you upgrade your /etc/rc.d files.

20200824:
	The resume code now notifies devd with the 'kernel' system
	rather than the old 'kern' subsystem to be consistent with
	other use. The old notification will be created as well, but
	will be removed prior to FreeBSD 14.0.

20200821:
	r362275 changed the internal API between the kernel RPC and the
	NFS modules. As such, all the modules must be recompiled from
	sources.

20200817:
	r364330 modified the internal API used between the NFS modules.
	As such, all the NFS modules must be re-compiled from sources.

20200816:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt, libc++, libunwind and openmp have
	been upgraded to 11.0.0.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for
	information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already
	using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20200810:
	r364092 modified the internal ABI used between the kernel NFS
	modules.  As such, all of these modules need to be rebuilt
	from sources, so a version bump was done.

20200807:
	Makefile.inc has been updated to work around the issue documented in
	20200729. It was a case where the optimization of using symbolic links
	to point to binaries created a situation where we'd run new binaries
	with old libraries starting midway through the installworld process.

20200729:
	r363679 has redefined some undefined behavior in regcomp(3); notably,
	extraneous escapes of most ordinary characters will no longer be
	accepted.  An exp-run has identified all of the problems with this in
	ports, but other non-ports software may need extra escapes removed to
	continue to function.

	Because of this change, installworld may encounter the following error
	from rtld: Undefined symbol "regcomp@FBSD_1.6" -- It is imperative that
	you do not halt installworld. Instead, let it run to completion (whether
	successful or not) and run installworld once more.

20200627:
	A new implementation of bc and dc has been imported in r362681. This
	implementation corrects non-conformant behavior of the previous bc
	and adds GNU bc compatible options. It offers a number of extensions,
	is much faster on large values, and has support for message catalogs
	(a number of languages are already supported, contributions of further
	languages welcome). The option WITHOUT_GH_BC can be used to build the
	world with the previous versions of bc and dc.

20200625:
	r362639 changed the internal API used between the NFS kernel modules.
	As such, they all need to be rebuilt from sources.

20200613:
	r362158 changed the arguments for VFS_CHECKEXP().  As such, any
	out of tree file systems need to be modified and rebuilt.
	Also, any file systems that are modules must be rebuilt.

20200604:
	read(2) of a directory fd is now rejected by default.  root may
	re-enable it for system root only on non-ZFS filesystems with the
	security.bsd.allow_read_dir sysctl(8) MIB if
	security.bsd.suser_enabled=1.

	It may be advised to setup aliases for grep to default to `-d skip` if
	commonly non-recursively grepping a list that includes directories and
	the potential for the resulting stderr output is not tolerable.  Example
	aliases are now installed, commented out, in /root/.cshrc and
	/root/.shrc.

20200523:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt, libc++, libunwind and openmp have
	been upgraded to 10.0.1.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for
	information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already
	using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20200512:
	Support for obsolete compilers has been removed from the build system.
	Clang 6 and GCC 6.4 are the minimum supported versions.

20200424:
	closefrom(2) has been moved under COMPAT12, and replaced in libc with a
	stub that calls close_range(2).  If using a custom kernel configuration,
	you may want to ensure that the COMPAT_FREEBSD12 option is included, as
	a slightly older -CURRENT userland and older FreeBSD userlands may not
	be functional without closefrom(2).

20200414:
	Upstream DTS from Linux 5.6 was merged and they now have the SID
	and THS (Secure ID controller and THermal Sensor) node present.
	The DTB overlays have now been removed from the tree for the H3/H5 and
	A64 SoCs and the aw_sid and aw_thermal driver have been updated to
	deal with upstream DTS. If you are using those overlays you need to
	remove them from loader.conf and update the DTBs on the FAT partition.

20200310:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt, libc++, libunwind and openmp have
	been upgraded to 10.0.0.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for
	information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already
	using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20200309:
	The amd(8) automount daemon has been removed from the source tree.
	As of FreeBSD 10.1 autofs(5) is the preferred tool for automounting.
	amd is still available in the sysutils/am-utils port.

20200301:
	Removed brooktree driver (bktr.4) from the tree.

20200229:
	The WITH_GPL_DTC option has been removed.  The BSD-licenced device tree
	compiler in usr.bin/dtc is used on all architectures which use dtc, and
	the GPL dtc is available (if needed) from the sysutils/dtc port.

20200229:
	The WITHOUT_LLVM_LIBUNWIND option has been removed.  LLVM's libunwind
	is used by all supported CPU architectures.

20200229:
	GCC 4.2.1 has been removed from the tree.  The WITH_GCC,
	WITH_GCC_BOOTSTRAP, and WITH_GNUCXX options are no longer available.
	Users who wish to build FreeBSD with GCC must use the external toolchain
	ports or packages.

20200220:
	ncurses has been updated to a newer version (6.2-20200215). Given the ABI
	has changed, users will have to rebuild all the ports that are linked to
	ncurses.

20200217:
	The size of struct vnet and the magic cookie have changed.
	Users need to recompile libkvm and all modules using VIMAGE
	together with their new kernel.

20200212:
	Defining the long deprecated NO_CTF, NO_DEBUG_FILES, NO_INSTALLLIB,
	NO_MAN, NO_PROFILE, and NO_WARNS variables is now an error.  Update
	your Makefiles and scripts to define MK_<var>=no instead as required.

	One exception to this is that program or library Makefiles should
	define MAN to empty rather than setting MK_MAN=no.

20200108:
	Clang/LLVM is now the default compiler and LLD the default
	linker for riscv64.

20200107:
	make universe no longer uses GCC 4.2.1 on any architectures.
	Architectures not supported by in-tree Clang/LLVM require an
	external toolchain package.

20200104:
	GCC 4.2.1 is now not built by default, as part of the GCC 4.2.1
	retirement plan.  Specifically, the GCC, GCC_BOOTSTRAP, and GNUCXX
	options default to off for all supported CPU architectures.  As a
	short-term transition aid they may be enabled via WITH_* options.
	GCC 4.2.1 is expected to be removed from the tree on 2020-03-31.

20200102:
	Support for armv5 has been disconnected and is being removed. The
	machine combination MACHINE=arm MACHINE_ARCH=arm is no longer valid.
	You must now use a MACHINE_ARCH of armv6 or armv7. The default
	MACHINE_ARCH for MACHINE=arm is now armv7.

20191226:
	Clang/LLVM is now the default compiler for all powerpc architectures.
	LLD is now the default linker for powerpc64.  The change for powerpc64
	also includes a change to the ELFv2 ABI, incompatible with the existing
	ABI.

20191226:
	Kernel-loadable random(4) modules are no longer unloadable.

20191222:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt, libc++, libunwind and openmp have
	been upgraded to 9.0.1.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for
	information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already
	using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20191212:
	r355677 has modified the internal interface used between the
	NFS modules in the kernel. As such, they must all be upgraded
	simultaneously. I will do a version bump for this.

20191205:
	The root certificates of the Mozilla CA Certificate Store have been
	imported into the base system and can be managed with the certctl(8)
	utility.  If you have installed the security/ca_root_nss port or package
	with the ETCSYMLINK option (the default), be advised that there may be
	differences between those included in the port and those included in
	base due to differences in nss branch used as well as general update
	frequency.  Note also that certctl(8) cannot manage certs in the
	format used by the security/ca_root_nss port.

20191120:
	The amd(8) automount daemon has been disabled by default, and will be
	removed in the future.  As of FreeBSD 10.1 the autofs(5) is available
	for automounting.

20191107:
	The nctgpio and wbwd drivers have been moved to the superio bus.
	If you have one of these drivers in a kernel configuration, then
	you should add device superio to it.  If you use one of these drivers
	as a module and you compile a custom set of modules, then you should
	add superio to the set.

20191021:
	KPIs for network drivers to access interface addresses have changed.
	Users need to recompile NIC driver modules together with kernel.

20191021:
	The net.link.tap.user_open sysctl no longer prevents user opening of
	already created /dev/tapNN devices.  Access is still controlled by
	node permissions, just like tun devices.  The net.link.tap.user_open
	sysctl is now used only to allow users to perform devfs cloning of
	tap devices, and the subsequent open may not succeed if the user is not
	in the appropriate group.  This sysctl may be deprecated/removed
	completely in the future.

20191009:
	mips, powerpc, and sparc64 are no longer built as part of
	universe / tinderbox unless MAKE_OBSOLETE_GCC is defined. If
	not defined, mips, powerpc, and sparc64 builds will look for
	the xtoolchain binaries and if installed use them for universe
	builds. As llvm 9.0 becomes vetted for these architectures, they
	will be removed from the list.

20191009:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt, libc++, libunwind and openmp have
	been upgraded to 9.0.0.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for
	information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already
	using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20191003:
	The hpt27xx, hptmv, hptnr, and hptrr drivers have been removed from
	GENERIC.  They are available as modules and can be loaded by adding
	to /boot/loader.conf hpt27xx_load="YES", hptmv_load="YES",
	hptnr_load="YES", or hptrr_load="YES", respectively.

20190913:
	ntpd no longer by default locks its pages in memory, allowing them
	to be paged out by the kernel. Use rlimit memlock to restore
	historic BSD behaviour. For example, add "rlimit memlock 32"
	to ntp.conf to lock up to 32 MB of ntpd address space in memory.

20190823:
	Several of ping6's options have been renamed for better consistency
	with ping.  If you use any of -ARWXaghmrtwx, you must update your
	scripts.  See ping6(8) for details.

20190727:
	The vfs.fusefs.sync_unmount and vfs.fusefs.init_backgrounded sysctls
	and the "-o sync_unmount" and "-o init_backgrounded" mount options have
	been removed from mount_fusefs(8).  You can safely remove them from
	your scripts, because they had no effect.

	The vfs.fusefs.fix_broken_io, vfs.fusefs.sync_resize,
	vfs.fusefs.refresh_size, vfs.fusefs.mmap_enable,
	vfs.fusefs.reclaim_revoked, and vfs.fusefs.data_cache_invalidate
	sysctls have been removed.  If you felt the need to set any of them to
	a non-default value, please tell asomers@FreeBSD.org why.

20190713:
	Default permissions on the /var/account/acct file (and copies of it
	rotated by periodic daily scripts) are changed from 0644 to 0640
	because the file contains sensitive information that should not be
	world-readable.  If the /var/account directory must be created by
	rc.d/accounting, the mode used is now 0750.  Admins who use the
	accounting feature are encouraged to change the mode of an existing
	/var/account directory to 0750 or 0700.

20190620:
	Entropy collection and the /dev/random device are no longer optional
	components.  The "device random" option has been removed.
	Implementations of distilling algorithms can still be made loadable
	with "options RANDOM_LOADABLE" (e.g., random_fortuna.ko).

20190612:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt, libc++, libunwind and openmp have
	been upgraded to 8.0.1.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for
	information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already
	using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20190608:
	A fix was applied to i386 kernel modules to avoid panics with
	dpcpu or vnet.  Users need to recompile i386 kernel modules
	having pcpu or vnet sections or they will refuse to load.

20190513:
	User-wired pages now have their own counter,
	vm.stats.vm.v_user_wire_count.  The vm.max_wired sysctl was renamed
	to vm.max_user_wired and changed from an unsigned int to an unsigned
	long.  bhyve VMs wired with the -S are now subject to the user
	wiring limit; the vm.max_user_wired sysctl may need to be tuned to
	avoid running into the limit.

20190507:
	The IPSEC option has been removed from GENERIC.  Users requiring
	ipsec(4) must now load the ipsec(4) kernel module.

20190507:
	The tap(4) driver has been folded into tun(4), and the module has been
	renamed to tuntap.  You should update any kld_list="if_tap" or
	kld_list="if_tun" entries in /etc/rc.conf, if_tap_load="YES" or
	if_tun_load="YES" entries in /boot/loader.conf to load the if_tuntap
	module instead, and "device tap" or "device tun" entries in kernel
	config files to select the tuntap device instead.

20190418:
	The following knobs have been added related to tradeoffs between
	safe use of the random device and availability in the absence of
	entropy:

	kern.random.initial_seeding.bypass_before_seeding: tunable; set
	non-zero to bypass the random device prior to seeding, or zero to
	block random requests until the random device is initially seeded.
	For now, set to 1 (unsafe) by default to restore pre-r346250 boot
	availability properties.

	kern.random.initial_seeding.read_random_bypassed_before_seeding:
	read-only diagnostic sysctl that is set when bypass is enabled and
	read_random(9) is bypassed, to enable programmatic handling of this
	initial condition, if desired.

	kern.random.initial_seeding.arc4random_bypassed_before_seeding:
	Similar to the above, but for for arc4random(9) initial seeding.

	kern.random.initial_seeding.disable_bypass_warnings: tunable; set
	non-zero to disable warnings in dmesg when the same conditions are
	met as for the diagnostic sysctls above.  Defaults to zero, i.e.,
	produce warnings in dmesg when the conditions are met.

20190416:
	The loadable random module KPI has changed; the random_infra_init()
	routine now requires a 3rd function pointer for a bool (*)(void)
	method that returns true if the random device is seeded (and
	therefore unblocked).

20190404:
	r345895 reverts r320698. This implies that an nfsuserd(8) daemon
	built from head sources between r320757 (July 6, 2017) and
	r338192 (Aug. 22, 2018) will not work unless the "-use-udpsock"
	is added to the command line.
	nfsuserd daemons built from head sources that are post-r338192 are
	not affected and should continue to work.

20190320:
	The fuse(4) module has been renamed to fusefs(4) for consistency with
	other filesystems.  You should update any kld_load="fuse" entries in
	/etc/rc.conf, fuse_load="YES" entries in /boot/loader.conf, and
	"options FUSE" entries in kernel config files.

20190304:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to
	8.0.0.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about
	prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0
	or higher.

20190226:
	geom_uzip(4) depends on the new module xz.  If geom_uzip is statically
	compiled into your custom kernel, add 'device xz' statement to the
	kernel config.

20190219:
	drm and drm2 have been removed from the tree. Please see
	https://wiki.freebsd.org/Graphics for the latest information on
	migrating to the drm ports.

20190131:
	Iflib is no longer unconditionally compiled into the kernel.  Drivers
	using iflib and statically compiled into the kernel, now require
	the 'device iflib' config option.  For the same drivers loaded as
	modules on kernels not having 'device iflib', the iflib.ko module
	is loaded automatically.

20190125:
	The IEEE80211_AMPDU_AGE and AH_SUPPORT_AR5416 kernel configuration
	options no longer exist since r343219 and r343427 respectively;
	nothing uses them, so they should be just removed from custom
	kernel config files.

20181230:
	r342635 changes the way efibootmgr(8) works by requiring users to add
	the -b (bootnum) parameter for commands where the bootnum was previously
	specified with each option. For example 'efibootmgr -B 0001' is now
	'efibootmgr -B -b 0001'.

20181220:
	r342286 modifies the NFSv4 server so that it obeys vfs.nfsd.nfs_privport
	in the same as it is applied to NFSv2 and 3.  This implies that NFSv4
	servers that have vfs.nfsd.nfs_privport set will only allow mounts
	from clients using a reserved port#. Since both the FreeBSD and Linux
	NFSv4 clients use reserved port#s by default, this should not affect
	most NFSv4 mounts.

20181219:
	The XLP config has been removed. We can't support 64-bit atomics in this
	kernel because it is running in 32-bit mode. XLP users must transition
	to running a 64-bit kernel (XLP64 or XLPN32).

	The mips GXEMUL support has been removed from FreeBSD. MALTA* + qemu is
	the preferred emulator today and we don't need two different ones.

	The old sibyte / swarm / Broadcom BCM1250 support has been
	removed from the mips port.

20181211:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to
	7.0.1.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about
	prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0
	or higher.

20181211:
	Remove the timed and netdate programs from the base tree.  Setting
	the time with these daemons has been obsolete for over a decade.

20181126:
	On amd64, arm64 and armv7 (architectures that install LLVM's ld.lld
	linker as /usr/bin/ld) GNU ld is no longer installed as ld.bfd, as
	it produces broken binaries when ifuncs are in use.  Users needing
	GNU ld should install the binutils port or package.

20181123:
	The BSD crtbegin and crtend code has been enabled by default. It has
	had extensive testing on amd64, arm64, and i386. It can be disabled
	by building a world with -DWITHOUT_BSD_CRTBEGIN.

20181115:
	The set of CTM commands (ctm, ctm_smail, ctm_rmail, ctm_dequeue)
	has been converted to a port (misc/ctm) and will be removed from
	FreeBSD-13.  It is available as a package (ctm) for all supported
	FreeBSD versions.

20181110:
	The default newsyslog.conf(5) file has been changed to only include
	files in /etc/newsyslog.conf.d/ and /usr/local/etc/newsyslog.conf.d/ if
	the filenames end in '.conf' and do not begin with a '.'.

	You should check the configuration files in these two directories match
	this naming convention. You can verify which configuration files are
	being included using the command:
		$ newsyslog -Nrv

20181015:
	Ports for the DRM modules have been simplified. Now, amd64 users should
	just install the drm-kmod port. All others should install
	drm-legacy-kmod.

	Graphics hardware that's newer than about 2010 usually works with
	drm-kmod.  For hardware older than 2013, however, some users will need
	to use drm-legacy-kmod if drm-kmod doesn't work for them. Hardware older
	than 2008 usually only works in drm-legacy-kmod. The graphics team can
	only commit to hardware made since 2013 due to the complexity of the
	market and difficulty to test all the older cards effectively. If you
	have hardware supported by drm-kmod, you are strongly encouraged to use
	that as you will get better support.

	Other than KPI chasing, drm-legacy-kmod will not be updated. As outlined
	elsewhere, the drm and drm2 modules will be eliminated from the src base
	soon (with a limited exception for arm). Please update to the package
	asap and report any issues to x11@freebsd.org.

	Generally, anybody using the drm*-kmod packages should add
	WITHOUT_DRM_MODULE=t and WITHOUT_DRM2_MODULE=t to avoid nasty
	cross-threading surprises, especially with automatic driver
	loading from X11 startup. These will become the defaults in 13-current
	shortly.

20181012:
	The ixlv(4) driver has been renamed to iavf(4).  As a consequence,
	custom kernel and module loading configuration files must be updated
	accordingly.  Moreover, interfaces previous presented as ixlvN to the
	system are now exposed as iavfN and network configuration files must
	be adjusted as necessary.

20181009:
	OpenSSL has been updated to version 1.1.1.  This update included
	additional various API changes throughout the base system.  It is
	important to rebuild third-party software after upgrading.  The value
	of __FreeBSD_version has been bumped accordingly.

20181006:
	The legacy DRM modules and drivers have now been added to the loader's
	module blacklist, in favor of loading them with kld_list in rc.conf(5).
	The module blacklist may be overridden with the loader.conf(5)
	'module_blacklist' variable, but loading them via rc.conf(5) is strongly
	encouraged.

20181002:
	The cam(4) based nda(4) driver will be used over nvd(4) by default on
	powerpc64. You may set 'options NVME_USE_NVD=1' in your kernel conf or
	loader tunable 'hw.nvme.use_nvd=1' if you wish to use the existing
	driver.  Make sure to edit /boot/etc/kboot.conf and fstab to use the
	nda device name.

20180913:
	Reproducible build mode is now on by default, in preparation for
	FreeBSD 12.0.  This eliminates build metadata such as the user,
	host, and time from the kernel (and uname), unless the working tree
	corresponds to a modified checkout from a version control system.
	The previous behavior can be obtained by setting the /etc/src.conf
	knob WITHOUT_REPRODUCIBLE_BUILD.

20180826:
	The Yarrow CSPRNG has been removed from the kernel as it has not been
	supported by its designers since at least 2003. Fortuna has been the
	default since FreeBSD-11.

20180822:
	devctl freeze/thaw have gone into the tree, the rc scripts have been
	updated to use them and devmatch has been changed.  You should update
	kernel, userland and rc scripts all at the same time.

20180818:
	The default interpreter has been switched from 4th to Lua.
	LOADER_DEFAULT_INTERP, documented in build(7), will override the default
	interpreter.  If you have custom FORTH code you will need to set
	LOADER_DEFAULT_INTERP=4th (valid values are 4th, lua or simp) in
	src.conf for the build.  This will create default hard links between
	loader and loader_4th instead of loader and loader_lua, the new default.
	If you are using UEFI it will create the proper hard link to loader.efi.

	bhyve uses userboot.so. It remains 4th-only until some issues are solved
	regarding coexisting with multiple versions of FreeBSD are resolved.

20180815:
	ls(1) now respects the COLORTERM environment variable used in other
	systems and software to indicate that a colored terminal is both
	supported and desired.  If ls(1) is suddenly emitting colors, they may
	be disabled again by either removing the unwanted COLORTERM from your
	environment, or using `ls --color=never`.  The ls(1) specific CLICOLOR
	may not be observed in a future release.

20180808:
	The default pager for most commands has been changed to "less".  To
	restore the old behavior, set PAGER="more" and MANPAGER="more -s" in
	your environment.

20180731:
	The jedec_ts(4) driver has been removed. A superset of its functionality
	is available in the jedec_dimm(4) driver, and the manpage for that
	driver includes migration instructions. If you have "device jedec_ts"
	in your kernel configuration file, it must be removed.

20180730:
	amd64/GENERIC now has EFI runtime services, EFIRT, enabled by default.
	This should have no effect if the kernel is booted via BIOS/legacy boot.
	EFIRT may be disabled via a loader tunable, efi.rt.disabled, if a system
	has a buggy firmware that prevents a successful boot due to use of
	runtime services.

20180727:
	Atmel AT91RM9200 and AT91SAM9, Cavium CNS 11xx and XScale
	support has been removed from the tree. These ports were
	obsolete and/or known to be broken for many years.

20180723:
	loader.efi has been augmented to participate more fully in the
	UEFI boot manager protocol. loader.efi will now look at the
	BootXXXX environment variable to determine if a specific kernel
	or root partition was specified. XXXX is derived from BootCurrent.
	efibootmgr(8) manages these standard UEFI variables.

20180720:
	zfsloader's functionality has now been folded into loader.
	zfsloader is no longer necessary once you've updated your
	boot blocks. For a transition period, we will install a
	hardlink for zfsloader to loader to allow a smooth transition
	until the boot blocks can be updated (hard link because old
	zfs boot blocks don't understand symlinks).

20180719:
	ARM64 now have efifb support, if you want to have serial console
	on your arm64 board when an screen is connected and the bootloader
	setup a frame buffer for us to use, just add :
	boot_serial=YES
	boot_multicons=YES
	in /boot/loader.conf
	For Raspberry Pi 3 (RPI) users, this is needed even if you don't have
	an screen connected as the firmware will setup a frame buffer are that
	u-boot will expose as an EFI frame buffer.

20180719:
	New uid:gid added, ntpd:ntpd (123:123).  Be sure to run mergemaster
	or take steps to update /etc/passwd before doing installworld on
	existing systems.  Do not skip the "mergemaster -Fp" step before
	installworld, as described in the update procedures near the bottom
	of this document.  Also, rc.d/ntpd now starts ntpd(8) as user ntpd
	if the new mac_ntpd(4) policy is available, unless ntpd_flags or
	the ntp config file contain options that change file/dir locations.
	When such options (e.g., "statsdir" or "crypto") are used, ntpd can
	still be run as non-root by setting ntpd_user=ntpd in rc.conf, after
	taking steps to ensure that all required files/dirs are accessible
	by the ntpd user.

20180717:
	Big endian arm support has been removed.

20180711:
	The static environment setup in kernel configs is no longer mutually
	exclusive with the loader(8) environment by default.  In order to
	restore the previous default behavior of disabling the loader(8)
	environment if a static environment is present, you must specify
	loader_env.disabled=1 in the static environment.

20180705:
	The ABI of syscalls used by management tools like sockstat and
	netstat has been broken to allow 32-bit binaries to work on
	64-bit kernels without modification.  These programs will need
	to match the kernel in order to function.  External programs may
	require minor modifications to accommodate a change of type in
	structures from pointers to 64-bit virtual addresses.

20180702:
	On i386 and amd64 atomics are now inlined. Out of tree modules using
	atomics will need to be rebuilt.

20180701:
	The '%I' format in the kern.corefile sysctl limits the number of
	core files that a process can generate to the number stored in the
	debug.ncores sysctl. The '%I' format is replaced by the single digit
	index. Previously, if all indexes were taken the kernel would overwrite
	only a core file with the highest index in a filename.
	Currently the system will create a new core file if there is a free
	index or if all slots are taken it will overwrite the oldest one.

20180630:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to
	6.0.1.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about
	prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0
	or higher.

20180628:
	r335753 introduced a new quoting method. However, etc/devd/devmatch.conf
	needed to be changed to work with it. This change was made with r335763
	and requires a mergemaster / etcupdate / etc to update the installed
	file.

20180612:
	r334930 changed the interface between the NFS modules, so they all
	need to be rebuilt.  r335018 did a __FreeBSD_version bump for this.

20180530:
	As of r334391 lld is the default amd64 system linker; it is installed
	as /usr/bin/ld.  Kernel build workarounds (see 20180510 entry) are no
	longer necessary.

20180530:
	The kernel / userland interface for devinfo changed, so you'll
	need a new kernel and userland as a pair for it to work (rebuilding
	lib/libdevinfo is all that's required). devinfo and devmatch will
	not work, but everything else will when there's a mismatch.

20180523:
	The on-disk format for hwpmc callchain records has changed to include
	threadid corresponding to a given record. This changes the field offsets
	and thus requires that libpmcstat be rebuilt before using a kernel
	later than r334108.

20180517:
	The vxge(4) driver has been removed.  This driver was introduced into
	HEAD one week before the Exar left the Ethernet market and is not
	known to be used.  If you have device vxge in your kernel config file
	it must be removed.

20180510:
	The amd64 kernel now requires a ld that supports ifunc to produce a
	working kernel, either lld or a newer binutils. lld is built by default
	on amd64, and the 'buildkernel' target uses it automatically. However,
	it is not the default linker, so building the kernel the traditional
	way requires LD=ld.lld on the command line (or LD=/usr/local/bin/ld for
	binutils port/package). lld will soon be default, and this requirement
	will go away.

	NOTE: As of r334391 lld is the default system linker on amd64, and no
	workaround is necessary.

20180508:
	The nxge(4) driver has been removed.  This driver was for PCI-X 10g
	cards made by s2io/Neterion.  The company was acquired by Exar and
	no longer sells or supports Ethernet products.  If you have device
	nxge in your kernel config file it must be removed.

20180504:
	The tz database (tzdb) has been updated to 2018e.  This version more
	correctly models time stamps in time zones with negative DST such as
	Europe/Dublin (from 1971 on), Europe/Prague (1946/7), and
	Africa/Windhoek (1994/2017).  This does not affect the UT offsets, only
	time zone abbreviations and the tm_isdst flag.

20180502:
	The ixgb(4) driver has been removed.  This driver was for an early and
	uncommon legacy PCI 10GbE for a single ASIC, Intel 82597EX. Intel
	quickly shifted to the long lived ixgbe family.  If you have device
	ixgb in your kernel config file it must be removed.

20180501:
	The lmc(4) driver has been removed.  This was a WAN interface
	card that was already reportedly rare in 2003, and had an ambiguous
	license.  If you have device lmc in your kernel config file it must
	be removed.

20180413:
	Support for Arcnet networks has been removed.  If you have device
	arcnet or device cm in your kernel config file they must be
	removed.

20180411:
	Support for FDDI networks has been removed.  If you have device
	fddi or device fpa in your kernel config file they must be
	removed.

20180406:
	In addition to supporting RFC 3164 formatted messages, the
	syslogd(8) service is now capable of parsing RFC 5424 formatted
	log messages. The main benefit of using RFC 5424 is that clients
	may now send log messages with timestamps containing year numbers,
	microseconds and time zone offsets.

	Similarly, the syslog(3) C library function has been altered to
	send RFC 5424 formatted messages to the local system logging
	daemon. On systems using syslogd(8), this change should have no
	negative impact, as long as syslogd(8) and the C library are
	updated at the same time. On systems using a different system
	logging daemon, it may be necessary to make configuration
	adjustments, depending on the software used.

	When using syslog-ng, add the 'syslog-protocol' flag to local
	input sources to enable parsing of RFC 5424 formatted messages:

		source src {
			unix-dgram("/var/run/log" flags(syslog-protocol));
		}

	When using rsyslog, disable the 'SysSock.UseSpecialParser' option
	of the 'imuxsock' module to let messages be processed by the
	regular RFC 3164/5424 parsing pipeline:

		module(load="imuxsock" SysSock.UseSpecialParser="off")

	Do note that these changes only affect communication between local
	applications and syslogd(8). The format that syslogd(8) uses to
	store messages on disk or forward messages to other systems
	remains unchanged. syslogd(8) still uses RFC 3164 for these
	purposes. Options to customize this behaviour will be added in the
	future. Utilities that process log files stored in /var/log are
	thus expected to continue to function as before.

	__FreeBSD_version has been incremented to 1200061 to denote this
	change.

20180328:
	Support for token ring networks has been removed. If you
	have "device token" in your kernel config you should remove
	it. No device drivers supported token ring.

20180323:
	makefs was modified to be able to tag ISO9660 El Torito boot catalog
	entries as EFI instead of overloading the i386 tag as done previously.
	The amd64 mkisoimages.sh script used to build amd64 ISO images for
	release was updated to use this. This may mean that makefs must be
	updated before "make cdrom" can be run in the release directory. This
	should be as simple as:

		$ cd $SRCDIR/usr.sbin/makefs
		$ make depend all install

20180212:
	FreeBSD boot loader enhanced with Lua scripting. It's purely opt-in for
	now by building WITH_LOADER_LUA and WITHOUT_FORTH in /etc/src.conf.
	Co-existence for the transition period will come shortly. Booting is a
	complex environment and test coverage for Lua-enabled loaders has been
	thin, so it would be prudent to assume it might not work and make
	provisions for backup boot methods.

20180211:
	devmatch functionality has been turned on in devd. It will automatically
	load drivers for unattached devices. This may cause unexpected drivers
	to be loaded. Please report any problems to current@ and
	imp@freebsd.org.

20180114:
	Clang, llvm, lld, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to
	6.0.0.  Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about
	prerequisites and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0
	or higher.

20180110:
	LLVM's lld linker is now used as the FreeBSD/amd64 bootstrap linker.
	This means it is used to link the kernel and userland libraries and
	executables, but is not yet installed as /usr/bin/ld by default.

	To revert to ld.bfd as the bootstrap linker, in /etc/src.conf set
	WITHOUT_LLD_BOOTSTRAP=yes

20180110:
	On i386, pmtimer has been removed. Its functionality has been folded
	into apm. It was a no-op on ACPI in current for a while now (but was
	still needed on i386 in FreeBSD 11 and earlier). Users may need to
	remove it from kernel config files.

20180104:
	The use of RSS hash from the network card aka flowid has been
	disabled by default for lagg(4) as it's currently incompatible with
	the lacp and loadbalance protocols.

	This can be re-enabled by setting the following in loader.conf:
	net.link.lagg.default_use_flowid="1"

20180102:
	The SW_WATCHDOG option is no longer necessary to enable the
	hardclock-based software watchdog if no hardware watchdog is
	configured. As before, SW_WATCHDOG will cause the software
	watchdog to be enabled even if a hardware watchdog is configured.

20171215:
	r326887 fixes the issue described in the 20171214 UPDATING entry.
	r326888 flips the switch back to building GELI support always.

20171214:
	r362593 broke ZFS + GELI support for reasons unknown. However,
	it also broke ZFS support generally, so GELI has been turned off
	by default as the lesser evil in r326857. If you boot off ZFS and/or
	GELI, it might not be a good time to update.

20171125:
	PowerPC users must update loader(8) by rebuilding world before
	installing a new kernel, as the protocol connecting them has
	changed. Without the update, loader metadata will not be passed
	successfully to the kernel and users will have to enter their
	root partition at the kernel mountroot prompt to continue booting.
	Newer versions of loader can boot old kernels without issue.

20171110:
	The LOADER_FIREWIRE_SUPPORT build variable as been renamed to
	WITH/OUT_LOADER_FIREWIRE. LOADER_{NO_,}GELI_SUPPORT has been renamed
	to WITH/OUT_LOADER_GELI.

20171106:
	The naive and non-compliant support of posix_fallocate(2) in ZFS
	has been removed as of r325320.  The system call now returns EINVAL
	when used on a ZFS file.  Although the new behavior complies with the
	standard, some consumers are not prepared to cope with it.
	One known victim is lld prior to r325420.

20171102:
	Building in a FreeBSD src checkout will automatically create object
	directories now rather than store files in the current directory if
	'make obj' was not ran.  Calling 'make obj' is no longer necessary.
	This feature can be disabled by setting WITHOUT_AUTO_OBJ=yes in
	/etc/src-env.conf (not /etc/src.conf), or passing the option in the
	environment.

20171101:
	The default MAKEOBJDIR has changed from /usr/obj/<srcdir> for native
	builds, and /usr/obj/<arch>/<srcdir> for cross-builds, to a unified
	/usr/obj/<srcdir>/<arch>.  This behavior can be changed to the old
	format by setting WITHOUT_UNIFIED_OBJDIR=yes in /etc/src-env.conf,
	the environment, or with -DWITHOUT_UNIFIED_OBJDIR when building.
	The UNIFIED_OBJDIR option is a transitional feature that will be
	removed for 12.0 release; please migrate to the new format for any
	tools by looking up the OBJDIR used by 'make -V .OBJDIR' means rather
	than hardcoding paths.

20171028:
	The native-xtools target no longer installs the files by default to the
	OBJDIR.  Use the native-xtools-install target with a DESTDIR to install
	to ${DESTDIR}/${NXTP} where NXTP defaults to /nxb-bin.

20171021:
	As part of the boot loader infrastructure cleanup, LOADER_*_SUPPORT
	options are changing from controlling the build if defined / undefined
	to controlling the build with explicit 'yes' or 'no' values. They will
	shift to WITH/WITHOUT options to match other options in the system.

20171010:
	libstand has turned into a private library for sys/boot use only.
	It is no longer supported as a public interface outside of sys/boot.

20171005:
	The arm port has split armv6 into armv6 and armv7. armv7 is now
	a valid TARGET_ARCH/MACHINE_ARCH setting. If you have an armv7 system
	and are running a kernel from before r324363, you will need to add
	MACHINE_ARCH=armv7 to 'make buildworld' to do a native build.

20171003:
	When building multiple kernels using KERNCONF, non-existent KERNCONF
	files will produce an error and buildkernel will fail. Previously
	missing KERNCONF files silently failed giving no indication as to
	why, only to subsequently discover during installkernel that the
	desired kernel was never built in the first place.

20170912:
	The default serial number format for CTL LUNs has changed.  This will
	affect users who use /dev/diskid/* device nodes, or whose FibreChannel
	or iSCSI clients care about their LUNs' serial numbers.  Users who
	require serial number stability should hardcode serial numbers in
	/etc/ctl.conf .

20170912:
	For 32-bit arm compiled for hard-float support, soft-floating point
	binaries now always get their shared libraries from
	LD_SOFT_LIBRARY_PATH (in the past, this was only used if
	/usr/libsoft also existed). Only users with a hard-float ld.so, but
	soft-float everything else should be affected.

20170826:
	The geli password typed at boot is now hidden.  To restore the previous
	behavior, see geli(8) for configuration options.

20170825:
	Move PMTUD blackhole counters to TCPSTATS and remove them from bare
	sysctl values.  Minor nit, but requires a rebuild of both world/kernel
	to complete.

20170814:
	"make check" behavior (made in ^/head@r295380) has been changed to
	execute from a limited sandbox, as opposed to executing from
	${TESTSDIR}.

	Behavioral changes:
	- The "beforecheck" and "aftercheck" targets are now specified.
	- ${CHECKDIR} (added in commit noted above) has been removed.
	- Legacy behavior can be enabled by setting
	  WITHOUT_MAKE_CHECK_USE_SANDBOX in src.conf(5) or the environment.

	If the limited sandbox mode is enabled, "make check" will execute
	"make distribution", then install, execute the tests, and clean up the
	sandbox if successful.

	The "make distribution" and "make install" targets are typically run as
	root to set appropriate permissions and ownership at installation time.
	The end-user should set "WITH_INSTALL_AS_USER" in src.conf(5) or the
	environment if executing "make check" with limited sandbox mode using
	an unprivileged user.

20170808:
	Since the switch to GPT disk labels, fsck for UFS/FFS has been
	unable to automatically find alternate superblocks. As of r322297,
	the information needed to find alternate superblocks has been
	moved to the end of the area reserved for the boot block.
	Filesystems created with a newfs of this vintage or later
	will create the recovery information. If you have a filesystem
	created prior to this change and wish to have a recovery block
	created for your filesystem, you can do so by running fsck in
	foreground mode (i.e., do not use the -p or -y options). As it
	starts, fsck will ask ``SAVE DATA TO FIND ALTERNATE SUPERBLOCKS''
	to which you should answer yes.

20170728:
	As of r321665, an NFSv4 server configuration that services
	Kerberos mounts or clients that do not support the uid/gid in
	owner/owner_group string capability, must explicitly enable
	the nfsuserd daemon by adding nfsuserd_enable="YES" to the
	machine's /etc/rc.conf file.

20170722:
	Clang, llvm, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to 5.0.0.
	Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites
	and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20170701:
	WITHOUT_RCMDS is now the default. Set WITH_RCMDS if you need the
	r-commands (rlogin, rsh, etc.) to be built with the base system.

20170625:
	The FreeBSD/powerpc platform now uses a 64-bit type for time_t.  This is
	a very major ABI incompatible change, so users of FreeBSD/powerpc must
	be careful when performing source upgrades.  It is best to run
	'make installworld' from an alternate root system, either a live
	CD/memory stick, or a temporary root partition.  Additionally, all ports
	must be recompiled.  powerpc64 is largely unaffected, except in the case
	of 32-bit compatibility.  All 32-bit binaries will be affected.

20170623:
	Forward compatibility for the "ino64" project have been committed. This
	will allow most new binaries to run on older kernels in a limited
	fashion.  This prevents many of the common foot-shooting actions in the
	upgrade as well as the limited ability to roll back the kernel across
	the ino64 upgrade. Complicated use cases may not work properly, though
	enough simpler ones work to allow recovery in most situations.

20170620:
	Switch back to the BSDL dtc (Device Tree Compiler). Set WITH_GPL_DTC
	if you require the GPL compiler.

20170618:
	The internal ABI used for communication between the NFS kernel modules
	was changed by r320085, so __FreeBSD_version was bumped to
	ensure all the NFS related modules are updated together.

20170617:
	The ABI of struct event was changed by extending the data
	member to 64bit and adding ext fields.  For upgrade, same
	precautions as for the entry 20170523 "ino64" must be
	followed.

20170531:
	The GNU roff toolchain has been removed from base. To render manpages
	which are not supported by mandoc(1), man(1) can fallback on GNU roff
	from ports (and recommends to install it).
	To render roff(7) documents, consider using GNU roff from ports or the
	heirloom doctools roff toolchain from ports via pkg install groff or
	via pkg install heirloom-doctools.

20170524:
	The ath(4) and ath_hal(4) modules now build piecemeal to allow for
	smaller runtime footprint builds.  This is useful for embedded systems
	which only require one chipset support.

	If you load it as a module, make sure this is in /boot/loader.conf:

	if_ath_load="YES"

	This will load the HAL, all chip/RF backends and if_ath_pci.
	If you have if_ath_pci in /boot/loader.conf, ensure it is after
	if_ath or it will not load any HAL chipset support.

	If you want to selectively load things (eg on ye cheape ARM/MIPS
	platforms where RAM is at a premium) you should:

	* load ath_hal
	* load the chip modules in question
	* load ath_rate, ath_dfs
	* load ath_main
	* load if_ath_pci and/or if_ath_ahb depending upon your particular
	  bus bind type - this is where probe/attach is done.

	For further comments/feedback, poke adrian@ .

20170523:
	The "ino64" 64-bit inode project has been committed, which extends
	a number of types to 64 bits.  Upgrading in place requires care and
	adherence to the documented upgrade procedure.

	If using a custom kernel configuration ensure that the
	COMPAT_FREEBSD11 option is included (as during the upgrade the
	system will be running the ino64 kernel with the existing world).

	For the safest in-place upgrade begin by removing previous build
	artifacts via "rm -rf /usr/obj/*".  Then, carefully follow the full
	procedure documented below under the heading "To rebuild everything and
	install it on the current system."  Specifically, a reboot is required
	after installing the new kernel before installing world. While an
	installworld normally works by accident from multiuser after rebooting
	the proper kernel, there are many cases where this will fail across this
	upgrade and installworld from single user is required.

20170424:
	The NATM framework including the en(4), fatm(4), hatm(4), and
	patm(4) devices has been removed.  Consumers should plan a
	migration before the end-of-life date for FreeBSD 11.

20170420:
	GNU diff has been replaced by a BSD licensed diff. Some features of GNU
	diff has not been implemented, if those are needed a newer version of
	GNU diff is available via the diffutils package under the gdiff name.

20170413:
	As of r316810 for ipfilter, keep frags is no longer assumed when
	keep state is specified in a rule. r316810 aligns ipfilter with
	documentation in man pages separating keep frags from keep state.
	This allows keep state to be specified without forcing keep frags
	and allows keep frags to be specified independently of keep state.
	To maintain previous behaviour, also specify keep frags with
	keep state (as documented in ipf.conf.5).

20170407:
	arm64 builds now use the base system LLD 4.0.0 linker by default,
	instead of requiring that the aarch64-binutils port or package be
	installed. To continue using aarch64-binutils, set
	CROSS_BINUTILS_PREFIX=/usr/local/aarch64-freebsd/bin .

20170405:
	The UDP optimization in entry 20160818 that added the sysctl
	net.inet.udp.require_l2_bcast has been reverted.  L2 broadcast
	packets will no longer be treated as L3 broadcast packets.

20170331:
	Binds and sends to the loopback addresses, IPv6 and IPv4, will now
	use any explicitly assigned loopback address available in the jail
	instead of using the first assigned address of the jail.

20170329:
	The ctl.ko module no longer implements the iSCSI target frontend:
	cfiscsi.ko does instead.

	If building cfiscsi.ko as a kernel module, the module can be loaded
	via one of the following methods:
	- `cfiscsi_load="YES"` in loader.conf(5).
	- Add `cfiscsi` to `$kld_list` in rc.conf(5).
	- ctladm(8)/ctld(8), when compiled with iSCSI support
	  (`WITH_ISCSI=yes` in src.conf(5))

	Please see cfiscsi(4) for more details.

20170316:
	The mmcsd.ko module now additionally depends on geom_flashmap.ko.
	Also, mmc.ko and mmcsd.ko need to be a matching pair built from the
	same source (previously, the dependency of mmcsd.ko on mmc.ko was
	missing, but mmcsd.ko now will refuse to load if it is incompatible
	with mmc.ko).

20170315:
	The syntax of ipfw(8) named states was changed to avoid ambiguity.
	If you have used named states in the firewall rules, you need to modify
	them after installworld and before rebooting. Now named states must
	be prefixed with colon.

20170311:
	The old drm (sys/dev/drm/) drivers for i915 and radeon have been
	removed as the userland we provide cannot use them. The KMS version
	(sys/dev/drm2) supports the same hardware.

20170302:
	Clang, llvm, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to 4.0.0.
	Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites
	and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20170221:
	The code that provides support for ZFS .zfs/ directory functionality
	has been reimplemented.  It's not possible now to create a snapshot
	by mkdir under .zfs/snapshot/.  That should be the only user visible
	change.

20170216:
	EISA bus support has been removed. The WITH_EISA option is no longer
	valid.

20170215:
	MCA bus support has been removed.

20170127:
	The WITH_LLD_AS_LD / WITHOUT_LLD_AS_LD build knobs have been renamed
	WITH_LLD_IS_LD / WITHOUT_LLD_IS_LD, for consistency with CLANG_IS_CC.

20170112:
	The EM_MULTIQUEUE kernel configuration option is deprecated now that
	the em(4) driver conforms to iflib specifications.

20170109:
	The igb(4), em(4) and lem(4) ethernet drivers are now implemented via
	IFLIB.  If you have a custom kernel configuration that excludes em(4)
	but you use igb(4), you need to re-add em(4) to your custom
	configuration.

20161217:
	Clang, llvm, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to 3.9.1.
	Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites
	and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20161124:
	Clang, llvm, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to 3.9.0.
	Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites
	and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20161119:
	The layout of the pmap structure has changed for powerpc to put the pmap
	statistics at the front for all CPU variations.  libkvm(3) and all tools
	that link against it need to be recompiled.

20161030:
	isl(4) and cyapa(4) drivers now require a new driver,
	chromebook_platform(4), to work properly on Chromebook-class hardware.
	On other types of hardware the drivers may need to be configured using
	device hints.  Please see the corresponding manual pages for details.

20161017:
	The urtwn(4) driver was merged into rtwn(4) and now consists of
	rtwn(4) main module + rtwn_usb(4) and rtwn_pci(4) bus-specific
	parts.
	Also, firmware for RTL8188CE was renamed due to possible name
	conflict (rtwnrtl8192cU(B) -> rtwnrtl8192cE(B))

20161015:
	GNU rcs has been removed from base.  It is available as packages:
	- rcs: Latest GPLv3 GNU rcs version.
	- rcs57: Copy of the latest version of GNU rcs (GPLv2) before it was
	removed from base.

20161008:
	Use of the cc_cdg, cc_chd, cc_hd, or cc_vegas congestion control
	modules now requires that the kernel configuration contain the
	TCP_HHOOK option. (This option is included in the GENERIC kernel.)

20161003:
	The WITHOUT_ELFCOPY_AS_OBJCOPY src.conf(5) knob has been retired.
	ELF Tool Chain's elfcopy is always installed as /usr/bin/objcopy.

20160924:
	Relocatable object files with the extension of .So have been renamed
	to use an extension of .pico instead.  The purpose of this change is
	to avoid a name clash with shared libraries on case-insensitive file
	systems.  On those file systems, foo.So is the same file as foo.so.

20160918:
	GNU rcs has been turned off by default.  It can (temporarily) be built
	again by adding WITH_RCS knob in src.conf.
	Otherwise, GNU rcs is available from packages:
	- rcs: Latest GPLv3 GNU rcs version.
	- rcs57: Copy of the latest version of GNU rcs (GPLv2) from base.

20160918:
	The backup_uses_rcs functionality has been removed from rc.subr.

20160908:
	The queue(3) debugging macro, QUEUE_MACRO_DEBUG, has been split into
	two separate components, QUEUE_MACRO_DEBUG_TRACE and
	QUEUE_MACRO_DEBUG_TRASH.  Define both for the original
	QUEUE_MACRO_DEBUG behavior.

20160824:
	r304787 changed some ioctl interfaces between the iSCSI userspace
	programs and the kernel.  ctladm, ctld, iscsictl, and iscsid must be
	rebuilt to work with new kernels.  __FreeBSD_version has been bumped
	to 1200005.

20160818:
	The UDP receive code has been updated to only treat incoming UDP
	packets that were addressed to an L2 broadcast address as L3
	broadcast packets.  It is not expected that this will affect any
	standards-conforming UDP application.  The new behaviour can be
	disabled by setting the sysctl net.inet.udp.require_l2_bcast to
	0.

20160818:
	Remove the openbsd_poll system call.
	__FreeBSD_version has been bumped because of this.

20160708:
	The stable/11 branch has been created from head@r302406.

20160622:
	The libc stub for the pipe(2) system call has been replaced with
	a wrapper that calls the pipe2(2) system call and the pipe(2)
	system call is now only implemented by the kernels that include
	"options COMPAT_FREEBSD10" in their config file (this is the
	default).  Users should ensure that this option is enabled in
	their kernel or upgrade userspace to r302092 before upgrading their
	kernel.

20160527:
	CAM will now strip leading spaces from SCSI disks' serial numbers.
	This will affect users who create UFS filesystems on SCSI disks using
	those disk's diskid device nodes.  For example, if /etc/fstab
	previously contained a line like
	"/dev/diskid/DISK-%20%20%20%20%20%20%20ABCDEFG0123456", you should
	change it to "/dev/diskid/DISK-ABCDEFG0123456".  Users of geom
	transforms like gmirror may also be affected.  ZFS users should
	generally be fine.

20160523:
	The bitstring(3) API has been updated with new functionality and
	improved performance.  But it is binary-incompatible with the old API.
	Objects built with the new headers may not be linked against objects
	built with the old headers.

20160520:
	The brk and sbrk functions have been removed from libc on arm64.
	Binutils from ports has been updated to not link to these
	functions and should be updated to the latest version before
	installing a new libc.

20160517:
	The armv6 port now defaults to hard float ABI. Limited support
	for running both hardfloat and soft float on the same system
	is available using the libraries installed with -DWITH_LIBSOFT.
	This has only been tested as an upgrade path for installworld
	and packages may fail or need manual intervention to run. New
	packages will be needed.

	To update an existing self-hosted armv6hf system, you must add
	TARGET_ARCH=armv6 on the make command line for both the build
	and the install steps.

20160510:
	Kernel modules compiled outside of a kernel build now default to
	installing to /boot/modules instead of /boot/kernel.  Many kernel
	modules built this way (such as those in ports) already overrode
	KMODDIR explicitly to install into /boot/modules.  However,
	manually building and installing a module from /sys/modules will
	now install to /boot/modules instead of /boot/kernel.

20160414:
	The CAM I/O scheduler has been committed to the kernel. There should be
	no user visible impact. This does enable NCQ Trim on ada SSDs. While the
	list of known rogues that claim support for this but actually corrupt
	data is believed to be complete, be on the lookout for data
	corruption. The known rogue list is believed to be complete:

		o Crucial MX100, M550 drives with MU01 firmware.
		o Micron M510 and M550 drives with MU01 firmware.
		o Micron M500 prior to MU07 firmware
		o Samsung 830, 840, and 850 all firmwares
		o FCCT M500 all firmwares

	Crucial has firmware http://www.crucial.com/usa/en/support-ssd-firmware
	with working NCQ TRIM. For Micron branded drives, see your sales rep for
	updated firmware. Black listed drives will work correctly because these
	drives work correctly so long as no NCQ TRIMs are sent to them. Given
	this list is the same as found in Linux, it's believed there are no
	other rogues in the market place. All other models from the above
	vendors work.

	To be safe, if you are at all concerned, you can quirk each of your
	drives to prevent NCQ from being sent by setting:
		kern.cam.ada.X.quirks="0x2"
	in loader.conf. If the drive requires the 4k sector quirk, set the
	quirks entry to 0x3.

20160330:
	The FAST_DEPEND build option has been removed and its functionality is
	now the one true way.  The old mkdep(1) style of 'make depend' has
	been removed.  See 20160311 for further details.

20160317:
	Resource range types have grown from unsigned long to uintmax_t.  All
	drivers, and anything using libdevinfo, need to be recompiled.

20160311:
	WITH_FAST_DEPEND is now enabled by default for in-tree and out-of-tree
	builds.  It no longer runs mkdep(1) during 'make depend', and the
	'make depend' stage can safely be skipped now as it is auto ran
	when building 'make all' and will generate all SRCS and DPSRCS before
	building anything else.  Dependencies are gathered at compile time with
	-MF flags kept in separate .depend files per object file.  Users should
	run 'make cleandepend' once if using -DNO_CLEAN to clean out older
	stale .depend files.

20160306:
	On amd64, clang 3.8.0 can now insert sections of type AMD64_UNWIND into
	kernel modules.  Therefore, if you load any kernel modules at boot time,
	please install the boot loaders after you install the kernel, but before
	rebooting, e.g.:

	make buildworld
	make buildkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
	make installkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
	make -C sys/boot install
	<reboot in single user>

	Then follow the usual steps, described in the General Notes section,
	below.

20160305:
	Clang, llvm, lldb and compiler-rt have been upgraded to 3.8.0.  Please
	see the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites and
	upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20160301:
	The AIO subsystem is now a standard part of the kernel.  The
	VFS_AIO kernel option and aio.ko kernel module have been removed.
	Due to stability concerns, asynchronous I/O requests are only
	permitted on sockets and raw disks by default.  To enable
	asynchronous I/O requests on all file types, set the
	vfs.aio.enable_unsafe sysctl to a non-zero value.

20160226:
	The ELF object manipulation tool objcopy is now provided by the
	ELF Tool Chain project rather than by GNU binutils. It should be a
	drop-in replacement, with the addition of arm64 support. The
	(temporary) src.conf knob WITHOUT_ELFCOPY_AS_OBJCOPY knob may be set
	to obtain the GNU version if necessary.

20160129:
	Building ZFS pools on top of zvols is prohibited by default.  That
	feature has never worked safely; it's always been prone to deadlocks.
	Using a zvol as the backing store for a VM guest's virtual disk will
	still work, even if the guest is using ZFS.  Legacy behavior can be
	restored by setting vfs.zfs.vol.recursive=1.

20160119:
	The NONE and HPN patches has been removed from OpenSSH.  They are
	still available in the security/openssh-portable port.

20160113:
	With the addition of ypldap(8), a new _ypldap user is now required
	during installworld. "mergemaster -p" can be used to add the user
	prior to installworld, as documented in the handbook.

20151216:
	The tftp loader (pxeboot) now uses the option root-path directive. As a
	consequence it no longer looks for a pxeboot.4th file on the tftp
	server. Instead it uses the regular /boot infrastructure as with the
	other loaders.

20151211:
	The code to start recording plug and play data into the modules has
	been committed. While the old tools will properly build a new kernel,
	a number of warnings about "unknown metadata record 4" will be produced
	for an older kldxref. To avoid such warnings, make sure to rebuild
	the kernel toolchain (or world). Make sure that you have r292078 or
	later when trying to build 292077 or later before rebuilding.

20151207:
	Debug data files are now built by default with 'make buildworld' and
	installed with 'make installworld'. This facilitates debugging but
	requires more disk space both during the build and for the installed
	world. Debug files may be disabled by setting WITHOUT_DEBUG_FILES=yes
	in src.conf(5).

20151130:
	r291527 changed the internal interface between the nfsd.ko and
	nfscommon.ko modules. As such, they must both be upgraded to-gether.
	__FreeBSD_version has been bumped because of this.

20151108:
	Add support for unicode collation strings leads to a change of
	order of files listed by ls(1) for example. To get back to the old
	behaviour, set LC_COLLATE environment variable to "C".

	Databases administrators will need to reindex their databases given
	collation results will be different.

	Due to a bug in install(1) it is recommended to remove the ancient
	locales before running make installworld.

	rm -rf /usr/share/locale/*

20151030:
	The OpenSSL has been upgraded to 1.0.2d.  Any binaries requiring
	libcrypto.so.7 or libssl.so.7 must be recompiled.

20151020:
	Qlogic 24xx/25xx firmware images were updated from 5.5.0 to 7.3.0.
	Kernel modules isp_2400_multi and isp_2500_multi were removed and
	should be replaced with isp_2400 and isp_2500 modules respectively.

20151017:
	The build previously allowed using 'make -n' to not recurse into
	sub-directories while showing what commands would be executed, and
	'make -n -n' to recursively show commands.  Now 'make -n' will recurse
	and 'make -N' will not.

20151012:
	If you specify SENDMAIL_MC or SENDMAIL_CF in make.conf, mergemaster
	and etcupdate will now use this file. A custom sendmail.cf is now
	updated via this mechanism rather than via installworld.  If you had
	excluded sendmail.cf in mergemaster.rc or etcupdate.conf, you may
	want to remove the exclusion or change it to "always install".
	/etc/mail/sendmail.cf is now managed the same way regardless of
	whether SENDMAIL_MC/SENDMAIL_CF is used.  If you are not using
	SENDMAIL_MC/SENDMAIL_CF there should be no change in behavior.

20151011:
	Compatibility shims for legacy ATA device names have been removed.
	It includes ATA_STATIC_ID kernel option, kern.cam.ada.legacy_aliases
	and kern.geom.raid.legacy_aliases loader tunables, kern.devalias.*
	environment variables, /dev/ad* and /dev/ar* symbolic links.

20151006:
	Clang, llvm, lldb, compiler-rt and libc++ have been upgraded to 3.7.0.
	Please see the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites
	and upgrading, if you are not already using clang 3.5.0 or higher.

20150924:
	Kernel debug files have been moved to /usr/lib/debug/boot/kernel/,
	and renamed from .symbols to .debug. This reduces the size requirements
	on the boot partition or file system and provides consistency with
	userland debug files.

	When using the supported kernel installation method the
	/usr/lib/debug/boot/kernel directory will be renamed (to kernel.old)
	as is done with /boot/kernel.

	Developers wishing to maintain the historical behavior of installing
	debug files in /boot/kernel/ can set KERN_DEBUGDIR="" in src.conf(5).

20150827:
	The wireless drivers had undergone changes that remove the 'parent
	interface' from the ifconfig -l output. The rc.d network scripts
	used to check presence of a parent interface in the list, so old
	scripts would fail to start wireless networking. Thus, etcupdate(3)
	or mergemaster(8) run is required after kernel update, to update your
	rc.d scripts in /etc.

20150827:
	pf no longer supports 'scrub fragment crop' or 'scrub fragment drop-ovl'
	These configurations are now automatically interpreted as
	'scrub fragment reassemble'.

20150817:
	Kernel-loadable modules for the random(4) device are back. To use
	them, the kernel must have

	device	random
	options	RANDOM_LOADABLE

	kldload(8) can then be used to load random_fortuna.ko
	or random_yarrow.ko. Please note that due to the indirect
	function calls that the loadable modules need to provide,
	the build-in variants will be slightly more efficient.

	The random(4) kernel option RANDOM_DUMMY has been retired due to
	unpopularity. It was not all that useful anyway.

20150813:
	The WITHOUT_ELFTOOLCHAIN_TOOLS src.conf(5) knob has been retired.
	Control over building the ELF Tool Chain tools is now provided by
	the WITHOUT_TOOLCHAIN knob.

20150810:
	The polarity of Pulse Per Second (PPS) capture events with the
	uart(4) driver has been corrected.  Prior to this change the PPS
	"assert" event corresponded to the trailing edge of a positive PPS
	pulse and the "clear" event was the leading edge of the next pulse.

	As the width of a PPS pulse in a typical GPS receiver is on the
	order of 1 millisecond, most users will not notice any significant
	difference with this change.

	Anyone who has compensated for the historical polarity reversal by
	configuring a negative offset equal to the pulse width will need to
	remove that workaround.

20150809:
	The default group assigned to /dev/dri entries has been changed
	from 'wheel' to 'video' with the id of '44'. If you want to have
	access to the dri devices please add yourself to the video group
	with:

	# pw groupmod video -m $USER

20150806:
	The menu.rc and loader.rc files will now be replaced during
	upgrades. Please migrate local changes to menu.rc.local and
	loader.rc.local instead.

20150805:
	GNU Binutils versions of addr2line, c++filt, nm, readelf, size,
	strings and strip have been removed. The src.conf(5) knob
	WITHOUT_ELFTOOLCHAIN_TOOLS no longer provides the binutils tools.

20150728:
	As ZFS requires more kernel stack pages than is the default on some
	architectures e.g. i386, it now warns if KSTACK_PAGES is less than
	ZFS_MIN_KSTACK_PAGES (which is 4 at the time of writing).

	Please consider using 'options KSTACK_PAGES=X' where X is greater
	than or equal to ZFS_MIN_KSTACK_PAGES i.e. 4 in such configurations.

20150706:
	sendmail has been updated to 8.15.2.  Starting with FreeBSD 11.0
	and sendmail 8.15, sendmail uses uncompressed IPv6 addresses by
	default, i.e., they will not contain "::".  For example, instead
	of ::1, it will be 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1.  This permits a zero subnet
	to have a more specific match, such as different map entries for
	IPv6:0:0 vs IPv6:0.  This change requires that configuration
	data (including maps, files, classes, custom ruleset, etc.) must
	use the same format, so make certain such configuration data is
	upgrading.  As a very simple check search for patterns like
	'IPv6:[0-9a-fA-F:]*::' and 'IPv6::'.  To return to the old
	behavior, set the m4 option confUSE_COMPRESSED_IPV6_ADDRESSES or
	the cf option UseCompressedIPv6Addresses.

20150630:
	The default kernel entropy-processing algorithm is now
	Fortuna, replacing Yarrow.

	Assuming you have 'device random' in your kernel config
	file, the configurations allow a kernel option to override
	this default. You may choose *ONE* of:

	options	RANDOM_YARROW	# Legacy /dev/random algorithm.
	options	RANDOM_DUMMY	# Blocking-only driver.

	If you have neither, you get Fortuna.  For most people,
	read no further, Fortuna will give a /dev/random that works
	like it always used to, and the difference will be irrelevant.

	If you remove 'device random', you get *NO* kernel-processed
	entropy at all. This may be acceptable to folks building
	embedded systems, but has complications. Carry on reading,
	and it is assumed you know what you need.

	*PLEASE* read random(4) and random(9) if you are in the
	habit of tweaking kernel configs, and/or if you are a member
	of the embedded community, wanting specific and not-usual
	behaviour from your security subsystems.

	NOTE!! If you use RANDOM_DUMMY and/or have no 'device
	random', you will NOT have a functioning /dev/random, and
	many cryptographic features will not work, including SSH.
	You may also find strange behaviour from the random(3) set
	of library functions, in particular sranddev(3), srandomdev(3)
	and arc4random(3). The reason for this is that the KERN_ARND
	sysctl only returns entropy if it thinks it has some to
	share, and with RANDOM_DUMMY or no 'device random' this
	will never happen.

20150623:
	An additional fix for the issue described in the 20150614 sendmail
	entry below has been committed in revision 284717.

20150616:
	FreeBSD's old make (fmake) has been removed from the system. It is
	available as the devel/fmake port or via pkg install fmake.

20150615:
	The fix for the issue described in the 20150614 sendmail entry
	below has been committed in revision 284436.  The work
	around described in that entry is no longer needed unless the
	default setting is overridden by a confDH_PARAMETERS configuration
	setting of '5' or pointing to a 512 bit DH parameter file.

20150614:
	ALLOW_DEPRECATED_ATF_TOOLS/ATFFILE support has been removed from
	atf.test.mk (included from bsd.test.mk). Please upgrade devel/atf
	and devel/kyua to version 0.20+ and adjust any calling code to work
	with Kyuafile and kyua.

20150614:
	The import of openssl to address the FreeBSD-SA-15:10.openssl
	security advisory includes a change which rejects handshakes
	with DH parameters below 768 bits.  sendmail releases prior
	to 8.15.2 (not yet released), defaulted to a 512 bit
	DH parameter setting for client connections.  To work around
	this interoperability, sendmail can be configured to use a
	2048 bit DH parameter by:

	1. Edit /etc/mail/`hostname`.mc
	2. If a setting for confDH_PARAMETERS does not exist or
	   exists and is set to a string beginning with '5',
	   replace it with '2'.
	3. If a setting for confDH_PARAMETERS exists and is set to
	   a file path, create a new file with:
		openssl dhparam -out /path/to/file 2048
	4. Rebuild the .cf file:
		cd /etc/mail/; make; make install
	5. Restart sendmail:
		cd /etc/mail/; make restart

	A sendmail patch is coming, at which time this file will be
	updated.

20150604:
	Generation of legacy formatted entries have been disabled by default
	in pwd_mkdb(8), as all base system consumers of the legacy formatted
	entries were converted to use the new format by default when the new,
	machine independent format have been added and supported since FreeBSD
	5.x.

	Please see the pwd_mkdb(8) manual page for further details.

20150525:
	Clang and llvm have been upgraded to 3.6.1 release.  Please see the
	20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites and upgrading,
	if you are not already using 3.5.0 or higher.

20150521:
	TI platform code switched to using vendor DTS files and this update
	may break existing systems running on Beaglebone, Beaglebone Black,
	and Pandaboard:

	- dtb files should be regenerated/reinstalled. Filenames are the
	  same but content is different now
	- GPIO addressing was changed, now each GPIO bank (32 pins per bank)
	  has its own /dev/gpiocX device, e.g. pin 121 on /dev/gpioc0 in old
	  addressing scheme is now pin 25 on /dev/gpioc3.
	- Pandaboard: /etc/ttys should be updated, serial console device is
	  now /dev/ttyu2, not /dev/ttyu0

20150501:
	soelim(1) from gnu/usr.bin/groff has been replaced by usr.bin/soelim.
	If you need the GNU extension from groff soelim(1), install groff
	from package: pkg install groff, or via ports: textproc/groff.

20150423:
	chmod, chflags, chown and chgrp now affect symlinks in -R mode as
	defined in symlink(7); previously symlinks were silently ignored.

20150415:
	The const qualifier has been removed from iconv(3) to comply with
	POSIX.  The ports tree is aware of this from r384038 onwards.

20150416:
	Libraries specified by LIBADD in Makefiles must have a corresponding
	DPADD_<lib> variable to ensure correct dependencies.  This is now
	enforced in src.libnames.mk.

20150324:
	From legacy ata(4) driver was removed support for SATA controllers
	supported by more functional drivers ahci(4), siis(4) and mvs(4).
	Kernel modules ataahci and ataadaptec were removed completely,
	replaced by ahci and mvs modules respectively.

20150315:
	Clang, llvm and lldb have been upgraded to 3.6.0 release.  Please see
	the 20141231 entry below for information about prerequisites and
	upgrading, if you are not already using 3.5.0 or higher.

20150307:
	The 32-bit PowerPC kernel has been changed to a position-independent
	executable. This can only be booted with a version of loader(8)
	newer than January 31, 2015, so make sure to update both world and
	kernel before rebooting.

20150217:
	If you are running a -CURRENT kernel since r273872 (Oct 30th, 2014),
	but before r278950, the RNG was not seeded properly.  Immediately
	upgrade the kernel to r278950 or later and regenerate any keys (e.g.
	ssh keys or openssl keys) that were generated w/ a kernel from that
	range.  This does not affect programs that directly used /dev/random
	or /dev/urandom.  All userland uses of arc4random(3) are affected.

20150210:
	The autofs(4) ABI was changed in order to restore binary compatibility
	with 10.1-RELEASE.  The automountd(8) daemon needs to be rebuilt to work
	with the new kernel.

20150131:
	The powerpc64 kernel has been changed to a position-independent
	executable. This can only be booted with a new version of loader(8),
	so make sure to update both world and kernel before rebooting.

20150118:
	Clang and llvm have been upgraded to 3.5.1 release.  This is a bugfix
	only release, no new features have been added.  Please see the 20141231
	entry below for information about prerequisites and upgrading, if you
	are not already using 3.5.0.

20150107:
	ELF tools addr2line, elfcopy (strip), nm, size, and strings are now
	taken from the ELF Tool Chain project rather than GNU binutils. They
	should be drop-in replacements, with the addition of arm64 support.
	The WITHOUT_ELFTOOLCHAIN_TOOLS= knob may be used to obtain the
	binutils tools, if necessary. See 20150805 for updated information.

20150105:
	The default Unbound configuration now enables remote control
	using a local socket.  Users who have already enabled the
	local_unbound service should regenerate their configuration
	by running "service local_unbound setup" as root.

20150102:
	The GNU texinfo and GNU info pages have been removed.
	To be able to view GNU info pages please install texinfo from ports.

20141231:
	Clang, llvm and lldb have been upgraded to 3.5.0 release.

	As of this release, a prerequisite for building clang, llvm and lldb is
	a C++11 capable compiler and C++11 standard library.  This means that to
	be able to successfully build the cross-tools stage of buildworld, with
	clang as the bootstrap compiler, your system compiler or cross compiler
	should either be clang 3.3 or later, or gcc 4.8 or later, and your
	system C++ library should be libc++, or libdstdc++ from gcc 4.8 or
	later.

	On any standard FreeBSD 10.x or 11.x installation, where clang and
	libc++ are on by default (that is, on x86 or arm), this should work out
	of the box.

	On 9.x installations where clang is enabled by default, e.g. on x86 and
	powerpc, libc++ will not be enabled by default, so libc++ should be
	built (with clang) and installed first.  If both clang and libc++ are
	missing, build clang first, then use it to build libc++.

	On 8.x and earlier installations, upgrade to 9.x first, and then follow
	the instructions for 9.x above.

	Sparc64 and mips users are unaffected, as they still use gcc 4.2.1 by
	default, and do not build clang.

	Many embedded systems are resource constrained, and will not be able to
	build clang in a reasonable time, or in some cases at all.  In those
	cases, cross building bootable systems on amd64 is a workaround.

	This new version of clang introduces a number of new warnings, of which
	the following are most likely to appear:

	-Wabsolute-value

	This warns in two cases, for both C and C++:
	* When the code is trying to take the absolute value of an unsigned
	  quantity, which is effectively a no-op, and almost never what was
	  intended.  The code should be fixed, if at all possible.  If you are
	  sure that the unsigned quantity can be safely cast to signed, without
	  loss of information or undefined behavior, you can add an explicit
	  cast, or disable the warning.

	* When the code is trying to take an absolute value, but the called
	  abs() variant is for the wrong type, which can lead to truncation.
	  If you want to disable the warning instead of fixing the code, please
	  make sure that truncation will not occur, or it might lead to unwanted
	  side-effects.

	-Wtautological-undefined-compare and
	-Wundefined-bool-conversion

	These warn when C++ code is trying to compare 'this' against NULL, while
	'this' should never be NULL in well-defined C++ code.  However, there is
	some legacy (pre C++11) code out there, which actively abuses this
	feature, which was less strictly defined in previous C++ versions.

	Squid and openjdk do this, for example.  The warning can be turned off
	for C++98 and earlier, but compiling the code in C++11 mode might result
	in unexpected behavior; for example, the parts of the program that are
	unreachable could be optimized away.

20141222:
	The old NFS client and server (kernel options NFSCLIENT, NFSSERVER)
	kernel sources have been removed. The .h files remain, since some
	utilities include them. This will need to be fixed later.
	If "mount -t oldnfs ..." is attempted, it will fail.
	If the "-o" option on mountd(8), nfsd(8) or nfsstat(1) is used,
	the utilities will report errors.

20141121:
	The handling of LOCAL_LIB_DIRS has been altered to skip addition of
	directories to top level SUBDIR variable when their parent
	directory is included in LOCAL_DIRS.  Users with build systems with
	such hierarchies and without SUBDIR entries in the parent
	directory Makefiles should add them or add the directories to
	LOCAL_DIRS.

20141109:
	faith(4) and faithd(8) have been removed from the base system. Faith
	has been obsolete for a very long time.

20141104:
	vt(4), the new console driver, is enabled by default. It brings
	support for Unicode and double-width characters, as well as
	support for UEFI and integration with the KMS kernel video
	drivers.

	You may need to update your console settings in /etc/rc.conf,
	most probably the keymap. During boot, /etc/rc.d/syscons will
	indicate what you need to do.

	vt(4) still has issues and lacks some features compared to
	syscons(4). See the wiki for up-to-date information:
	  https://wiki.freebsd.org/Newcons

	If you want to keep using syscons(4), you can do so by adding
	the following line to /boot/loader.conf:
	  kern.vty=sc

20141102:
	pjdfstest has been integrated into kyua as an opt-in test suite.
	Please see share/doc/pjdfstest/README for more details on how to
	execute it.

20141009:
	gperf has been removed from the base system for architectures
	that use clang. Ports that require gperf will obtain it from the
	devel/gperf port.

20140923:
	pjdfstest has been moved from tools/regression/pjdfstest to
	contrib/pjdfstest .

20140922:
	At svn r271982, The default linux compat kernel ABI has been adjusted
	to 2.6.18 in support of the linux-c6 compat ports infrastructure
	update.  If you wish to continue using the linux-f10 compat ports,
	add compat.linux.osrelease=2.6.16 to your local sysctl.conf.  Users are
	encouraged to update their linux-compat packages to linux-c6 during
	their next update cycle.

20140729:
	The ofwfb driver, used to provide a graphics console on PowerPC when
	using vt(4), no longer allows mmap() of all physical memory. This
	will prevent Xorg on PowerPC with some ATI graphics cards from
	initializing properly unless x11-servers/xorg-server is updated to
	1.12.4_8 or newer.

20140723:
	The xdev targets have been converted to using TARGET and
	TARGET_ARCH instead of XDEV and XDEV_ARCH.

20140719:
	The default unbound configuration has been modified to address
	issues with reverse lookups on networks that use private
	address ranges.  If you use the local_unbound service, run
	"service local_unbound setup" as root to regenerate your
	configuration, then "service local_unbound reload" to load the
	new configuration.

20140709:
	The GNU texinfo and GNU info pages are not built and installed
	anymore, WITH_INFO knob has been added to allow to built and install
	them again.
	UPDATE: see 20150102 entry on texinfo's removal

20140708:
	The GNU readline library is now an INTERNALLIB - that is, it is
	statically linked into consumers (GDB and variants) in the base
	system, and the shared library is no longer installed.  The
	devel/readline port is available for third party software that
	requires readline.

20140702:
	The Itanium architecture (ia64) has been removed from the list of
	known architectures. This is the first step in the removal of the
	architecture.

20140701:
	Commit r268115 has added NFSv4.1 server support, merged from
	projects/nfsv4.1-server.  Since this includes changes to the
	internal interfaces between the NFS related modules, a full
	build of the kernel and modules will be necessary.
	__FreeBSD_version has been bumped.

20140629:
	The WITHOUT_VT_SUPPORT kernel config knob has been renamed
	WITHOUT_VT.  (The other _SUPPORT knobs have a consistent meaning
	which differs from the behaviour controlled by this knob.)

20140619:
	Maximal length of the serial number in CTL was increased from 16 to
	64 chars, that breaks ABI.  All CTL-related tools, such as ctladm
	and ctld, need to be rebuilt to work with a new kernel.

20140606:
	The libatf-c and libatf-c++ major versions were downgraded to 0 and
	1 respectively to match the upstream numbers.  They were out of
	sync because, when they were originally added to FreeBSD, the
	upstream versions were not respected.  These libraries are private
	and not yet built by default, so renumbering them should be a
	non-issue.  However, unclean source trees will yield broken test
	programs once the operator executes "make delete-old-libs" after a
	"make installworld".

	Additionally, the atf-sh binary was made private by moving it into
	/usr/libexec/.  Already-built shell test programs will keep the
	path to the old binary so they will break after "make delete-old"
	is run.

	If you are using WITH_TESTS=yes (not the default), wipe the object
	tree and rebuild from scratch to prevent spurious test failures.
	This is only needed once: the misnumbered libraries and misplaced
	binaries have been added to OptionalObsoleteFiles.inc so they will
	be removed during a clean upgrade.

20140512:
	Clang and llvm have been upgraded to 3.4.1 release.

20140508:
	We bogusly installed src.opts.mk in /usr/share/mk. This file should
	be removed to avoid issues in the future (and has been added to
	ObsoleteFiles.inc).

20140505:
	/etc/src.conf now affects only builds of the FreeBSD src tree. In the
	past, it affected all builds that used the bsd.*.mk files. The old
	behavior was a bug, but people may have relied upon it. To get this
	behavior back, you can .include /etc/src.conf from /etc/make.conf
	(which is still global and isn't changed). This also changes the
	behavior of incremental builds inside the tree of individual
	directories. Set MAKESYSPATH to ".../share/mk" to do that.
	Although this has survived make universe and some upgrade scenarios,
	other upgrade scenarios may have broken. At least one form of
	temporary breakage was fixed with MAKESYSPATH settings for buildworld
	as well... In cases where MAKESYSPATH isn't working with this
	setting, you'll need to set it to the full path to your tree.

	One side effect of all this cleaning up is that bsd.compiler.mk
	is no longer implicitly included by bsd.own.mk. If you wish to
	use COMPILER_TYPE, you must now explicitly include bsd.compiler.mk
	as well.

20140430:
	The lindev device has been removed since /dev/full has been made a
	standard device.  __FreeBSD_version has been bumped.

20140424:
	The knob WITHOUT_VI was added to the base system, which controls
	building ex(1), vi(1), etc. Older releases of FreeBSD required ex(1)
	in order to reorder files share/termcap and didn't build ex(1) as a
	build tool, so building/installing with WITH_VI is highly advised for
	build hosts for older releases.

	This issue has been fixed in stable/9 and stable/10 in r277022 and
	r276991, respectively.

20140418:
	The YES_HESIOD knob has been removed. It has been obsolete for
	a decade. Please move to using WITH_HESIOD instead or your builds
	will silently lack HESIOD.

20140405:
	The uart(4) driver has been changed with respect to its handling
	of the low-level console. Previously the uart(4) driver prevented
	any process from changing the baudrate or the CLOCAL and HUPCL
	control flags. By removing the restrictions, operators can make
	changes to the serial console port without having to reboot.
	However, when getty(8) is started on the serial device that is
	associated with the low-level console, a misconfigured terminal
	line in /etc/ttys will now have a real impact.
	Before upgrading the kernel, make sure that /etc/ttys has the
	serial console device configured as 3wire without baudrate to
	preserve the previous behaviour. E.g:
	    ttyu0  "/usr/libexec/getty 3wire"  vt100  on  secure

20140306:
	Support for libwrap (TCP wrappers) in rpcbind was disabled by default
	to improve performance.  To re-enable it, if needed, run rpcbind
	with command line option -W.

20140226:
	Switched back to the GPL dtc compiler due to updates in the upstream
	dts files not being supported by the BSDL dtc compiler. You will need
	to rebuild your kernel toolchain to pick up the new compiler. Core dumps
	may result while building dtb files during a kernel build if you fail
	to do so. Set WITHOUT_GPL_DTC if you require the BSDL compiler.

20140216:
	Clang and llvm have been upgraded to 3.4 release.

20140216:
	The nve(4) driver has been removed.  Please use the nfe(4) driver
	for NVIDIA nForce MCP Ethernet adapters instead.

20140212:
	An ABI incompatibility crept into the libc++ 3.4 import in r261283.
	This could cause certain C++ applications using shared libraries built
	against the previous version of libc++ to crash.  The incompatibility
	has now been fixed, but any C++ applications or shared libraries built
	between r261283 and r261801 should be recompiled.

20140204:
	OpenSSH will now ignore errors caused by kernel lacking of Capsicum
	capability mode support.  Please note that enabling the feature in
	kernel is still highly recommended.

20140131:
	OpenSSH is now built with sandbox support, and will use sandbox as
	the default privilege separation method.  This requires Capsicum
	capability mode support in kernel.

20140128:
	The libelf and libdwarf libraries have been updated to newer
	versions from upstream. Shared library version numbers for
	these two libraries were bumped. Any ports or binaries
	requiring these two libraries should be recompiled.
	__FreeBSD_version is bumped to 1100006.

20140110:
	If a Makefile in a tests/ directory was auto-generating a Kyuafile
	instead of providing an explicit one, this would prevent such
	Makefile from providing its own Kyuafile in the future during
	NO_CLEAN builds.  This has been fixed in the Makefiles but manual
	intervention is needed to clean an objdir if you use NO_CLEAN:
	  # find /usr/obj -name Kyuafile | xargs rm -f

20131213:
	The behavior of gss_pseudo_random() for the krb5 mechanism
	has changed, for applications requesting a longer random string
	than produced by the underlying enctype's pseudo-random() function.
	In particular, the random string produced from a session key of
	enctype aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 or aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 will
	be different at the 17th octet and later, after this change.
	The counter used in the PRF+ construction is now encoded as a
	big-endian integer in accordance with RFC 4402.
	__FreeBSD_version is bumped to 1100004.

20131108:
	The WITHOUT_ATF build knob has been removed and its functionality
	has been subsumed into the more generic WITHOUT_TESTS.  If you were
	using the former to disable the build of the ATF libraries, you
	should change your settings to use the latter.

20131025:
	The default version of mtree is nmtree which is obtained from
	NetBSD.  The output is generally the same, but may vary
	slightly.  If you found you need identical output adding
	"-F freebsd9" to the command line should do the trick.  For the
	time being, the old mtree is available as fmtree.

20131014:
	libbsdyml has been renamed to libyaml and moved to /usr/lib/private.
	This will break ports-mgmt/pkg. Rebuild the port, or upgrade to pkg
	1.1.4_8 and verify bsdyml not linked in, before running "make
	delete-old-libs":
	  # make -C /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/pkg build deinstall install clean
	  or
	  # pkg install pkg; ldd /usr/local/sbin/pkg | grep bsdyml

20131010:
	The stable/10 branch has been created in subversion from head
	revision r256279.

COMMON ITEMS:

	General Notes
	-------------
	Sometimes, obscure build problems are the result of environment
	poisoning.  This can happen because the make utility reads its
	environment when searching for values for global variables.  To run
	your build attempts in an "environmental clean room", prefix all make
	commands with 'env -i '.  See the env(1) manual page for more details.
	Occasionally a build failure will occur with "make -j" due to a race
	condition.  If this happens try building again without -j, and please
	report a bug if it happens consistently.

	When upgrading from one major version to another it is generally best to
	upgrade to the latest code in the currently installed branch first, then
	do an upgrade to the new branch. This is the best-tested upgrade path,
	and has the highest probability of being successful.  Please try this
	approach if you encounter problems with a major version upgrade.  Since
	the stable 4.x branch point, one has generally been able to upgrade from
	anywhere in the most recent stable branch to head / current (or even the
	last couple of stable branches). See the top of this file when there's
	an exception.

	The update process will emit an error on an attempt to perform a build
	or install from a FreeBSD version below the earliest supported version.
	When updating from an older version the update should be performed one
	major release at a time, including running `make delete-old` at each
	step.

	When upgrading a live system, having a root shell around before
	installing anything can help undo problems. Not having a root shell
	around can lead to problems if pam has changed too much from your
	starting point to allow continued authentication after the upgrade.

	This file should be read as a log of events. When a later event changes
	information of a prior event, the prior event should not be deleted.
	Instead, a pointer to the entry with the new information should be
	placed in the old entry. Readers of this file should also sanity check
	older entries before relying on them blindly. Authors of new entries
	should write them with this in mind.

	ZFS notes
	---------
	When upgrading the boot ZFS pool to a new version, always follow
	these two steps:

	1.) recompile and reinstall the ZFS boot loader and boot block
	(this is part of "make buildworld" and "make installworld")

	2.) update the ZFS boot block on your boot drive

	The following example updates the ZFS boot block on the
	freebsd-boot partition of a GPT partitioned drive ada0:
	"gpart bootcode -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i $N ada0"
	The value $N will typically be 1 (if booting from BIOS) or 2 (if
	booting from EFI).

	Non-boot pools do not need these updates.

	To build a kernel
	-----------------
	If you are updating from a prior version of FreeBSD (even one just
	a few days old), you should follow this procedure.  It is the most
	failsafe as it uses a /usr/obj tree with a fresh mini-buildworld,

	make kernel-toolchain
	make -DALWAYS_CHECK_MAKE buildkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
	make -DALWAYS_CHECK_MAKE installkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE

	To test a kernel once
	---------------------
	If you just want to boot a kernel once (because you are not sure
	if it works, or if you want to boot a known bad kernel to provide
	debugging information) run
	make installkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE KODIR=/boot/testkernel
	nextboot -k testkernel

	To rebuild everything and install it on the current system.
	-----------------------------------------------------------
	# Note: sometimes if you are running current you gotta do more than
	# is listed here if you are upgrading from a really old current.

	<make sure you have good level 0 dumps>
	make buildworld
	make buildkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
	make installkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
							[1]
	<reboot in single user>				[3]
	mergemaster -Fp					[5]
	make installworld
	mergemaster -Fi					[4]
	make delete-old					[6]
	<reboot>

	To cross-install current onto a separate partition
	--------------------------------------------------
	# In this approach we use a separate partition to hold
	# current's root, 'usr', and 'var' directories.   A partition
	# holding "/", "/usr" and "/var" should be about 2GB in
	# size.

	<make sure you have good level 0 dumps>
	<boot into -stable>
	make buildworld
	make buildkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
	<maybe newfs current's root partition>
	<mount current's root partition on directory ${CURRENT_ROOT}>
	make installworld DESTDIR=${CURRENT_ROOT} -DDB_FROM_SRC
	make distribution DESTDIR=${CURRENT_ROOT} # if newfs'd
	make installkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE DESTDIR=${CURRENT_ROOT}
	cp /etc/fstab ${CURRENT_ROOT}/etc/fstab 		   # if newfs'd
	<edit ${CURRENT_ROOT}/etc/fstab to mount "/" from the correct partition>
	<reboot into current>
	<do a "native" rebuild/install as described in the previous section>
	<maybe install compatibility libraries from ports/misc/compat*>
	<reboot>


	To upgrade in-place from stable to current
	----------------------------------------------
	<make sure you have good level 0 dumps>
	make buildworld					[9]
	make buildkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE	[8]
	make installkernel KERNCONF=YOUR_KERNEL_HERE
							[1]
	<reboot in single user>				[3]
	mergemaster -Fp					[5]
	make installworld
	mergemaster -Fi					[4]
	make delete-old					[6]
	<reboot>

	Make sure that you've read the UPDATING file to understand the
	tweaks to various things you need.  At this point in the life
	cycle of current, things change often and you are on your own
	to cope.  The defaults can also change, so please read ALL of
	the UPDATING entries.

	Also, if you are tracking -current, you must be subscribed to
	freebsd-current@freebsd.org.  Make sure that before you update
	your sources that you have read and understood all the recent
	messages there.  If in doubt, please track -stable which has
	much fewer pitfalls.

	[1] If you have third party modules, such as vmware, you should disable
	them at this point so they don't crash your system on
	reboot. Alternatively, you should rebuild all the modules you have in
	your system and install them as well.  If you are running -current, you
	should seriously consider placing all sources to all the modules for
	your system (or symlinks to them) in /usr/local/sys/modules so this
	happens automatically. If all your modules come from ports, then adding
	the port origin directories to PORTS_MODULES instead is also automatic
	and effective, eg:
	     PORTS_MODULES+=x11/nvidia-driver

	[3] From the bootblocks, boot -s, and then do
		fsck -p
		mount -u /
		mount -a
		sh /etc/rc.d/zfs start	# mount zfs filesystem, if needed
		cd src			# full path to source
		adjkerntz -i		# if CMOS is wall time
	Also, when doing a major release upgrade, it is required that you boot
	into single user mode to do the installworld.

	[4] Note: This step is non-optional.  Failure to do this step
	can result in a significant reduction in the functionality of the
	system.  Attempting to do it by hand is not recommended and those
	that pursue this avenue should read this file carefully, as well
	as the archives of freebsd-current and freebsd-hackers mailing lists
	for potential gotchas.  The -U option is also useful to consider.
	See mergemaster(8) for more information.

	[5] Usually this step is a no-op.  However, from time to time
	you may need to do this if you get unknown user in the following
	step.  It never hurts to do it all the time.  You may need to
	install a new mergemaster (cd src/usr.sbin/mergemaster && make
	install) after the buildworld before this step if you last updated
	from current before 20130425 or from -stable before 20130430.

	[6] This only deletes old files and directories. Old libraries
	can be deleted by "make delete-old-libs", but you have to make
	sure that no program is using those libraries anymore.

	[8] The new kernel must be able to run existing binaries used by an
	installworld.  When upgrading across major versions, the new kernel's
	configuration must include the correct COMPAT_FREEBSD<n> option for
	existing binaries (e.g. COMPAT_FREEBSD11 to run 11.x binaries).  Failure
	to do so may leave you with a system that is hard to boot to recover. A
	GENERIC kernel will include suitable compatibility options to run
	binaries from older branches.  Note that the ability to run binaries
	from unsupported branches is not guaranteed.

	Make sure that you merge any new devices from GENERIC since the
	last time you updated your kernel config file. Options also
	change over time, so you may need to adjust your custom kernels
	for these as well.

	[9] If CPUTYPE is defined in your /etc/make.conf, make sure to use the
	"?=" instead of the "=" assignment operator, so that buildworld can
	override the CPUTYPE if it needs to.

	MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX must be defined in an environment variable, and
	not on the command line, or in /etc/make.conf.  buildworld will
	warn if it is improperly defined.
FORMAT:

This file contains a list, in reverse chronological order, of major
breakages in tracking -current.  It is not guaranteed to be a complete
list of such breakages, and only contains entries since September 23, 2011.
If you need to see UPDATING entries from before that date, you will need
to fetch an UPDATING file from an older FreeBSD release.

Copyright information:

Copyright 1998-2009 M. Warner Losh <imp@FreeBSD.org>

Redistribution, publication, translation and use, with or without
modification, in full or in part, in any form or format of this
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THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED BY WARNER LOSH ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL WARNER LOSH BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
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IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
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Contact Warner Losh if you have any questions about your use of
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$FreeBSD$